biochemistry and clinical pathology (1st year)-2114


1. Introduction of different dosage forms. Their classification with
examples-their relative applications. Familiarization with new drug
delivery systems.

2. Introduction to Pharmacopoeias with special reference the Indian

3. Metrology: - Systems of weights and measures. Calculation including
conversation from one to another system, percentage calculation and adjustment of products. Use of allegation method in calculation, isotonic solutions. 4. Packaging of Pharmaceuticals: - Desirable features of a container- Types
of containers, Study of glass and plastics as materials for containers and rubber as a material for closures, their merits & demerits. Introduction to aerosol packaging. 5. Size reduction –Objectives and factors affecting size reduction, methods of
size reduction- Study of Hammer mill, Ball mill, Fluid energy mill and disintegrator. 6. Size separation- Size separation by sifting. Official standards for powders.
Sedimentation methods of size separe construction and working of cyclone separator. 7. Mixing and Homogenization- Liquid mixing and powder mixing, mixing
of semisolids. Study of silver son mixer-Homo geniser. Planetary mixer, Agitated powder mixer: triple roll mill; propeller mixer, colloid mill and hand homogenizer. Double cone mixer. 8. Clarification and Filtration- Theory of filtration, Filter media, filter aids
and selection of filters. Study of the following filtration equipments- Filter press, sintered filters, filter candles, Metafilter. 9. Extraction and Gelenicals- (a) Study of percolation and maceration and
their modifications, continuous hot extraction- Applications in the preparation of tinctures and extracts. (b) Introduction to Ayurvedic dosage forms. 10. Heat processes- Evaporation- Definition factors affecting evaporation,
Study of Evaporating still and Evaporating Pan. 11. Distillation- Simple distillation and Fractional distillation; Stream
distillation and vacuum distillation. Study of Vacuum still, preparation of purified water I.P. Construction and working of the still used for the same. 12. Introduction to drying processes- Study of Tray Dryers: Fluidized Bed
Dryer, Vacuum Dryer and Freeze Dryer. 13. Sterilization- Concept of sterilization and its difference from disinfection-
Thermal resistance of microorganism, Detailed study of the following sterilization processes. Sterilization with moist heat, Dry heat Sterilization, Sterilization by radiation, Sterilization filtration and Gaseous Sterilization.
Aseptic techniques- Application of sterilization processes in hospitals
particularly with reference to surgical dressings and intravenous fluids.
Precautions for safe and effective handling sterilization equipment.
14. Processing of Tablets- Definitions; Different types of compressed tablets
and their Properties. Processes involved in the production of tablets; tablets
excipients; Defects in tablets; Evaluation of tablets; Physical standards including
Disintegration and Dissolution. Tablet coating- Sugar coating; film coating,
enteric coating and Micro encapsulation (tablet coating may be dealt in an
elementary manner).
15. Processing of Capsules-Hard and soft gelatin capsules; different sizes of
capsules; filling of capsules; Handling and storage of capsules. Special application
of capsules.
16. Study of immunological products like sera, vaccines, toxoids and their

1. General discussion on the following inorganic compounds including
Pharmaceutical uses, storage conditions and chemical incompatibility.

Acids, bases and buffers Boric acid, Hydrochloric acid, strong ammonium
hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide, Sodium hydroxide and official buffers.
(b) Antioxidants- Hypo phosphorous acid, Sulphur dioxide, Sodium
bisulphate, Sodium metabisulphate, Sodium thiosulphate, Nitrogen and
Sodium Nitrite.
(c) Gastrointestinal agents-
Acidifying agents, dilute hydrochloric acid. Antacids- Sodium bicarbonate, Aluminum hydroxide gel, Aluminum Phosphate, Calcium carbonate, Magnesium carbonate, Magnesium trislicate, Magnesium oxide, Combinations of antacid preparations. Protectives and Adsorbents- Bismuth suburbanate and Kaolin. Saline Cathartics, Sodium Potassium tartrate and Magnesium Sulphate.
(d) Topical Agents-
Protectives- Tale, Zinc oxide, Calamine, Zinc state, Titanium oxide, Silicone polymers. Antimicrobials and Astringents hydrogen peroxide, Potassium permanganate, chlorinated time, Iodine, Solutions of iodine, Boric acid, Borax silver nitrate, Mild silver protein, Mercury, Yellow mercuric oxide, Ammoniated mercury. Sulphur and its compounds- Sublimed sulphur precipitated sulphur, selenium sulphide. Astringents- Alum and Zinc Sulphate.
(e) Dental products - Sodium Fluoride, Stannous fluoride, Calcium carbonate,
Sodium metaphosphate , Dicalcium phosphate, Strontium chloride, Zinc chloride.
(f) Inhalants- Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide.
(g) Respiratory stimulants- Ammonium Carbonate.
(h) Expectorants and Emetics- Ammonium chloride, Potassium iodide,
Antimony Potassium Tartrate. (i) Antidotes- Sodium nitrite.
2. Major Intra and Extra cellular Electrolytes –
(a) Electrolytes used for replacement therapy sodium chloride and its preparations, potassium chloride and its preparations. (b) Physiological acid- base balance and electrolytes used- Sodium acetate, Potassium acetate, Sodium bicarbonate injection, Sodium citrate, Potassium citrate, Sodium lactate injection, Ammonium chloride and its injection. (c) Combination of oral electrolyte powders and solutions. 3. Inorganic official compounds of iron, iodine and calcium ferrous
Sulfate and Calcium gluconate.
4. Radio pharmaceuticals and contrast media- Ratio activity- Alpha, Beta
and Gamma radiations, Biological effects of radiations, measurement of
radio activity, G. M Counter Radio isotopes- their uses, storage and
precautions with special reference to the official preparations.

Radio opaque contrast media- barium sulfate.

5. Quality control of Drugs and pharmaceuticals methods of quality
control, significant errors, methods used for quality control, sources of
impurities in pharmaceutical, limit tests for arsenic, ehloride, sulphate,
iron and heavy metals.

6. Identification tests for cations and anions as per Indian


1. Definition, History, Scope of Pharmacognosy including indigenous system
of medicine.

2. Various systems of classification of drugs of natural origin
3. Adulteration and drug evaluation: Significance of pharmacopoeial
4. Brief outline of Occurrence, Distribution, Outline of isolation,
Identification tests,
Therapeutic effects and Pharmaceutical applications of alkaloids, Ter-
penoids, Glycosides, Volatile oils, Tannins and Resins
5. Occurrence, Distribution, Oragnoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents
including tests where applicable and Therapeutic efficacy of following
categories of drugs.
(a) Laxatives:
Aloes, Rhuburb, Castor oil, Is-paghula, Senna
(b) Cardio tonics- Digitalis, Arjuna.
(c) Carminative & G.I regulators- Umbelliferous fruits, Coriander, Fennel,
Ajowan, Cardamom Ginger, Black pepper, Asafoetida, Nutmeg, Cinnamon,
(d) Astringents-Catechu.
(e) Drugs acting on nervous system: Hyoseyamus, Belladonna, Aconite,
Ashwagandha, Ephedra, opium, Cannabis, Nux vomica.
(f) Antihypertensive- Rauwolfia.
(g) Antitussives- Vasaka, Tolu balsam, tulsi.
(h) Antirheumatics- Guggul, Colchicum.
(i) Antitumour-Venca.
(j) Antitleproties- Chaulmoogra oil.

(k) Antidiabeties- pterocarpus, Gymnema, Sylvestro.
(l) Diuretics- Gokhru, Punarnva.
(m) Antidysentrics- Ipecacuanha.
(n) Antiseptics and disinfectants Benzoin, Myrrh Nim, Curcuma.

(o) Antimalarials- Cinchona.
(p) Oxytocies- Ergot.
(q) Vitamins- Shark liver Oil and Amla.
(r) Enzymes- Papaya, Diastase, Yeast.
(s) Perfumes and Flavouring agents- Peppermint oil, Lemon oil, Orange oil,
Lemon grass oil, Sandalwood.
(t) Pharmaceutical aids- Honey, A rachis oil, Starch, Kaolin, Pectin, Olive Oil,
Lanolin, Bee wax, Acacia, Tragacanth, Sodium alginate, Agar, Guar gum, Gelatin.
(u) Miscellaneous- Liquor ice, Garlic, Picrohiz, Dioscorea, Linseed, Shatavari,
Shankhpushpi, Pyrethrum, Tobacco.
6. Collection and Preparation of crude drug for the market as exemplified by
Ergot, Opium, Rauwolfin, Digitalis, Senna.
7. Study of source, preparation and identification of fibers used in sutures
and surgical dressing- Cotton, silk, wool and regenerated fiber.
8. Gross anatomical studies for Senna, Datura, Cinnamon, Cinchona, Fennel,
Clove, Ginger, nux Vomica & Ipecacuanha.


1 Introduction to Biochemistry.
2 Brief chemistry and role of proteins, polypeptides tides and amino acids,
classification, qualitative tests biological value. Deficiency diseases.
3 Brief chemistry and role of carbohydrates, classification, qualitative tests.
Diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism.
4 Brief chemistry and role of lipids, classification, qualitative tests. Disease related
to lipids metabolism.
5 Brief chemistry and role of vitamins and coenzymes.
6 Role of minerals and water in life processes.
7 Enzymes: Brief concept of enzymic action. Factors affective it. Therapeutic and
pharmaceutical importance.
8 Brief concept of normal and abnormal metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates
and lipids.
9 Introductions to pathology of blood and urine.
(a) Lymphocytes and platelets, their role in health and disease. (b) Erythrocytes abnormal cells and their significances. (c) Abnormal constituents of urine and their significances in diseases. Human Anatomy Physiology Theory (2115)
1. Scope of Anatomy & Physiology, Definitions of Various Terms used in
Anatomy- Study of Human Anatomy & Human Physiology, Definitions of
Metabolism, Morphology, Historlogy, Taxonomy, Ecology, Pathology &
2. Structure of Cell, Functions of its components with special reference to
Mito Chondria & Microcosms- Structure of Prokaryotic& Eukaryotic
Central Appratus,Plaslids,DNA+Chemical Nature of Protoplasm.
3. Elementary Tissues of Body i.e. Epithelial, Tissue, Musclar Tissues,
Connective Tissue & Nervous Tissues-Tissues, Classfication, Kinds of
Epithelial Tissues e.g. Simple. Complex, Sqnamous, cubordal, Columanar,
CiliatedPsendo Stratified, Startrfied and Transitional epithelial. Muscular
Tissues-Striped, Unstriped, Careheic Tissues. Connective Tissues-
Connective Tissues Proper, i.e.Areolar, Adipose, White Fibrous Tissues,
Yellow Fibers, Reticular Skeletal Tissues e.g. bone & Cartilaze.Vascular
Tissues-e.g. bone & lymph. Nervous Tissues-e.g. Nervous, Unipolar,
pipolar, Multipolar.Nerve Fibre- Medullated& Non Maculated, N.fibres.

4. Structure & Function of Skelton ,Classification of joints and Their
Function joints and their function Joint disorders-:Functions of
Skelton, Axial Skelton ,Appendicular Skelton, Axial skelton,skull,Vertebral
Column .Thoracic case lower limb, Joints of the Skelton, Fixed Joints
synovial joints, disorders of joints.
5. Composition of Blood, Function of blood elements-blood groups and
co- Angulations of blood. Brief information regarding disorders of
blood -

Composition of blood e.g. blood plasma, blood corpuscles, Red Coppuscies, White and pallets, mechanism of clotting of blood, Anteger &antibody various blood groups i.e.A,B,AB+,o,RH factor,+ve,-ve,Disorders wee,Harmophilia Thrmobocytopenia, thrombosis. 6. Nature and functions of lymph glands-: lymph is structure, structure
&functions of Lymph glands
7. Structure and functions of various parts of Heart Arterial and various
system with special reference to the names and position of main arteries
and veins .

Blood Pressure and its recording .Brief information about cardio
vascular Disorders-
: External and internal structure of Human Heart .Detailed study of int.
structure of Auricles &ventricle blood through the chambess of heart.
Arterial system, detailed study of origin of main arteries from aorta e.g
canolodes, sub-clarians, descending aorta &various branches arising from it.
Venous system: main veins bringing various blood from anterior parts e.g
junglar, Sub clavians&forming superior venacana.main veins bringing venous
blood from Posterior/lower parts and form inferior venacana Blood pressure,
systoloc and diastolic its measurement with the help of syphymo-
mantometer.Disorder e.g. Hypertension, Arterio sclerosis, CCF, Angina
pectoris, myocardial infraction.
8. Various Parts of Respiratory system and their functions physiology of
parts of respiratory system e.g. nostrils, lawman, naro pharynx,
trachera, broncos +lunps.respiratory muscles, mechanism of respiration.
9.Various Parts of urinary systems and their functions,structure
&function of kidney physiology of urine formation .patho-physiology of
renal elisesses and Axdena
-:Excretory organs ,structure of kidneys
&nephrones,physiology of excrection i.e. filtration ,re-absorpilan and tubular
secration.composition of pylonepherrius ,glomernlonepheribis,slone formation, structure and functions of skin.
10. Structure of Skeletal Muscle, Physiology of Muscle Contraction,
Names, Positions, Attachments & Functions of various Skeletal Muscles
Physiology of Neuro muscular function-
Myology: Imp. Muscles of the
body, Physiology of Muscle Muscular Function, Generation of action potential
at Nerve Terminal & releas Contraction, Euro- e of Acetylcholine Relaxation
of muscle. Muscle Fatigue, Muscle Tane.
11. Various Parts of Central Nervous System, Brain & its Parts, Functions
& Reflex Action. Anatomy & physiology of Autonomic Nervous System-
Brain & Spinal Cord
: Structure & functions of various parts of Brain,
Structure & functions of various parts of Spinal Cord, Reflex Action.
Autonomic N.S, Sympathetic & Parasympathetic N.S
12.Elementary knowledge of structure & functions of the organs of taste,
smell, ear, eye & skin physiology of pain-
Structure & functions of tongue,
taste bud, Structure of nasal,Panage & neuro-sensory cells.
Structure of Human eye, Mechanism of image Formation, Defects of eye.
Structure of human ear, mechanism of gearing.
Structure of skin, functions of skin in detail &Physiology of pain.

13.Digestire System, Names of various parts of Digestive system & their
Functions, structure & functions of Liver, Physiology of Digestion &
Digestion,Digestive System:Organs,Parts of G.I Tract,Sturcture of
each Part & its Functions, Mechanism of Digestion of Food in mouth
cavity,Slomach,Duodenum & small intestive.
Abserption of food in small intestive, Abscrture of H2O in large intestive,
Structure of liver & detailed Study of functions of Liver.
14. Endocrine Glands & Hormones, Location of Glands, Their Hormones
& functions, Piturlary,Thyroid,Adrenal,Pancreas- Gland,Endocorine
Location, Structure of pituitary gland, Detailed study of Hormones
Secreted by Various Tobes of Pituitary gland.
Structure of Thyroid, glands & functions of Hormones Secreted by Thyroid.
Disorder of Thyroid i.e. Hyperthyroidism & Hypothyroidism.
Structure of Adrenal glands & functions of Hormones Secreted by Cortex of
adrenal gland & hormones Secreted by Medulla of Adrenal gland.
Structure of Pancreas, Secretions, Secreted by Pancreas, helpful in Digestion.
Hormones secreted by pancreas, Dis-orders of Pancreas.
15. Reproductive System, Physiology and Anatomy of Reproductive
Study of Reproductive Organs of Male, Study of Reproductive
Organs of Female, Structure of a Male gamete & Female gamete.


1. Concept of Health-Definition of Physical health, Mental, Social, Spiritual
health. Determinants of health, Indicators of health. Concept of Diseases, The diseases agents. Concepts and prevention of diseases-Various definitions of health and the terms used in relation to health.Hygiene,Preventive and social medicine, community health & health for all. Various components of health are: Physical health, mental health, Characteristics of Mentally healthy Person, Signal of mentally ill person, Signal of mentally ill person and Ways to Determinants/factors of health like Heredity life style, Socio-economic factors, political will, Available of health services. Indications of health: Mortality rate, morbidity rate, health care services indicators Concept of disease: Various theories about the causes of diseases. Diseases agents: Biological, physical, chemical, mechanical & nutritional. Prevention of diseases, health education, aims& objective of health education. 2. Nutrition & Health- Food, classification of food:
Carbohydrates: Sources, functions & deficiency diseases Proteins: Sources, functions & deficiency diseases. Fats: Sources, functions & deficiency diseases. Minerals Salts: Main minerals sources, functions & deficiency diseases. Vitamins: Fat soluble & H2O soluble vitamins, their sources, functions & deficiency diseases. H2O sources & functions, roughage sources & functions. 3. Demography & Family Planning, Demography Cycle,Fertility,Family
Planning Contraceptive Methods, Behavioral Methods, Natural Family
Planning Methods, Chemical Methods, Hormonal Contraceptives,
Population Problem of India-
Definition of demography and demography
cycle, various stages of demography cycle. Fertility and factors on which
fertility depends.
Family Planning-Need of family planning, Methods of family planning,temperary methods & permanent methods, advantages & disadvantages of various natural family planning method e.g. sexual obstinence, coitus interrupties rhythm method, basal baby temp. method, cervical musuc method, protonged lactation method. Mechanical Method: Condom, diaphragm, their advantages & disadvantages. Intra-Uterine Devices: Lippies loop, copper-t. Chemical Methods: Foam tablets, contractive creams & jellies pessaries,oral pills. Permanent termination of pregnancy. 4. First Aid-Emergency Treatment in Shock, Snake-bite, Burns, Poisoning,
Heart diseases, Fractures and Resuscitation Methods, Elements of Miner
Surgery & Dressings- Definition of first aid and principles of first aid, types
of first aid which can be given in accidents. accidental poisoning, seasonal
accidents, brasions cuts, choking.
First Aid in Shocks, Snake bite burns and scalds electric shock.
First Aid in Poisoning, first aid in angine, heart attack, hoemorrage.
First Aid in Fractures, cardio- pulmonary resuscitation method.
Elements of minor surgery and dressings. 5. Environment & Health, Sources of Water Supply, Pollution, purification
of H2O, Health & Air, Noise light solid waste disposal & Control medical
entomology, Arthropod dorne disease & their control, rodents animal
Various components of ext. environment are physical, chemical,
Biological & social health.
Sources of Water e.g. rain, surface H2O, rivers, wells tanks & ponds, ground
H2O, samtary wells springs, impurities in H2O, H2Opollution water borne
Purification of H2O: Various methods of purification of H2O on large scales,
small scale purification of H2O.
Hardness of H2O: Disadvantages of H2O.
Air composition, air pollution, air borne diseases, prevention & control of air
pollution, noise, effects of noise pollution & its control.
Solid water disposal & control, storage and collection of refuse and disposal
of refuse by different methods like dumping controlled tipping, burial,
compositing burning, excreta disposal, various arthropod borne diseases &
control of arthropods, control of arthropods, control of rodents and other
animal diseases.
6. Fundamental Principle of Microbiology, Classification of Microbes,
Isolation, Staining techniques of organism of common disease –
Microbiology: Definition, classification, pathogenic microbes, bacteria, algae, fungi moulds, yeats rickettsias, mycoplasmas, protozoa virus, Bacteria: classification, structure in detail. Virus: structure, types. Algae: structure economic importance. Fungi: Moulds & yeast, structure, pathogenic effects of fungi. Rickettsias: Structure& pathogenic effects. Micro plasmas: Structure & pathogenic effects. Protozoa: Structure & pathogenic effects. Isolation of Micro- organisms: Isolation techniques, pure culture, mixed culture. Pour plate technique, colonies on agar media, agar slants, in nutrient broth. Staining of Micro-organisms- Different staining techniques, simple staining, different staining, gram's staining method, acid fast staining techniques, Zeehl, Neelsen method, staining of spores, staining of capsules. 7. Communicable diseases, Causature agents, Modes of Transmission and
(a) Respiratory Infections- Chicken Pox, Measles, Influenza Diphtheria,
Whooping Cough and Tuberculosis –
Common cold: causative agent,
incubation period, symplans and preventive measure.
Influenza: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Measles: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Whooping Cough: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measure.
Tuberculosis: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
(b) Intestinal Infections- Poliomyelitis, Heotitis, Cholera typhoid, Food
Poisoning, Hookworm Infection :–
Poliomyelitis: Causative agent, incubation
period, symptoms and preventive measure.
Hepatitis: Types, Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measure.
Cholera: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Thyroid: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Food Poisoning: Types of food poisoning, Causative agent, incubation period,
symptoms and preventive measures.
Hookworm Infection: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measures.
(c) Arthropod Borne Infections- Plague, Malaria, Filariasis:-
Plague: Types of plague, Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measures.
Malaria: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Filariasis: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
(d) Surface Infections- Rabies, Trachoma, Tetanus, Leprosy:-
Rabies: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Trachoma: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Tetanus: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Leprosy: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
(e)Sexually Transmitted Diseases- Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and AIDS:-
Syphilis: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Gonorrhea: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
AIDS: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
8. Non- communicable Diseases- Cancer, Diabetes, Blindness, Cardio
vascular Diseases:-

Cancer: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Diabetes: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Blindness: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Cardio- vascular Diseases:-
Hypertension: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and preventive
Rheumatic Heart Diseases: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measures.
Coronary Hearts Diseases: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measures.
Congestive Cardiac Failure: Causative agent, incubation period, symptoms and
preventive measures.
9. Epidemiology- Its scope, methods, uses, dynamic of diseases transmission,
immunity and immusation, immunological products and their dose
schedule, principle of diseases, control and prevention, hospital acquired
infections, prevention & control, disinfection, types of disinfection,
disinfection procedures for faeces. Urinal, sputumn room, linen, dead bodies
& instruments:-
Epidemiology & use of Epidemiology, factors responsible for the speed of the
diseases i.e. agent, host, environment, common terms used in epidemiology.
Modes of transmission of infection i.e. direct & indirect transmission of diseases,
general methods of prevention and control of communicable diseases.
Immunity: Types of immunity, natural immunity, acquired immunity, active
immunity, passive immunity, naturally acquired passive immunity, artificial
produced passive immunity and immunological preparations.
Hospital Acquired Infections: Their prevention & control.
Disinfections & disinfectants:
Classification of disinfectants: Physical, chemical, natural disinfectants,
disinfection procedure for faeces, urine, sputum room, dead bodies and


1. Dispensing Pharmacy:
Prescriptions- Reading and understanding of prescriptions;
Latin terms commonly used, Modern methods of prescribing,
adoption of metric system. Calculations involved in dispensing.
Incompatibilities in prescription- Study of carious types of
incompatibilities- physical, chemical and therapeutic.
Posology- Dose and dosage of drugs. Factors influencing dose.
Calculation of doses on the basis of age, sex, and surface area.
Veterinary doses.
2. Dispensed Medication:
Powders- Types of powders, advantages and disadvantages of
powders, Granules, Cachets and Tablet triturates. Preparation of
different types of powders encountered in prescription. Weighing
methods, possible errors on weighing, minimum weighable
amounts and weighing of a material below the minimum
weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage and care
of dispensing balance.
Liquid Oral Dosage Forms:
Monophasic- Theoretical aspects including commonly used
essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colourants and flavours, with
examples. Review of the following monophasic liquids with
details of formulation and practical methods.
Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms:
Suspensions- Suspensions containing diffusible solids and liquids and their preparations. Study of the adjuvants used like thickening agents, wetting agents, their necessity and quantity to be incorporated. Suspensions of precipitate forming liquids like tinctures, their preparations and stability. Suspensions produced by chemical relation.An introduction to flocculated/ non- flocculated suspensions systems. (ii) Emulsions- types of emulsions, identification of emulsions system, formulation of emulsions, selection of emulsifying agents. Instabilities in emulsions, preservation of emulsions. (iii) Semi- Solid Dosage Forms:

Ointments- Types of ointments, classification and selection of
dermatological vehicles. Preparation and stability of ointments by
followings processes: (i) Trituration (ii) Fusion (iii) Chemical
Reaction (iv) Emulsification.
Pastes- Differences between ointments and pastes. Bases of
pastes. Preparation of pastes and their preservation.
Jellies- An introduction of the different types of jellies and their
Poultices- An elementary study of poultice.
Suppositories and pessaries- Their relative merits and demerits,
types of suppositories, suppository bases, classification properties,
preparation and packing of suppositories. Use of suppositories fo
drug absorption.
Dental and Cosmetic Preparations: Introduction to Dentrifices,
Facial cosmetics, Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Shampoos, Hair
dressings and Hair removers.
Sterile Dosage Forms :
(a) Parenteral dosage forms- Definition, general requirements for
parenteral dosage forms. Types of parenteral formulations,
vehicles, adjuvants, processing, personnel, facilities and quality
control. Preparation of intravenous fluids and admixtures- Total
Parenteral nutrition, dialysis fluids.
(b) Sterility testing, particular matter monitoring, faulty seal
(c) Ophthalmic Products-
Study of essential characteristics of
different ophthalmic preparation. Formulation additives, special
precautions in handling and storage of ophthalmic products.


1. Introduction to the nomenclature of organic chemical systems with
particular reference to heterocyclic system containing up to 3 rings.

2. The chemistry of following Pharmaceutical organic compounds,

covering their nomenclature, chemical structure, uses and important
physical and chemical properties (Chemical structure of only those
compounds marked with asterisk (*).
The stability and storage conditions and the different type of
pharmaceutical formulations of these drugs and their popular brand

3. Antiseptics and Disinfectants – Proflawine, Benzal-koniumchloride,
Cetrimide, Chlorocresol*, Chloroxylene, Formaldehyde solution,
Hexachlorophene liquefied phenol, Nitrofurantoin.

Sulfadiazine, Sulfa guanidine.Phthaysulfathiazole,
Sulfamethoxypyridazine, Sulfamethoxazole, co- trimoxazole,
Antiteprotic Drugs- Clofazimine, Thaimbatosine, Dapsone, Solapsone.
Anti-tubercular Drugs- Isoniazid, PAS, Streptomycin, Rifampicin,
Ethambutal, Thiacctazone, Ethionamide, Cycloscrine, Pyrazinamide.
Antiamoebie and Anthelmintic Drugs- Emetine, Metronidazole,
Halogenated Hydroxyquinolines, Diloxanidefuroate, Paramomycin Piper
zinc, Mebendazole, D.E.C.
Antibiotics- Benzyl Penicillin, Phenoxy Methyl, Penciline, Benzathine
Penicillin, Ampicilin, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin,
Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Cepahalexin, Cephaaloridine, Cephalothin,
Griseofulvine, Chloramphenicol.

Antifungal agents-
Undeeylenic acid, Tolnaftate, Nystain, Amphotericin,
Antimalarial Drugs- Chloroquine*, Amodiaquine, Primaquine, Proguanil,
Pyrimethamine*, Quinine, Trimethoprim.
Chlorpromazine*, Prochtorperazine, Trifluoperazine, Haloperidol, Tripe idol, Oxypertine, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam*, lorazepam,

Phenobarbitone*, Butobatbitone, Cyelobarbitone, Nitrazepam,
Glutethimide*, Methyptylone, Paraldehyde, Triclofos Sodium.

General Anaestheties-
Halothane* Cyclopropane*, Diethyl ether*,
Methohexital sodium, Thiopental sodium, Trichloroethylene.

Antidepressant Drugs-
Amitriptyline, Nortiyptyline, Imipramine*,
Phenelzine, Tranyleypromine.

Analeptics- Theophyline, Caffeine*, Cora mine* Dextroamphetamine.
Phenylephrine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine*, Pseudo ephedrine
Adrenergic Antagonist- Tolazoline, Propranolol, Practolol.

Pilocarpine, Physostigmine.
Propantheline, Benztropine, Tropic amide, Biperden.
Diuretic Drugs- Furosemide*, Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide*,
Benzthiazide, Urea*, mannitol, Ethacrynic Acid.
Cardiovascular Drugs- Ethyl nitrite, Glyeeryl trinitrate, Alpha methl
Guancthidine, Clofibrate, Quinidine.
Chlorpropamide*, Glibeneclamide, Phenformin*, Metformin.
Coagulants and Anti Coagulants- Heparin, Thrombin, Menadione,
Bishydroxycoumarin, Warfarin Sodium.
Local Anesthetics- Lignocaine, Procaine, Benzocaine.
Histamine and Anti Histaminic Agents- Histamine, Diphen hydra mine,
Analgesics and Anti- Pyretics- Morphine, Pethidine, Codeine,
Methadone, Aspirin, Paracetamol, Analgin, Dextropropoxyphene, Pentazocine.
Phenybutazone, Oxyphen butazono, Ibuprofen.
Thyroxin and Antithyriods- Thyroxine, Methimazole, Methylthiourcil,
Diagnostic Agents- Iopanioc Acid, Propyliodone, Sulfobromophty Sodium,
Indigotindisulfonate Sodium ( Indigo Carmine), Evans Blue, Congo Red,
Fluorescin Sodium.

Anticonvulsants, Cardiac, glycosides, Antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive &
Steroidal Drugs-
Betametazone, Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, prednisolone,
Progesterone, oestradiol Nandrolone.
Chlorambucil Cisplatin cyclophosphamide, Daunorubicin, Hydrochloride, Fluorouracil, Mercaptopurine, Methothrexate, Mytomycin. PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY -2133

1. Introduction to Pharmacology, scope of Pharmacology.
2. Routes of administration of drugs, their advantages and disadvantages.

3. Various processes of absorption of drugs and the factors affecting
them, Metabolism, Distribution and excretion of drugs.
4. General mechanism of drugs action and the factors which modify drug
5. Pharmacological classification of drugs. The discussion of drugs should
emphasis the following aspect:-
Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System:- (a) General Anaestheies, adjunction to anesthesia, intravenous Ana (b) Analgestic antipyretics and non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, Narcotic analgesics, Ant rheumatic and antigout remedies, Sedatives and Hypnotics, Psychopharmacological agents, anti convulsants, analeptics. (c) Centrally acting muscle relaxants and Anti- Parkinsonism agents. (ii) Local Anesthetics. Drug acting on autonomic nervous system. Cholinergic drug, Anti- Cholinergic drugs, anti- cholinesterase drugs. Adrenergic drugs and adrenergic receptor blockers. Neurone blockers and ganglion blockers. Neuromuscular blockers, drugs used in myasthenia gravis. Drugs acting on eye, mydriatics, drugs used in glaucoma. Drugs acting on respiratory system-Respiratory stimuntants, Bronchodilators, Antitussive agents. Antacids, Physiological role of histamine and serotonin, Histamine and Antihistamines, Prostaglandins. (vii) Cardio Vascular drugs, cardio tonics, Ant arrhythmic agents, Antihypertensive vasodilators and drugs used in atherosclerosis. (viii) Drugs acting on the blood and blood forming organs. Haematinics, Coagulants and anti-coagulants, Haemostatic, Blood substitutes and expanders. Drugs affecting renal function-Diuretics and ant diuretics. Hormones and hormone antagonists-hypog-ly ycemic agents, Antithyroid drugs, sex hormones and oral contraceptive, corticosteroids. Drugs acting on digestive system-car-minatives, digest ants Bitters, Antacids and drugs used in peptic ulcer, purgative, and laxatives, Ant-diarrhoeals, Emetics, Anti-emetics, Anti-spasmodic. 6. Chemotherapy
Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Streptomycin. Tetracylines and other
antibiotics, Antiubercular agents. Antifungal agents, antiviral drugs,
Antiubercular drugs.

7. Chemotherapy of protozoal diseases, Anthelmintic drugs.

8. Chemotherapy of cancer.
9. Disinfectants and Anti-septic.
10. A detailed study of the action of drugs of each organ is not necessary.


1. Origin and nature of Pharmaceutical Legislation in India. Its scope
and objectives. Evaluation of the "Concept of Pharmacy" as an
integral part of the Health Care System.

2. Principles and significance of Professional Ethics. Critical study of the

code of Pharmaceutical Ethics drafted by Pharmacy Council in India.
3. Pharmacy Act, 1948- The General study of the Pharmacy Act with special
reference to Education Regulations. Working of State and Central Councils. Constitutions of these councils and functions. Registration procedures under the Act.
4. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940- General study of the Drugs and
Cosmetics Act and the rules there under. Definitions and salient features related to retail and wholesale distribution of drugs. The powers of inspectors, the sampling procedures and the procedure and formalities in obtaining licenses under the rule. Facilities to be provided for running a pharmacy effectively. General study of the schedules C, C1, F. G, J, H, P & X and silent features of labeling and storage condition of drugs. 5. The Drugs and magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act,
1954- General study of the Act Objectives, special reference to be laid on
Advertisements. Magic Remedies and Objectionable and permitted
advertisements- diseases which cannot be claimed to be cured.
6. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985- A brief study of
the act with special reference to its objectives, offences and punishment. 7. Brief introduction to the study of the following acts:
Latest Drugs (price control) Order in force Poison Act ,1919 ( as amended to date) Medical and Toilet Preparation ( Excise Duties) Act, 1955 (as amended to date) Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (as amended to date)

1. Introduction – Trade, Industry and commerce Functions and Subdivision
of Commerce, Introduction to Elements of Economics and Management.
2. Forms of Business Organization.
3. Channels of Distribution.
4. Drug House Management- Selection of site, Space Layout and legal
requirements. Importance and objectives of purchasing, selection of

determination and legal requirements thereto.
Codification, handling of drug stores and other hospital supplies.

5. Inventory Control- Objects and importance, modern techniques like ABC,
VED analysis, the lead-time, Inventory carrying cost, safety stock, minimum and maximum stock levels, economic order quantity scrap and surplus disposal. 6. Sales Promotion, Market Research, Salesmanship, Qualities of a
salesman, Advertising and Window Display.
7. Recruitment, training, evaluation and compensation of the pharmacist.
8. Banking and Finance Service and Functions of Bank, Finance Planning
and sources of finance part-II Accountancy.
(a) Introduction to the accounting concepts and conventions, Double entry Book keeping, Different types of accounts. (b) Cash Book. (c) General Ledger and Trial Balance. (d) Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet. (e) Simple technique of analyzing financial statements. HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY-2136

1. Hospitals- Definitions, Function, Classification based or various criteria,
organization, Management and health delivery system in India.
2. Hospital Pharmacy-
(a) Definition
(b) Functions and objectives of Hospital Pharmaceutical Services.
(c) Location, Layout, flow chart of material and men.
(d) Personnel and facilities requirements including equipments based on
individual and basic needs. (e) Requirements and abilities required for Hospital Pharmacists.
3. Drug Distribution system in Hospitals-
(a) Out- patient services.
(b) In-patient services:- (i) types of services (ii) detailed discussion of unit dose
system, floor ward stock system, Satellite pharmacy services, central sterile services, bed side pharmacy.
4. Manufacturing-
(a) Economical considerations, estimation of demand.
(b) Sterile manufacture- Large and small volume parented facilities,
requirements, layout, production planning, and man- power requirements. (c) Non-sterile manufacture- Liquid orals, externals, Bulk concentrate.
(d) Procurement of stores and testing of raw material.
5. Nomenclature and uses of surgical instruments and hospital
requirements and health accessories.

6. P.T.C (Pharmacy Therapeutic Committee), Hospital formulary system

and their organization, functioning, composition.
7. Drug information service and Drug Information Bulletin.
8. Surgical dressing like cotton, gauze, bandages adhesive tapes including
their pharmacopoeia tests for quality. Other hospital supply e.g. I. V
sets, Ryals tubes, Catheters, syringes etc.

9. Application of computer in maintenance of records, inventory control,
medication monitoring, drug information and data storage and
retrieval in hospital and retail pharmacy establishments.


1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy Practice- Definition & scope.
2. Modern dispensing aspects- Pharmacists and patient counseling
and advice for the use of common drugs, medication history. 3. Common daily terminology used in the practice of medicine.
4. Disease, manifestations and path physiology including salient
symptoms to understand the diseases like Tuberculosis,
Hepatitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cardio-vascular diseases,
Epilepsy, Diabetes, Peptic ulcer , Hypertension.

5. Physiological parameters with their significance.
6. Drug Interactions:
(a) Definition and Introduction.
(b) Mechanism of drug interaction.
(c) Drug- Drug interaction with reference to analgesics, diuretics, cardio
vascular drugs, gastro-intestinal agents vitamins and hypoglycemic agents. (d) Drug- food interaction.
7. Adverse Drug Reaction:
(a) Definition & Significance
(b) Drug- Induces diseases and Teratogenicity.
8. Drug in Clinical Toxicity – Introduction, general treatment of
poisoning, systematic antidouse, treatment of insecticide poisoning, heavy metal poison, Narcotic drugs, Barbiturate, organ phosphorus poisons.
9. Drug dependences, Drug abuse, Addictive drugs and their
treatments, complications.
10. Bio-availability of drugs, including factors affecting it.


Complex Spatio-Temporal Pattern Queries Marios Hadjieleftheriou, George Kollios Petko Bakalov, Vassilis J. Tsotras Computer Science Department Computer Science Department Boston University University of California, Riverside patterns and periodicities from spatiotemporal trajectories[17, 11]. This paper introduces a novel problem, what we This paper introduces a novel type of query, what


Ambulatory actigraphy correlates with apathy in mild Alzheimer's disease Renaud David, Alice Rivet, Philippe H. Robert, Veronique Mailland, Leah Friedman, Jamie M. Zeitzer and Jerome Yesavage published online 21 September 2010 The online version of this article can be found at: can be found at: Additional services and information for