Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 Conjugated linoleic acid concentration in M. Longissimus dorsi from heifers offered sunflower oil-based concentrates and conserved forages F. Noci a,b, P. OÕKiely a, F.J. Monahan b, C. Stanton c, A.P. Moloney a,* a Teagasc, Grange Research Centre, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland b Department of Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland c Teagasc, Dairy Products Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland Received 26 April 2004; received in revised form 9 September 2004; accepted 18 September 2004 Dietary inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich plant oils is one approach to improving the fatty acid profile of ruminant meat and meat products from a human health perspective. Whole crop wheat silages represent a possible alternative forageto grass silage for beef production, however, they may adversely impact the fatty acid profile of ruminant muscle since grass silage isrich in C18:3n 3. The first objective of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between an increase in the dietary supply 6 from sunflower oil (SFO) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in the muscle tissue of beef cattle. The second objective was to investigate the effect of the basal forage type on the muscle fatty acid composition and its response toincreasing inclusion of SFO. One hundred and five heifers were blocked according to initial bodyweight and assigned to one of sevensilage treatments. The silage treatments were: (1) grass silage (GS), (2) whole crop wheat silage with 38% dry matter (DM) (W1), (3)GS and W1 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis) (W1GS) (4) GS and W1 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis) (GSW1), (5) whole crop wheat silagewith 52% DM (W2), (6) GS and W2 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis) (W2GS), (7) GS and W2 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis) (GSW2).
Within each silage treatment, 5 animals were assigned to one of three concentrate rations, differing in the content of SFO. The levelsof inclusion of SFO in the concentrate were 0, 55, 110 g/kg concentrate. Inclusion of SFO in the diet led to an increase in then 3 fatty acid ratio in muscle. In animals fed grass silage or mixed silages the n 3 ratio was lower in muscle compared with those fed whole crop wheat silages, with the exception of animals fed 55 g SFO/kg, for which feeding W1GS led to a higherratio than W1. Other than the n 3 ratio there were no significant interactions between the effect of type of silage and the level of SFO on the concentration of fatty acids in intramuscular fat. Increasing the inclusion of SFO led to a linear increase in the CLA-cis-9,trans-11 and PUFA concentration in intramuscular fat (P < 0.001). This study confirmed the potential for modification, andimprovement from a human health perspective, of the fatty acid composition of beef muscle by dietary manipulation.
 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid; Fatty acids; Silage; Muscle tion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Some isomersof this fatty acid (in particular cis-9,trans-11 and In recent years there has been extensive research on trans-10,cis-12) have been associated with inhibition the potential benefits for human health of consump- of carcinogenesis ( ), reduction of atherosclerosis ( Corresponding author. Tel.: +353 46 90 61100; fax: +353 46 90 modification of the immune response E-mail address: Moloney).
0309-1740/$ - see front matter  2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.09.006 F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 repartitioning (Biohydrogenation by 2. Materials and methods the ruminal microbial flora of dietary C18:2n C18:0 produces CLA as an intermediate 2.1. Experimental design and animal management Consequently, milk and meatfrom ruminants are among the richest dietary sources One hundred and five continental crossbred heifers (mean live weight of 426 kg, SD = 34.3 kg) were blocked in groups of seven animals each on a descending and supplementation of ruminant diets with fat sources body weight basis and within block, assigned randomly 6, such as sunflower oil (SFO) or to one of seven silage treatments. The treatments were soybeans, has led to an increase in the proportion of (1) grass silage (GS), (2) whole crop wheat silage with CLAcis-9,trans-11 in muscle ( 38% dry matter (DM) (W1), (3) GS andW1 at a ratio however there is less information availa- of 1:2 (DM basis) (W1GS) (4) GS and W1 at a ratio ble on oil supplementation with different forage of 2:1 (DM basis) (GSW1), (5) whole crop wheat silage with 52% DM (W2), (6) GS and W2 at a ratio of 1:2 Dietary fatty acid composition is considered one of (DM basis) (W2GS), (7) GS and W2 at a ratio of 2:1 the main factors regulating serum lipoprotein concen- (DM basis) (GSW2). Silage W2 was made with addition of urea at the ensiling. Within each silage treatment, the Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, a 5 animals were randomly assigned to one of three con- risk factor for coronary heart disease, has been shown centrate rations, formulated to contain 110 g lard/kg, to be increased by consumption of short and medium 55 g lard/kg plus 55 g SFO/kg or 110 g SFO/kg, in a chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) ( 7 · 3 factorial arrangement. The concentrate rations Current medical recommendations suggest that no were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic more than 35% of human dietary energy should be de- and to have similar total fat content and consisted (g/ rived from fat, with no more than 10% coming from kg), in addition to the fat, of rolled barley (360 g), citrus SFA The current daily pulp (360 g), soyabean meal Hipro (140 g), molasses (10 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) g) and a proprietary mineral/vitamin mix (20 g) contain- 6 PUFA is low in western countries ing 20,000 IU of vit E/kg. The animals were housed in- doors on concrete slatted floors, arranged in groups of of concern, since increasing the intake of n five or six animals per pen and were individually offered appears to lower the risk of platelet aggregation and the silages ad libitum plus 3 kg of concentrates once daily blood clotting, therefore decreasing the risk of throm- via Calan electronic gates (American Calan Inc., North- wood, NH, USA). They had free access to clean drink- Nutritional guidelines therefore recommend a higher ing water. The animals were fed the experimental diets 3 PUFA, suggesting a n for 142 days, from March until early July. At the end ratio at 4:1 or lower for the total diet ( of the experiment the animals were weighed, transported for 3 h to a commercial abattoir (Meadow Meats, Rath- Ruminant meats are generally low in PUFA and downey, Co. Laois, Ireland) and slaughtered within 60 rich in SFA due to the biohydrogenation action of ru- min of arrival. Perirenal adipose tissue and hot carcass men bacteria on fat consumed by the animal weights were recorded. Carcasses were hung by the Nevertheless, the type of forage offered Achilles tendon and chilled for 48 h at 4 C.
to animals may play an important role in determiningthe fatty acid composition of ruminant muscle. Thus, 2.2. Fatty acid analysis grass silages, which are rich in C18:3n ) may contribute to an increase in the pro- Two steaks of the M. Longissimus dorsi (25 mm thick) 3 PUFA in muscle. Although fish and were taken at the seventh rib, vacuum-packed and eggs are richer in n 3 PUFA than meat products, 20 C. Before extraction of intramuscular food products of ruminant origin are often the main fat, the thawed steaks were trimmed of subcutaneous 3 fatty acids for humans fat and connective tissue. Each steak was chopped coar- sely and blended in a food processor (Robot Coupe´, information is needed on the impact of replacement R301 Ultra processor, Robot Coupe S.N.C., Vincennes, of grass silage with alternative forages on the fatty acid France). The intramuscular fat was extracted using a composition of beef. The objectives of this study were modified version of the method used by to investigate (a) the effect of replacing lard with die- A 2 g sample of each blended steak tary SFO in concentrate feed rations and (b) the effect was homogenised for 3 min in 1-min long intervals with of dietary forage source on the intramuscular fatty acid 1 min pause between intervals, using an Ultra Turrax composition of beef heifers.
T25 (Janke and Kunkel, IKA Labortechnik), in a test F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 tube (25 · 200 mm) containing 36 ml of dichlorometh- reference peak, to which a response factor of 1.00 was ane and methanol mix (2:1, v/v) and 0.05% (w/v) of but- assigned, was C16:0. Fat for fatty acid analysis was ex- ylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant. The homogenised tracted from silages and concentrates according to tissue was held at 4 C overnight and filtered through and methylated as described by Whatman filter paper no.4 into a second 25 · 200 mm test tube. The test tubes and the material left on the filterwere washed with solvent and the filtrates combined.
2.3. General feed composition Calcium chloride (0.02% in distilled water, w/v) wasadded to the filtrate so that the proportions of dichloro- The DM concentration of the feeds was determined methane, methanol and the aqueous phase were 8:4:3 by drying at 98 C (15 h) as described by (on a volume basis) and the test tube contents were held . Concentrates and silages were overnight at 4 C for phase separation. The upper aque- analysed for crude protein concentration (CP) as de- ous phase was removed by vacuum, and the remaining scribed by for ash concentration as de- lower phase was poured through a funnel containing scribed by and for total fat Whatman no.4 filter paper with approximately 5 g of content using the acid hydrolysis/ether extraction proce- anhydrous Na2SO4 to remove any traces of the aqueous dure described in phase. The filtrate was collected in a screw-cap test tube(25 · 100 mm) and dried under a stream of nitrogen.
2.4. Statistical analysis Methylation by acid-catalysed methanolysis was per-formed as described by . The fatty Data were subjected to analysis of variance using acid methyl esters (FAME) were extracted and analysed Genstat 5.0 (VSN International Ltd., Oxford, UK), following the procedure described by and a model appropriate for a split-plot design. Block On removal of the samples from the water bath and type of silage were in the main plot and the concen- after methylation and cooling, 2 ml of distilled water tration of SFO and the type of silage by level of SFO saturated with hexane (95 ml de-ionised water and interaction were in the sub-plot. The pattern of response 5 ml hexane) were added, followed by 5 ml of hexane.
to increasing level of SFO in the concentrate was tested The tubes were shaken and then centrifuged (800g) be- using orthogonal polynomials.
fore removing and collecting the upper layer containingFAME. Distilled water was added to the collectedFAME, the centrifugation step was repeated, the top layer was collected and this step was repeated onceagain. The top layer was then removed and poured into 3.1. Feed chemical composition and fatty acid profile a tube containing approximately 0.75 g of anhydrousNa2SO4. An aliquot of FAME (500 ll) was transferred The chemical composition of the silages and the con- into a 2 ml vial, diluted in an equal volume of hexane centrates is shown in . Grass silage had a higher and analyzed with a Varian 3500 capillary GC (Varian, oil content than either of the whole crop wheat silages, Harbor City, CA) equipped with a Varian 8035 auto- which were similar to each other. The fatty acid compo- sampler and flame ionisation detector. The column sition of GS, W1, W2 and the concentrates is summa- was a Supelcowax-10 capillary column (Supelco, Belle- rised in . Fatty acids of shorter chain length fonte, PA) (60 m · 0.32 mm i.d., 0.25 lm film thickness).
than C14:0 were detected only in trace amounts. Grass Helium was the carrier gas, the initial temperature was silage had the highest proportion of PUFA while W2 50 C, programmed to increase by 20 C/min to had the highest proportion of SFA. In all silages the 220 C,with a final hold time of 46.5 min. The injection main SFA was C16:0. In GS, the main PUFA was mode was an automatic sample injection on septum- 3, accounting for 50% of the total fatty acids.
equipped programmable injector (SPI) in splitless mode The main PUFA in W1 and W2 was C18:2n with an initial injector temperature of 80 C, increasing accounting for 41% and 40% of the total fatty acids, by 100 C/min up to 200 C with a final hold time of respectively. The W1 silage had a higher proportion of 15 min. The temperature of the detector was set at 3 and a lower proportion of C16:0 compared 250 C. The data collected were analyzed on a Minichrom to W2, resulting in lower SFA and higher PUFA than PC system (VG Data System, Manchester, UK). Indi- W2. In the concentrate rations, the proportion of SFA vidual fatty acids were identified by retention times with decreased as the level of inclusion of SFO increased.
reference to fatty acid standards. The CLA isomers The main SFA found in all three concentrates were (CLAcis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12) were identified C18:0 and C16:0, while the proportion of C18:2n by retention time with reference to a CLA mix gener- increased with increasing level of inclusion of SFO. Inclu- ously provided by M. Pariza (The Food Research Insti- sion of SFO in the concentrates increased the proportion tute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA). The of C18:1 (and subsequently total monounsaturated fatty F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 Table 1Chemical composition of individual and mixed silages, and concentrates (mean (SD)) Concentrate rations /kg) Dry matter (DM) (g/kg) digestibility (g/kg) a GS = grass silage; W1 = whole crop wheat silage (38% DM); W2 = whole crop wheat silage (52% DM); W1GS = GS and W1 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW1 = GS and W1 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis); W2GS = GS and W2 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW2 = GS and W2 at a ratio of2:1 (DM basis).
b SFO = sunflower oil.
Table 2Fatty acid composition of individual silages, and concentrates (mean (SD)) Fatty acids (g/100 g Concentrates /kg) a FAME = fatty acid methyl esters.
b GS = grass silage; W1 = whole crop wheat silage (38% DM); W2 = whole crop wheat silage (52% DM).
c SFO = sunflower oil.
d SFA = saturated fatty acids (sum of all even chain fatty acids up to C24:0 + C13:0, C15:0 and C17:0).
e MUFA = monounsaturated fatty acids (sum of C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, all C18:1, C20:1 and C22:1).
f PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acids (total, minus SFA and MUFA).
acids (MUFA)) in the 55 g SFO/kg ration, compared to of SFO in the concentrates affected final liveweight, car- no inclusion. However the proportion of C18:1 margin- cass weight, average daily gain or the moisture and the ally increased in the ration containing 110 g SFO/kg fat content of the M. Longissimus dorsi. Averaged across compared to 55 g SFO/kg. A similar result was noted the three SFO levels, daily intake of MUFA ranged for the proportion of C18:3n 3, although the propor- from 59 g/animal for GS to 66 g/animal for W2. Daily tion of this fatty acid was small in all concentrate PUFA intake ranged from 212 g/animal for W2 to 277 g/animal for the mixed silage, GSW2. The overallcontribution of silage to fat intake was, on average, low- 3.2. Feed intakes, production variables and muscle er than the contribution from the concentrates. Average daily fat intake was 478 g/day, 160 g of which were de-rived from the silage and the remaining 318 g/day com- The effects of the dietary treatments on feed intake, ing from the concentrates.
production variables and muscle composition are shownin . Silage dry matter intake (DMI) was lowest 3.3. Effect of type of silage on fatty acid composition of for GS and increased (P < 0.001) as the proportion of intramuscular fat either W1 or W2 increased. Concentrates contributedon average 2.56 kg DM/day to the total DMI of each The fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat animal. Neither the type of silage nor the concentration of the M. Longissimus dorsi is shown in Data F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 Table 3The effect of dietary treatments on dry matter intake (DMI), production variables and chemical composition of the M. Longissimus dorsi (gSFO/kg) (n = 35) Final liveweight (kg) Carcass weight (kg) M. Longissimus dorsiLipid (g/kg) g KO: kill out rate, calculated as cold carcass weight/liveweight.
h ADG: average daily liveweight gain.
i GS = grass silage; W1 = whole crop wheat silage (38% DM); W2 = whole crop wheat silage (52% DM);W1GS = GS and W1 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW1 = GS and W1 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis); W2GS = GS and W2 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW2 = GS and W2 at a ratio of2:1 (DM basis).
j SED: standard error of difference. Within a row means with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05). NS, not significant P > 0.05; *, ** and *** refer to significance levels P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively.
are presented separately for the main effects of type of all levels of inclusion of SFO, the n silage and the SFO concentration, as no interactions, creased when W2 was replaced with W2GS, GSW2 or unless specified, were found. There was no significant ef- 3 ratio also decreased when W1 fect of the type of silage on the proportions of SFA, was replaced by W1GS, GSW1 and GS when offered 6 PUFA or on the P:S ratio. The with concentrates containing 0 g SFO or 110 g/kg con- 3 PUFA was higher for GS and centrate. However with the 55 g SFO/kg concentrate GSW1 than all other silages. The n 3 ratio increased when W1 was replaced lower for GS, GSW1 and GSW2 and highest when the with W1GS and deceased when it was replaced with whole crop wheat silages were fed without mixing with GSW1 and GS. At an individual fatty acid level, there GS (P < 0.001). At an individual fatty acid level, GS re- was a linear increase (P < 0.001) in the proportions of sulted in a higher proportion of C15:0 and C17:0 in 6 and CLAcis-9,trans-11 and a linear intramuscular fat than the other silages (P < 0.05 and decrease (P < 0.001) in the proportions of C16:0, P < 0.001, respectively). Animals fed GS had the highest C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C20:1 and C18:3n muscle proportion of C18:3n 3 while those fed W1 to increasing level of inclusion of SFO in the and W2 had the lowest. The mixed silages (W1GS, GSW1, W2GS and GSW2) resulted in a higher propor-tion of C18:3n 3 than either W1 or W2 alone, with GSW1 being significantly higher than the other mixed silages and similar to GS. GS resulted in a lower propor-tion of C20:3n 3 (P < 0.001) than W1, W2 or W2GS.
The addition of plant oils or oilseeds to concentrate The proportion of C22:1 in muscle was lower (P < 0.01) rations has been previously used in attempts to increase for animals offered W1, W2, W2GS and GSW2 than it the incorporation of PUFA in milk fat ( was for those offered GS or any combination of GS ) and in ruminant muscle adipose tissue and W1. The proportion of CLA was not significantly affected by the type of silage consumed.
Feeding a soybean oil-based diet or extrudedfull fat soybean decreased C14:0, C16:0 and C16:1 in 3.4. Effect of SFO inclusion on fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat The results of the present experi-ment are in agreement with this observation and with An increase in the level of SFO inclusion in the con- who also reported a decrease in the centrates tended to decrease (P = 0.074) the proportion proportion of C16:0 and C16:1 in intramuscular fat as of SFA in intramuscular fat and linearly increased the addition of SFO to the diet increased. A reduction (P < 0.001) the P:S ratio and the proportions of n in the concentration of C16:0 in meat is desirable from PUFA and total PUFA. A significant interaction was a human health perspective as it has been identified as found between the effect of type of silage and the level a hypercholesterolemic fatty acid (De- of SFO inclusion for the n spite the difference observed in silage DMI, the carcass Table 4The effect of dietary treatments on the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular lipids of the M. Longissimus dorsi Fatty acids (g/100 g FAME Concentrates (gSFO/kg) CLAcis-9, trans-11 a GS = grass silage; W1 = whole crop wheat silage (38% DM); W2 = whole crop wheat silage (52% DM); W1GS = GS and W1 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW1 = GS and W1 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis); W2GS = GS and W2 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW2 = GS and W2 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis).
b FAME = fatty acid, ethyl esters.
c CLA = conjugated linoleic acidd Polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio.
e SED = standard error of difference. Within a row means with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05). NS, not significant P > 0.05; *, ** and *** refer to significance levels P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively; L = linear effect of increasing inclusion of SFO.
6 PUFA were (sum of C18:2n 6, C20:4 and C 22:2).
w MUFA = monounsaturated fatty acids (sum of C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, all C18:1, C20:1 and C22:1).
x SFA = saturated fatty acids (sum of all even chain fatty acids up to C 24:0 + C15:0 and C 17:0).
y PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acids (sum of total n 3 PUFA were (sum of C18:3n 3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6).
F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 weight and the intramuscular fat concentration were not ranged from 10 to 87 g/animal (for GS and W2, respec- affected by the dietary treatments, possibly due to differ- tively). It is possible that the differences in C18:3n ences in the metabolisable energy concentrations of the intake across the silage treatments were not sufficient silages, avoiding thereby the confounding effect of fat- to increase the production of C18:1trans-11 in the rumen ness on fatty acid composition suggested by in order to lead to any significant effect of silage in theproportion of CLA in muscle fatty acids. In this respect, 4.1. Dietary effects on intramuscular CLA proportion 6 intake from the different silages could also have played a role in determining the C18:1trans- In the present study, consumption by cattle of 11 production in the rumen, masking the effect of increasing amounts of C18:2n 6 through the inclusion 3 intake. A possible contribution of silage of SFO (up to 4% of the dietary DM), raised the CLA- treatments to the proportion of CLAcis-9,trans-11 in cis-9,trans-11 content of muscle lipid by up to 109% the muscle, may be in maintaining the forage:concen- when compared with the CLAcis-9,trans-11 content of trate ratio close to 70:30 on a DM basis. A high for- muscle of heifers offered no SFO. also age:concentrate ratio establishes conditions in the reported an increase in CLA in the rib muscle of lambs rumen favouring the production of CLAcis-9, trans-11 when SFO (6% of dietary DM) was added to a 60:40 and C18:1trans-11 as the main intermediates of biohy- barley silage/barley grain-soybean meal diet. When die- drogenation, while an increase in the concentrate pro- 6 is available in the rumen, ruminal bac- portion in the diet has been suggested to shift production of intermediates towards CLAtrans-10,cis- isomerisation of the cis-12 double bond into a trans-11 12 and CLAtrans-7,cis-9 with a concomitant decrease bond. CLAcis-9,trans-11 is then biohydrogenated fur- in C18:1trans-11 (In the present ther to C18:1trans-11 and ultimately to C18:0 ( experiment, CLAtrans-10,cis-12, was separated in the ). In agreement with the results of standard mixture but was not detected in intramuscular the present experiment, found an in- lipid samples, suggesting a low accumulation of this par- crease in the concentration of CLAcis-9,trans-11 in bo- ticular isomer in muscle tissue similar to the findings of vine intramuscular fat as the inclusion level of SFO in Other isomers, such CLAcis-8,trans- the diet increased from 0 to 6% of dietary DM. In con- 10 may co-elute with the main isomer CLAcis-9,trans-11 trast, did not find a difference in in beef fat, under the analytical conditions used in this the content of this isomer in intramuscular fat in the loin of heifers fed a corn-based diet with or without a 5%soybean oil supplement. A possible explanation for that 4.2. Dietary effects on intramuscular SFA, MUFA and result is the nature of the basal ration, which consisted exclusively of concentrate. It has been reported () that low forage:concentrate ratios de- The different silages had a limited impact on SFA, crease the formation of C18:1trans-11 in the rumen.
MUFA and PUFA compared to the concentrate ra- There is evidence that the biohydrogenation pathway tions. The absence of a response to type of silage on that links the production of CLAcis-9,trans-11 to the intramuscular SFA proportion was not surprising, as presence of C18:2n 6 as a substrate could be of sec- the daily intake of SFA from the diet was similar across ondary importance compared to the action of the en- the seven silage treatments. Despite GS having the high- zyme D9-desaturase, present in the adipose tissue and est proportions of PUFA, the PUFA proportion of in the mammary gland, which converts the C18:1trans- intramuscular fat was not influenced by the type of si- 11 isomer into CLAcis-9,trans-11 by desaturation of lage fed, but it was affected by SFO addition to the con- centrates. The proportion of PUFA in this study was Increasing the concentration of C18:2n higher than that observed by in has been shown to increase the concentration of steers of comparable intramuscular fatness. This likely C18:1trans-11 produced in the rumen reflects the higher content of dietary fat in the concen- ) which would explain the increase in CLA- trates in the present experiment and the high concentra- cis-9,trans-11 proportion in the muscle found in animals tion of dietary C18:2n 6 supplied by the SFO. A high offered high SFO concentrates. Equally, possible low concentration of C18:2n 6 in rumen fluid has been C18:1trans-11 production in the study of shown to inhibit the complete biohydrogenation of would lead to lower CLA deposition in tissue.
6 in vitro, leading to increased production of The pathway of hydrogenation of C18:3n C18:1trans-11 and less C18:0, and to a higher propor- cludes C18:1trans-11 as intermediate, However, in the tion of dietary C18:2n 6 escaping biohydrogenation current study the contribution of the concentrates to the daily intake of C18:3n 3 was minor, and the aver- age daily intake of C18:3n 3 across the seven silages observed a similar increase in PUFA and in the P:S ratio F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 as in the present study when lambs were fed a diet sup- plemented with 6% safflower oil. Dietary oil may haveled to the increased PUFA. Overall the P:S ratio was (g/day) 52.5
substantially higher in muscle in the present experiment(0.18 on average) than the value of 0.11 reported by beef obtained from retail outlets and higher than that predicted (0.05–0.11) from the inverse exponential rela- tionship between the fatty acid content and the P:S ratiodescribed by 4.3. Dietary effects on intramuscular n As expected, the inclusion of SFO in the concentrates led to an increase in the proportion of n C18:3n-3 proportion in musc intramuscular fat, mainly attributable to an increase inthe proportion of C18:2n 6. Similar results have been Fig. 1. Comparison of the consumption of C18:3n 3 from silage and the proportion of C18:3n 3 in intramuscular lipid. aIntake of reported for the inclusion of 4% soybean oil ( individual fatty acids was estimated by multiplying the calculated and for the inclusion of total fat intake by the concentration (gFAME/100 g FAME) of 6% SFO in diets of steers. An in- 3 in the feeds and assuming that forages and concentrates 6 PUFA proportion in lamb muscle due to contained 530 g FAME/kg lipid and 750 g FAME/kg lipid, respectively 6 oil or oilseed supplementation was also bW1 = whole crop wheat silage (38% DM);GS = grass reported in trials conducted by DM);W1GS = GS and W1 at a ratio of 1:2 (DM basis); GSW1 = GS and W1 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis); W2GS = GS and W2 at a ratio of did not find a difference between a control 1:2 (DM basis); GSW2 = GS and W2 at a ratio of 2:1 (DM basis).
and 5% soybean oil diet for C18:n In the present experiment the addition of SFO led to lages), was substantially lower than the C18:2n a linear decrease in C18:3n 3 in muscle, even 3 ratio obtained by of almost though the differences were numerically small, possibly 12:1. The overall n 3 average of 6.29:1 was due to the decreasing proportion of C18:3n approximately halfway between the values indicated by diet as the inclusion of SFO was increased in the concen- for steers fed grass and bulls fed con- trate rations. This result agrees with the findings by centrates. The concentrate intake did not have any sig- nificant effect on the total intake of C18:3n in lambs. Feeding a high n 3/day on average), therefore the type of silage is not desirable from a muscle n was the main factor influencing the overall n perspective, as the ratio increases as the proportion of proportion in muscle. Overall, combinations of SFO-en- 6 PUFA in the diet increases. In this experiment riched meals with GS or predominantly GS mixed si- the proportion of n 6 PUFA was higher in the whole lages as forage sources were most appropriate for crop wheat silages (40 g/100 g FAME) than in GS (18 maintaining the n 3 PUFA ratio close to the g/100 gFAME). However, the contribution of the oil acceptable value of 4:1 present in the silages to the total oil intake in the diet since a value of 4.9:1 was observed when GS was fed was insufficient to induce any difference in the propor- with no addition of SFO, this increased to 5.5:1 when 6 PUFA in muscle due to the greater contribu- 110 g SFO/kg were supplied and averaged across the lev- tion to daily C18:2n 6 intake from the concentrate.
els of inclusion of SFO, GS and GSW1 resulted in the Conversely, the proportion of n 3 PUFA in the differ- ent silages led to a difference in the daily intake of n PUFA across the silage treatments, which resulted indifferences in the proportion incorporated in the intra- muscular fat Therefore, by feeding a range ofdifferent silages contributing to different n This study demonstrated the effectiveness of feeding take, the highest n 3 value of 7.65 (C18:2n finishing diets rich in PUFA to beef heifers as a means 3 ratio of 7.52), obtained when 110 g SFO/kg of modifying the fatty acid profile of their muscle.
concentrates were fed to the cattle (averaged across si- Replacement of lard with SFO linearly increased the F. Noci et al. / Meat Science 69 (2005) 509–518 CLAcis-9,trans-11 content of the muscle, showing that Engle, T. E., Spears, J. W., Fellner, V., & Odle, J. (2000). Effects of large amounts of dietary C18:2n 6 are an effective soybean oil and dietary copper on ruminal and tissue lipidmetabolism in finishing steers. Journal of Animal Science, 78, means for CLAcis-9,trans-11 enhancement in intramus- cular fat. An increase in dietary PUFA led to an increase Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J., & Wood, J. D.
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repert med cir. 2 0 1 6;2 5(2):101–105 de Medicina y Cirugía Guía de práctica clínica Movimientos anormales y embarazo Eduardo Palacios a y Ángela Viviana Navas b,∗ a Servicio de Neurología, Hospital de San José, Sociedad de Cirugía de Bogotá, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud,Bogotá DC, Colombiab Servicio de Neurología, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá DC, Colombia


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