Emergency 3
Contraceptive Pills
Key Points for Providers and clients
y Emergency contraceptive pills help to prevent pregnancy
when taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex. The sooner
they are taken, the better.
Emergency Contraceptive Pills
y Do not disrupt an existing pregnancy.
y Safe for all women—even women who cannot use ongoing
hormonal contraceptive methods.
y Provide an opportunity for women to start using an
ongoing family planning method.
y Many options can be used as emergency contraceptive
pills. Dedicated products, progestin-only pills, and combined oral
contraceptives all can act as emergency contraceptives.
What Are Emergency contraceptive Pills?
y Pills that contain a progestin alone, or a progestin and an estrogen together—hormones like the natural hormones progesterone and estrogen in a woman's body.
y Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are sometimes called "morning after" pills or postcoital contraceptives. y Work primarily by preventing or delaying the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). They do not work if a woman is already pregnant (see Question 1, p. 54).
Emergency Contraceptive Pills What Pills can Be Used as Emergency
contraceptive Pills?
y A special ECP product with levonorgestrel only, or estrogen and levonorgestrel combined, or ulipristal acetate y Progestin-only pills with levonorgestrel or norgestrel y Combined oral contraceptives with estrogen and a progestin— levonorgestrel, norgestrel, or norethindrone (also called norethisterone) When to take them?
y As soon as possible after unprotected sex. The sooner ECPs are taken after unprotected sex, the better they prevent pregnancy.
y Can prevent pregnancy when taken any time up to 5 days after unprotected sex.
y If 100 women each had sex once during the second or third week of the menstrual cycle without using contraception, 8 would likely become y If all 100 women used progestin-only ECPs, one would likely become y If all 100 women used estrogen and progestin ECPs, 2 would likely become pregnant. Effectiveness of Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs)
If 100 women each had unprotected sex once during the second or
third week of the menstrual cycle. 1 pregnancy
Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers Return of fertility after taking ECPs: No delay. A woman can become pregnant immediately after taking ECPs. Taking ECPs prevents pregnancy only from acts of sex that took place in the 5 days before. They will not protect a woman from pregnancy from acts of sex after she takes ECPs—not even on the next day. To stay protected from pregnancy, women must begin to use another contraceptive method at once (see Planning Ongoing Contraception, p. 51). Protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs): None Side Effects, Health Benefits, and Health Risks
Side Effects
(see Managing Any Problems, p. 53)
Some users report the following:
y Changes in bleeding patterns including: Emergency Contraceptive Pills
– Slight irregular bleeding for 1–2 days after taking ECPs– Monthly bleeding that starts earlier or later than expected In the week after taking ECPs: y Breast tenderness Known Health Benefits
Known Health Risks
Help protect against: y Risks of pregnancy Women using progestin-only ECP formulations are much less likely to experience nausea and vomiting than women using estrogen and progestin ECP formulations. Emergency Contraceptive Pills Correcting Misunderstandings (see also Questions and Answers, p. 54)
Emergency contraceptive pills:
Do not cause abor birth defects if pregnancy occurs.
e not dangerous to a woman's health.
omote sexual risk-taking.
e women infertile.
Why Some Women Say they Like
Emergency contraceptive Pills
y Offer a second chance at preventing pregnancy y Are controlled by the woman y Reduce seeking out abortion in the case of contraceptive errors or if contraception is not used y Can have on hand in case an emergency arises Who Can Use Emergency
Contraceptive Pills
Safe and Suitable for All Women
Tests and examinations are not necessary for using ECPs. They may be
appropriate for other reasons—especially if sex was forced (see Violence Against Women, Provide Appropriate Care, p. 302). Medical Eligibility criteria for
contraceptive Pills
All women can use ECPs safely and effectively, including women who
cannot use ongoing hormonal contraceptive methods. Because of the short-term nature of their use, there are no medical conditions that make ECPs unsafe for any woman. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers Providing Emergency
ECPs may be needed in many different situations. Therefore, if possible, give all women who want ECPs a supply in advance. A woman can keep them in case she needs them. Women are more likely to use ECPs if they already have them when needed. Also, having them on hand enables women to take them as soon as possible after unprotected sex.
When to Use
y Any time within 5 days after unprotected sex. The sooner after unprotected sex that ECPs are taken, the more effective they are.
Emergency Contraceptive Pills
ECPs Appropriate in Many Situations
ECPs can be used any time a woman is worried that she might become pregnant. For example, after: y Sex was forced (rape) or coerced y Any unprotected sex y Contraceptive mistakes, such as: – Condom was used incorrectly, slipped, or broke – Couple incorrectly used a fertility awareness method (for example, failed to abstain or to use another method during the fertile days) – Man failed to withdraw, as intended, before he ejaculated – Woman has missed 3 or more combined oral contraceptive pills or has started a new pack 3 or – IUD has come out of place– Woman is more than 4 weeks late for her repeat injection of DMPA, more than 2 weeks late for her repeat injection of NET-EN, or more than 7 days late for her repeat monthly Providing Emergency Contraceptive Pills Dosing Information
For specific products and number of pills to provide, see Pill Formulations
and Dosing, p. 56.
Pill type
total dosage to provide
y 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel in a single dose. § only dedicated
y 0.1 mg ethinyl estradiol + 0.5 mg levonorgestrel. progestin
Follow with same dose 12 hours later.
y Levonorgestrel pills: 1.5 mg levonorgestrel in a pills with
levonorgestrel or
y Norgestrel pills: 3 mg norgestrel in a single dose.
y Estrogen and levonorgestrel pills: 0.1 mg ethinyl (estrogen-
estradiol + 0.5 mg levonorgestrel. Follow with progestin) oral
same dose 12 hours later. y Estrogen and norgestrel pills: 0.1 mg ethinyl containing
estradiol + 1 mg norgestrel. Follow with same dose 12 hours later.
norgestrel, or
y Estrogen and norethindrone pills: 0.1 mg ethinyl estradiol + 2 mg norethindrone. Follow with same dose 12 hours later.
Ulipristal acetate
y 30 mg of ulipristal acetate in a single dose.
Giving Emergency contraceptive Pills
1. Give pills

y She can take them at once. y If she is using a 2-dose regimen, tell her to take the next dose in 12 hours.
2. Describe the
y Nausea, abdominal pain, possibly others.
most common
y Slight bleeding or change in timing of monthly side effects
y Side effects are not signs of illness.
§ Alternatively, clients can be given 0.75 mg levonorgestrel at once, followed by the same dose 12 hours later. One dose is easier for the client to take and works just as well as 2 doses. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers 3. Explain what
to do about
– Routine use of anti-nausea medications is side effects
not recommended.
– Women who have had nausea with previous ECP use or with the first dose of a 2-dose regimen can take anti-nausea medication such as 50 mg meclizine (Agyrax, Antivert, Bonine, Postafene) one-half to one hour before taking ECPs.
– If the woman vomits within 2 hours after taking ECPs, she should take another dose. (She can use anti-nausea medication with this repeat dose, as above.) If vomiting continues, Emergency Contraceptive Pills
she can take the repeat dose by placing the pills high in her vagina. If vomiting occurs more than 2 hours after taking ECPs, she does not need to take any extra pills.
4. Give more
y If possible, give her more ECPs to take home in EcPs and help
case she needs them in the future.
her start an
y See Planning Ongoing Contraception, below.
"Come Back Any Time": Reasons to Return
No routine return visit is required. Assure every client that she is welcome
to come back any time, however, and also if: y She thinks she might be pregnant, especially if she has no monthly bleeding or her next monthly bleeding is delayed by more than one week. Planning Ongoing contraception
Explain that ECPs will not protect her from pregnancy for any future
sex—even the next day. Discuss the need for and choice of ongoing pregnancy prevention and, if at risk, protection from STIs including HIV (see Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, p. 275).
2. If she does not want to start a contraceptive method now, give her
condoms or oral contraceptives and ask her to use them if she changes her mind. Give instructions on use. Invite her to come back any time if she wants another method or has any questions or problems.
3. If possible, give her more ECPs to use in the future in case of
unprotected sex.
Providing Emergency Contraceptive Pills When to Start contraception After EcP Use

When to start
combined oral
Can begin the day after she takes the ECPs. No need to wait for her next monthly bleeding. progestin-only pills,
y Oral contraceptives and vaginal ring: combined patch,
combined vaginal
– New users should begin a new pill pack or ring.
– A continuing user who needed ECPs due to error can resume use as before.
– All users should begin a new patch. y All women need to use a backup method* for the first 7 days of using their method.
y She can start progestin-only injectables on the same day as the ECPs, or if preferred, within 7 days after the start of her monthly bleeding. She will need a backup method for the first 7 days after the injection. She should return if she has signs or symptoms of pregnancy other than not having monthly bleeding (see p. 371 for common signs and symptoms of pregnancy).
y She can start monthly injectables on the same day as the ECPs. There is no need to wait for her next monthly bleeding to have the injection. She will need a backup method for the first 7 days after the injection. y After her monthly bleeding has returned. Give her a backup method or oral contraceptives to use until then, starting the day after she finishes taking the ECPs.
Intrauterine device
y A copper-bearing IUD can be used for (copper-bearing or emergency contraception. This is a good option for a woman who wants an IUD as her long- term method (see Copper-Bearing IUD, p. 131).
y If she decides to use an IUD after taking ECPs, the IUD can be inserted on the same day she takes the ECPs. No need for a backup method.
* Backup methods include abstinence, male and female condoms, spermicides, and withdrawal. Tell her that spermicides and withdrawal are the least effective contraceptive methods. If possible, give her condoms. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers When to start
Male and female
y Immediately.
cervical caps,
y Standard Days Method: With the start of her awareness
next monthly bleeding. y Symptoms-based methods: Once normal secretions have returned.
y Give her a backup method or oral contraceptives to use until she can begin the method of her Emergency Contraceptive Pills
Helping Users
Managing Any Problems
Problems Reported as Side Effects or Method Failure

May or may not be due to the method.
Slight irregular bleeding
y Irregular bleeding due to ECPs will stop without treatment. y Assure the woman that this is not a sign of illness or pregnancy.
change in timing of next monthly bleeding or suspected
y Monthly bleeding may start earlier or later than expected. This is not a sign of il ness or y If her next monthly bleeding is more than one week later than expected after taking ECPs, assess for pregnancy. There are no known risks to a fetus conceived if ECPs fail to prevent pregnancy (see Question 2, p. 54).
Helping Users of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Questions and Answers About
Emergency Contraceptive Pills
1. Do EcPs disrupt an existing pregnancy?

No. ECPs do not work if a woman is already pregnant. When taken before a woman has ovulated, ECPs prevent the release of an egg from the ovary or delay its release by 5 to 7 days. By then, any sperm in the woman's reproductive tract will have died, since sperm can survive there for only about 5 days. 2. Do EcPs cause birth defects? Will the fetus be harmed if a
woman accidentally takes EcPs while she is pregnant?
No. Good evidence shows that ECPs will not cause birth defects and will not otherwise harm the fetus if a woman is already pregnant when she takes ECPs or if ECPs fail to prevent pregnancy. 3. How long do EcPs protect a woman from pregnancy?

Women who take ECPs should understand that they could become pregnant the next time they have sex unless they begin to use another method of contraception at once. Because ECPs delay ovulation in some women, she may be most fertile soon after taking ECPs. If she wants ongoing protection from pregnancy, she must start using another contraceptive method at once. 4. What oral contraceptive pills can be used as EcPs?

Many combined (estrogen-progestin) oral contraceptives and progestin- only pills can be used as ECPs. Any pills containing the hormones used for emergency contraception —levonorgestrel, norgestrel, norethindrone, and these progestins together with estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) —can be used. (See Pill Formulations and Dosing, p. 56, for examples of what pills can be used.) 5. Is it safe to take 40 or 50 progestin-only pills as EcPs?

Yes. Progestin-only pills contain very small amounts of hormone. Thus, it is necessary to take many pills in order to receive the total ECP dose needed. In contrast, the ECP dosage with combined (estrogen- progestin) oral contraceptives is generally only 2 to 5 pills in each of 2 doses 12 hours apart. Women should not take 40 or 50 combined (estrogen-progestin) oral contraceptive pills as ECPs.
6. Are EcPs safe for women with HIV or AIDS? can women
on antiretroviral therapy safely use EcPs?
Yes. Women with HIV, AIDS, and those on antiretroviral therapy can safely use ECPs. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers 7. Are EcPs safe for adolescents?

Yes. A study of ECP use among girls 13 to 16 years old found it safe. Furthermore, all of the study participants were able to use ECPs 8. can a woman who cannot use combined (estrogen-progestin)
oral contraceptives or progestin-only pills as an ongoing
method still safely use EcPs?
Yes. This is because ECP treatment is very brief. 9. If EcPs failed to prevent pregnancy, does a woman have a
greater chance of that pregnancy being an ectopic pregnancy?
No. To date, no evidence suggests that ECPs increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Worldwide studies of progestin-only ECPs, including Emergency Contraceptive Pills
a United States Food and Drug Administration review, have not found higher rates of ectopic pregnancy after ECPs failed than are found among pregnancies generally. 10. Why give women EcPs before they need them? Won't that
discourage or otherwise affect contraceptive use?
No. Studies of women given ECPs in advance report these findings: y Women who have ECPs on hand took them sooner after having unprotected sex than women who had to seek out ECPs. Taken sooner, the ECPs are more likely to be effective. y Women given ECPs ahead of time were more likely to use ECPs than women who had to go to a provider to get ECPs. y Women continued to use other contraceptive methods as they did before obtaining ECPs in advance. 11. Should women use EcPs as a regular method of contraception?

No. Nearly all other contraceptive methods are more effective in preventing pregnancy. A woman who uses ECPs regularly for contraception is more likely to have an unintended pregnancy than a woman who uses another contraceptive regularly. Still, women using other methods of contraception should know about ECPs and how to obtain them if needed—for example, if a condom breaks or a woman misses 3 or more combined oral contraceptive pills. 12. If a woman buys EcPs over the counter, can she use them
Yes. Taking ECPs is simple, and medical supervision is not needed. Studies show that young and adult women find the label and instructions easy to understand. ECPs are approved for over-the- counter sales or nonprescription use in many countries. Questions and Answers About Emergency Contraceptive Pills 55 Pill Formulations and Dosing
for Emergency Contraception
Common Brand Names
First Later
An Ting 1.5, Anlitin 1.5, Bao Shi Ting, D-Sigyent 1, Dan Mei, Emkit DS, Emkit Plus, dedicated
Escapel, Escapel-1, Escapelle, Escapelle 1.5, Escinor 1.5, Glanique 1, Hui Ting 1.5, i-pil , Impreviat 1500, Jin Yu Ting, Jin Xiao, Ka Rui Ding, Ladiades 1.5, Levonelle 1500, Levonelle-1, Levonelle One Step, Levonorgestrel Biogaran 1500, Mergynex Plus, Nogestrol 1, Norgestrel Max Unidosis, NorLevo 1.5, Ovulol UD, Plan B One Step, PostDay 1, Postinor-1, Postinor 1.5, Postinor 1500, Postinor 2 SD, Postinor-2 Unidosis, Postinor New, Postinor Uno, Pozato Uni, Pregnon 1.5, Prikul 1, Secufem Plus, Segurite UD, Silogen 1.5, Tace 1.5, Tibex 1.5, Unlevo 1500, Unofem, Velor 1.5, Vikela, Xian Ju Ai Wu You, Alterna, An Ting 0.75, Anthia, Auxxil, Bao Shi Ting (Postinor-2), Ceciora T, Contraplan II, D-Sigyent, Dan Mei, Dia-Post, Dia-Post Gold, Diad, Duet, E Pil s, EC, ECee2, ECP, Escinor 0.75, Emergyn, Emkit, Escapel-2, Estinor, Evital, Evitarem, Glanique, Glanix, Gynotrel 2, Hui Ting, Imediat, Imediat-N, Impreviat 750, Jin Xiao, L Novafem, Ladiades 0.75, Le Ting, Lenor 72, Levogynon, Levonel e, Levonel e-2, LNG-Method 5, Longil, Madonna, Me Tablet, Minipil 2, Next Choice, Nogestrol, Nogravide, Norgestrel-Max, NorLevo 0.75, Nortrel 2, Novanor 2, Nuo Shuang, Optinor, Ovocease, Ovulol, P2, Pilem, Pil 72, Pil ex, Plan B, Poslov, PostDay, Postinor, Postinor-2, Postinor Duo, Postpil , Pozato, PPMS, Pregnon, Prevemb, Preventol, Prevyol, Prikul, Pronta, Rigesoft, Safex, Secufem, Seguidet, Segurité, Silogin 0.75, Smart Lady (Pregnon), Tace, Tibex, Velor 72, Vermagest, Vika, Yi Ting, Yu Ping, Yu Ting, Zintemore LNG = levonorgestrel EE = ethinyl estradiol Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers Hormonal
Common Brand Names
First Later
0.03 mg 28 Mini, Follistrel, Microlut, Microlut 35, only pills
Microluton, Microval, Mikro-30, Norgeston, Nortrel 0.0375 mg Neogest, Norgeal LNG0.075 mg Minicon, Ovrette Estrogen and Progestin

Control NF, Fertilan, Tetragynon progestin
Emergency Contraceptive Pills
Alesse, Anulette 20, April, Aviane, Femexin, 5 Leios, Lessina, Levlite, Loette, Loette-21, progestin)
Loette-28, Loette Suave, LoSeasonique, Lovette, Lowette, Lutera, Microgynon 20, Microgynon Suave, Microlevlen, Microlite, Miranova, Norvetal 20, Sronyx Anna, Anovulatorios Microdosis, Anulette CD, Anulit, Charlize, Ciclo 21, Ciclon, Combination 3, Confiance, Contraceptive L.D., Eugynon 30ED, Famila-28, Femigoa, Femranette mikro, Follimin, Gestrelan, Gynatrol, Innova CD, Jolessa, Lady, Levlen, Levlen 21, Levlen 28, Levonorgestrel Pill, Levora, Logynon (take ochre pills only), Lorsax, Ludéal Gé, Mala-D, Microfemin, Microfemin CD, Microgest, Microgest ED, Microgyn, Microgynon, Microgynon-21, Microgynon-28, Microgynon-30, Microgynon 30ED, Microgynon CD, Microgynon ED, Microgynon ED 28, Microsoft CD, Microvlar, Minidril, Minigynon, Minigynon 30, Minivlar, Mithuri, Monofeme, Neomonovar, Neovletta, Nociclin, Nordet, Nordette, Nordette 150/30, Nordette-21, Nordette-28, Norgylene, Norvetal, Nouvelle Duo, * Many pills, but safe. See p. 54, Q&A 5.
LNG = levonorgestrel EE = ethinyl estradiol Emergency Contraceptive Pill Formulations and Dosing Hormonal
Common Brand Names
First Later
Ologyn-micro, Ovoplex 3, Ovoplex 30/50, 4 Ovranet, Ovranette, Ovranette 30, progestin)
Perle Ld, Portia, Primafem, Quasense, R-den, Reget 21+7, Riget, Rigevidon, Rigevidon 21, Rigevidon 21+7, Roselle, ceptives
Seasonale, Seasonique, Seif, Sexcon, Stediril 30, Suginor Enpresse, Minisiston, Mono Step, Trivora, Contraceptive H.D., Control, D-Norginor, Denoval, Denoval-Wyeth, Duoluton, Duoluton L, Dystrol, Evanor, Evanor-d, FMP, Follinette, Neogentrol, Neogynon, Neogynon 21, Neogynon 50, Neogynon CD, Neogynona, Neovlar, Noral, Nordiol, Nordiol 21, Normamor, Novogyn 21, Ogestrel, Ologyn, Ovidon, Ovoplex, Ovran, Stediril-D Anulette, Cryselle, Lo-Femenal, Lo-Gentrol, Low-Ogestrel, Lo/Ovral, Lo-Rondal, Minovral, Min-Ovral, Segura Anfertil, Eugynon, Eugynon CD, Femenal, Jeny FMP, Ovral, Planovar, Stediril 0.5 mg norgestrel Ulipristal
LNG = levonorgestrel EE = ethinyl estradiol Sources: The Emergency Contraception Web site, the International Planned Parenthood Federation Directory of Hormonal Contraceptives, and the International Consortium for Emergency Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers

Source: https://www.fphandbook.org/sites/default/files/chap_3_eng.pdf

Microsoft word - 9boulanouar2b.doc

New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 8, 2 (December, 2006): 134-156. Discussion Paper—An Insider's View The Notion of Modesty in Muslim Women's Clothing: An Islamic Point of View AISHA WOOD BOULANOUAR1 University of Otago This essay looks at the religious reasons for the wearing of clothing that conforms to the guidelines provided in the Islamic teachings. It discusses the inner character of Islam and explains how all permissible Muslim behaviour flows from the basic concept hay'a, or modesty. The explanation of these ideas in English-language writing is discussed; and also how some misunderstandings and misrepresentations result. The purpose of this work is to make clear the religious reasons Muslims, especially women, choose the form of dress they do, wherever they reside—even in New Zealand.


Designing and Analyzing a Habitat Model of American Ginseng in the Southern United States Seth D. Webinger Department of Resource Analysis, Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, MN, 55987 Keywords: American Ginseng, Habitat Model, Raster Analysis, Statistical Analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Abstract American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a threatened plant harvested for its root, which when dried, can sell for $125-$500 per pound domestically and $1500-$2000 per pound internationally. Starting during the 2012 field season, resource management staff and law enforcement officials at the research study area (omitted for data privacy) began proactive efforts to help protect the plant and catch poachers within the study area's boundary. To aid in the effort of locating potential ginseng growth sites, a habitat model was created consisting of different habitat variables most favorable for ginseng growth and analyzed using point data of known ginseng locations. Statistical analysis was used to examine the legitimacy and usefulness of the model in being an effective tool. Introduction