Diet Coke
Biocultural Case Studies Phenylketonuria, Cretinism and Phenylalanine pathways  Phenylalanine hydroxylase insufficiency causes phyenlketonuria (PKU) 1. Phenylalanine hydroxylase
 Most common genetic abnormality in the U.S.
(1:10,000 overall, about 1:2,500 Europeans)  Growth retardation, mental retardation, depigmentation of skin, hair  Screened for in infancy and treated by a diet restricted in phenylalanine intake which causes Phenylpyruvic acid some growth retardation  Different screening techniques have different false positive results • About 2/3 of positives have classic PKU• New test released in 1998 cuts false positives from about 1% to about 0.01% Phenylalanine pathways Phenylalanine pathways 1. Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Tyrosinase deficiency causes albinism Can have reproductive implications including enhanced or reduced fertility depending on mating preferences.
P-hydroxyphenylpyruvic oxidase deficiency Homogenistic acid causes tyrosinosis Increased levels of circulating tyrosineand tyrosine metabolites Phenylalanine pathways Phenylalanine pathways 1. Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Homogenistic acid oxidase deficiencycauses alkaptonuria 5. Many steps
Black urine, deposits in joints likearthritis Homogenistic acid Deficient enzyme(s) on this pathwaycauses hereditary cretinism 4. Homogenistic acid
Similar to iodine deficiency disease,but not treatable by diet Maleylacetoacetic acid Phenylalanine pathways Goiter and Cretinism 1. Phenylalanine hydroxylase
 Iodine is a necessary constituent of Thyroxin made in the thyroid gland at the base of theneck by combining iodine with tyrosine 5. Many steps
 Thyroxin functions to increase the cellular rate of carbohydrate metabolism and ofprotein synthesis and breakdown Phenylpyruvic acid Homogenistic acid  Deficiency in production of thyroxin can result in goiter and cretinism 4. Homogenistic acid
 Goiter: thyroid hypertrophy  Cretinism occurs in children born to goiterous mothers Maleylacetoacetic acid  Musculo-skeletal growth retardation, CNS impairment frequently deaf-mute Goiter and Cretinism  Endemic pockets:  Inland and highland settings, Detroit, Peru  Highland New Guinea  Deficiency can by induced by goitrin present in Cruciferae (e.g., cabbage, rutabagas)  Hypothesized relationship with PTC tasting since PTC tasters are sensitivephenylthiourea which is present in mostcrucifers  Thiocyanate contained in yams and cassava also suppresses absorption iodine Dani Women with Goiters Cretinism among the Maring  No goiters noticed prior to 1966  1968 survey found 25% goiter rate among adult females and 24 cretins in apopulation of about 2,000  All cretins less than 8 years old  Focus on change in 1960—non-iodized trade salt introduced  Traditional salt source contained iodine but took a lot of work  Injected iodized oil and required all salt carried into the area to be iodized after1970 Dani Menwith Cretin

What is Geophagia? • It is a subcategory of Pica – Eating non-food items – Pica is derived from the Latin for magpie, a bird with acatholic appetite Based on a presentation by • Geophagia is the practice of eating dirt or earthen clays Erica Gibson-Staneland – Literally geo "earth" phagia – Clay, laundry starch, and ice are most commonly craveditems • Pica/Geophagy is practiced for many reasons – Response to physiological changes, especially associated with pregnancy – Response to obtain needed nutrients • Dry up salivary secretions, reduce nausea of morning • Calcium, magnesium, etc.
– Virunga Gorillas are known to eat volcanic soils high in – Way of seeking attention • Pregnant women use Pica to seek social support – Response to hunger • Where available, clay is free and filling – Protect body from toxins – Cultural phenomenon • Clay minerals bind with plan toxins like glycoalkaloids rendering them harmless • Learned practice transmitted primarily from mothers to Dirt Eating Around The World Geophagy in Africa Geophagy has been found around the world.
It appears to have originated in the tropics ofAfrica, and is now found on every continentexcept Antarctica Slaves brought the custom of dirt eating tothe New World with them, although there issome evidence of geophagy in the NewWorld before European contact – Aboriginal peoples of the New World mixed earth with potatoes or acorns to neutralizeglycoalkaloids or tannic acids so that the foodwould be easily digestible Slave owners were appalled by the dirteating practices of the slaves, and they put Mouth Lock
mouth locks on them to prevent them fromeating dirt The slaves tried to commit suicide by eatingdirt so that their bodies would return to theirhomeland

Processing Clay in Ghana Retail display of clay in Ghana Samples from Ghanian markets • Question: Does geophagy cause iron depletion, or isiron extracted from the soil tosupplement the women's lowiron levels – 52 women from a pre-natal – 73% of the women practiced geophagy, and the medianamount of soil consumed was41.5 g per day – No significant link to iron – But locally, geophagy is thought of as a normal behavior forpregnant women Clay and Pregnancy in Nigeria Geophagy Across Africa Geophagy During Pregnancy and • The Tiv are one of the few • Wiley and Katz compared Dairying in 60 African Populations groups in the world where geophagy rates amongpopulations in Africa men also practice geophagy practicing dairying and • The men eat clay as an – Sixty populations were • Tiv women are universal geophagists during their – Geophagy is more common in non-dairying groups except when – They eat clay throughout their geophagy is rarely – In the six dairying groups • To alleviate morning sickness in the first trimester that practiced geophagy, • Then as a nutritional supplement as the pregnancy progresses three limited women's (Wiley and Katz, 1998: 535-536) – The Tiv are a non-dairying population, and women may eat the clay for extra calcium Dairying and Geophagy in Africa Nutrients from Clay Mineral Supplements? The Garifuna women of Belize eat clayduring pregnancy to alleviate nausea andto satisfy cravings Their clay comes in the form of religioustablets that are manufactured inGuatemala Eating one tablet per day provides women
with 9% of the RDA of calcium and iron,
7% of her magnesium, and 3% of
potassium and zinc
6 of 8 women interviewed ate more thanone bar per day This form of supplementation iscomparable to Western pharmaceuticalsupplements "One a Days" Anemia and Clay Eating A woman buying dirt at a convenience store in Alabama.
• 40 of 152 women in Mississippi ate clay duringtheir pregnancy – about 50 g/day– No impact on hematocrits– Conclusion: Women in Mississippi practicedgeophagy as a result ofcultural transmission retainedfrom Africa, rather than fromnutritional need • A second study found that 94% of womengeophagists in Mississippihad an inadequate diet – Response to hunger? • Geophagy may be an adaptive practice, used by women whose physiological need for nutrients Now, the question of the day: drives them to seek out new substances,especially during pregnancy Would you eat dirt or clay? • Women eating clays during pregnancy may do so for many reasons: – to prevent morning sickness– provide nutrients– detoxify substances for the mother or fetus– satisfy a psychological craving which imparts a sense You probably already Mycotoxins in Food • Certain molds produce powerful toxins that poison food. A
wide range of diseases result from acute mycotoxicosis
Long-term effects include reduced fertility, loss of immune
system function, cancer and growth suppression
There's a Fungus Among Us How common is this? Certain molds produce powerful toxins that poison food.
Farm animals are the most affected today
Aflatoxins – acutely toxic and cause
• Prior to agriculture cereals were smal liver and esophageal cancer, From – Fungal toxicity would have been extremely • Tricothecenes –produced by
Fusarium infected cereals – Causes alimentary toxic aleikiia (ATA), • Since cereal crop domestication, yellow rain, hole in the head disease appears to be regular occurrence • Penitremes – produced by
– ATA epidemic in the USSR estimated to have kil ed approximately100,000 people – Causes Ijesha shakes in Nigerians and grass staggers in sheep.
between 1942 and 1948 Kenya aflatoxin outbreak • Aflatoxin in Dog Food caused an epidemic just last year • 2004 saw an Aflatoxin outbreak in – As of July 20, 2004 a total of 317 cases had been reported with 125 deaths – 182 (53.2%) of 342 samples of maize purchased in agricultural markets had >20 • The ergot fungus caused by species of Claviceps • Medicinal Uses – Migraines (ergotamine tartrate) purpurea), that appears as – To control bleeding during childbirth (ergometrine) an infestation on the flowersof many of our cereal crops – For certain psychiatric conditions (wheat, barley, oats, and – To induce labor (since the 1700s) especially rye), and whose • Ergotism is poisoning by ergot consumption toxic substances(mycotoxins) can be passed – Symptoms include hallucinations (from lysergic right on through the milling acid hydroxyethylamide, precursor to LSD) and baking process to the – Formication (the feeling of being covered by ants) final bread product – Intense pain in extremities due to constriction of • Mortality can be high (>40%), and victims who survive experience reduced immuneresponse, blindness, and loss of fertility • Historically significant as a cause of • Ergotamine is a strong vasoconstrictor, so widespread panic, population powerful as to completely block the flow of suppression, and extreme religious blood to parts of the body, creating the condition known as gangrenous ergotism – Limbs are particularly susceptible and in its initial – Demographic depression 1430s – 1480s stages the extremities can feel as though they are – The Salem Witch Trials • This ‘plague of fire' or ‘holy fire' as it was sometimes – The Panic of 1789 called, could set off whole afflicted communities ininvoluntary dancing movements—the infamous "St.
Vitus's Dance" or "St. Anthony's Fire" of the Middle Ages Reduced Fertility Population Index for Perigord • Rye was a common grain growing in the area before the Puritans arrived – There was dissatisfaction with the rye because it made the animals sick • Climate was colder than normal with – Climate in 1691 was conducive to ergot unusual levels of wetness • Early rains and warm weather in the spring progressed to – Reports of witchcraft trials closely fol ow a hot and wet summer • 1692 was a drought year, dramatical y reducing ergot the climate indicators – Threshing probably took place shortly before • Ergot Alkaloids also suppress fertility • Children started showing symptoms in December• By late fal 1692 the crisis abruptly ended • Rye growing in low, wet ground is most – Much of the western acreage of Salem Village susceptible to ergot growth may have been an area of contamination • This is substantiated by the pattern of residence of the – One of the most notorious of the accusing children accusers, the accused, and the defenders of the accused in Salem was Thomas Putnam's 12-year-old • Excluding the afflicted girls, 30 of 32 adult accusers lived in the western section – Her mother also showed symptoms • 12 of the 14 accused witches and 24 of the 29 defenders – Two other afflicted girls also lived in the Putnam lived in the eastern section – The general pattern of residence, in combination with the well-documented factionalism of the – Putnam had inherited one of the largest eastern and western sectors, contributed to the landholdings in the village progress of the witchcraft crisis • His father's will indicates that a large measure of the land, which was located in the western sector of SalemVillage, consisted of swampy meadows Parris: Two afflicted girls, the daughter and niece of Samuel Parris, lived
Area A: most of rye was used to ge. Their exposure seems plausible that the doctor, like Parris, had Putnam ble. Two-thirds of Area C: Rye carefully cleaned Parris's salary was paid in provisions; the villagers were taxed pay taxes, not make bread, mixed • July 20 – August 6 waves because of earlier episodes of St.
proportionately to their land-holding. Since Putnam was one of the largest with oats and barley when of panic swept the French Vitus' dance—most effects here ilandholders and an avid supporter of Parris in the minister's community n.ce against Proctor indicates were gangrenous ergotism – Coincide with the start of utnam was also Parris's closest neighbor with afflicted the French Revolution e s is particularly curious. She began as an afflicted Area B: Rye production pea ked Rumors that the rye crop person, was accused of witchcraft by the other afflicted girls, and then after 1789, it was still a rare cro w p as to be seized became afflicted again. Two depositions filed against her strongly suggest,however, that at least her first affliction may have been a consequence of • Medical reports consistent ergot poisoning.
• At least one eye-witness account of prodigious ergot infection of the rye • Most favorable climate for ergot in France for almost

Source: http://anthropology.ua.edu/bindon/ant476/topics/biocult.pdf


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An Ounce of Prevention November 2015 Issue 227 Website: drsgaryjoannmeierspsychologist.com Gary J. Meiers, Ph. D., Jo Ann Hammond, Ph. D., Phone: (780) 433-2269 & Associates, Ltd. Fax: (780) 431-0463 10009 – 85 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6E 2J9 Wisniewski and his team divided the STAR*D patients Why Antidepressants Don't Live