A Drug Abuse Prevention Guide For Teens

Table of Contents
Substance Abuse Guide For Teens 1

Part One:
Today's Drug Problem 2
Extent of Problem 2

Drugs of Abuse 3
• Cannabis • Heroin • Cocaine 4
• Methamphetamine • Prescription Drugs 5
• GHB • Ecstasy 6
• LSD • PCP • Ketamine 7
• Anabolic Steroids • Inhalants • Over the Counter (OTCs) 8
Costs to Society 10
Why Do Young People Use Drugs? 11
Attitudes About Drugs 13
What Is Addiction? 15
Drug Treatment 15
What About Drug Legalization? 16
Part Two:
Drug Prevention and Awareness 17
Principles of Prevention 18

Drug Prevention Programs 20
Prevention Resources 20
Part Three:
What You Can Do 23
How Teens Can Assist With
Drug Awareness Programs 23

Drug Prevention Projects 25

Substance Abuse Guide For Teens
Learning for Life has partnered with the Drug Enforcement Admin-
istration (DEA), the federal agency best known for dismantling international and domestic drug trafficking organizations. DEA is also a leader in the prevention community and works with schools, parents, communities, and the public to provide accurate informa-tion on the harm drugs cause. Learning for Life groups, posts, and participants embrace these efforts in our communities and, with DEA Special Agents across the nation, hope to have an impact on teen drug use in our country.
Learning for Life and the Drug Enforcement Administration con- sider young people to be a valuable resource in preventing sub-stance abuse. Whether you make a personal decision not to use drugs, help educate your peers about the dangers of drugs, or inform members of the community about the damages caused by drug use and trafficking, you are making a difference in combating this problem.
Jointly, we are pleased to present this program guide to supple- ment Learning for Life programs.
Part One: Today's Drug Problem
Extent of Problem
rug use in the United use is risky, and good drug marijuana, LSD, steroids,
States is a serious prevention programs help ecstasy, methamphetamine, problem, but much progress teens understand how and alcohol and tobacco. They are has been made through why drugs are harmful.
also tel ing researchers that effective drug prevention and Most kids don't take they know more about the enforcement programs during drugs. According to a recent dangers of drugs—and that the past decade. Teen drug government survey drug helps them say no to drugs. use decreases when young use rates have decreased people perceive that drug since 2001. Kids are rejecting You can find detailed information on drug use in America from the fol owing sources: Monitoring the Future • National Survey on Drug Use and Health • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration • National Institute on Drug Abuse • Office of National Drug Control Policy • Drug Enforcement Administration • Drugs of Abuse
There are many ilegal substances abused today. There are other
substances, such as over-the-counter medications, household products, and legitimate pharmaceuticals (medicines) that are also abused. This brief guide provides information on the most commonly abused drugs. Here are some facts which will help you understand the facts about il egal drugs.
The Control ed Substances Act (CSA) categorizes drugs into five categories (Schedules I-V) according to their medical use, potential for abuse, and safety. The most addictive drugs, and drugs which have no medical use, are in Schedule I. Federal penalties for manufacturing and/or distributing il egal drugs are based on the danger each drug poses to individuals and to the public. There are several classes of drugs; each class has different properties and effects on the user. Narcotics: Narcotics (such as heroin, morphine, OxyContin, etc.) are used to
dull the senses and reduce pain. Narcotics can be made from opium (from the opium poppy) or created in a laboratory (synthetic and semi-synthetic narcotics).
Stimulants: Stimulants reverse the effects of fatigue on the body and brain.
Sometimes they are referred to as "uppers." Cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and Ritalin™ are stimulant drugs. Cocaine is derived from the coca plant grown in South America. Nicotine (found in tobacco) is also a stimulant.
Depressants: Substances included in this category are
tranquilizers, sedatives, hypnotics, anti-anxiety medications and alcohol.
Cannabis: Marijuana and hashish are substances referred to
as cannabis and THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol) is the ingredient in cannabis which makes the user feel "high." Effects: Euphoria, relaxed
Hal ucinogens: These substances alter the perceptions and moods
inhibitions, increased appetite, of users. LSD, Ecstasy, PCP and Ketamine are made in laboratories, some disorientation, impaired motor skills and of which are clandestine; non-manufactured hal ucinogens include peyote and concentration. • Overdose Effects: Fa-
tigue, paranoia, and possible psychosis.
CSA Schedule: Schedule I: Marijuana has
Inhalants: Many common items such as glue, lighter fluid, paint products,
no medical use. Schedule II: Marinol™ is a synthetic form of THC which can be pre- cleaning fluids, gasoline, and propel ants in aerosol cans contain chemicals that scribed for patients with particular medical produce intoxicating effects similar to alcohol. Inhalant abuse is the deliberate conditions. • Street Names: Pot, Grass,
inhaling or sniffing of these products to get high.
Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa, Aunt Mary, Boom, Chronic (marijuana alone or Steroids: Anabolic steroids are defined as any drug or hormonal substance
marijuana with crack), Dope Ganja, Gang- that is chemical y and pharmacological y related to testosterone and promotes muscle growth. Some steroids are used for legitimate medical reasons, but many are il egal y manufactured and distributed.
Afghanistan are the main sources of Hash oil is produced by extracting the cannabinoids from plant material Cannabis Sativa L.
with a solvent. The color and odor of Marijuana is grown in the United the resulting extract will vary, depend- States, Mexico, Canada, South Amer- ing on the type of solvent used. Current ica, Asia, and other parts of the world. samples of hash oil, a viscous liquid It can be cultivated outdoors and in ranging from amber to dark brown in indoor settings. Marijuana is usual y color, average about 15 smoked and the effects are felt within percent THC.
minutes. Depending on the dosage and other variables, users can feel relaxed and have altered senses of smell, sight, taste and hearing, distorted senses of time, shifting sensory imagery, rap- narcotic which can Effects: Euphoria,
idly fluctuating emotions, fragmentary be injected, smoked drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted thoughts, impaired memory and dul ing or snorted. It comes pupils, and nausea. of attention.
from the opium poppy • Overdose Effects: Slow and
shallow breathing, clammy skin, THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol) grown in Southeast Asia convulsions, coma, and possible is the psychoactive ingredient found in (Thailand, Laos and Myanmar— death. • CSA Schedule: Heroin has no
the marijuana plant. In the 1970's, the Burma); Southwest Asia (Afghanistan legitimate medical use: Schedule I. • Street
Names: Horse, Smack, Black Tar, Chiva,
average THC content of il icit marijuana and Pakistan), Mexico and Colombia. It and Negra (black tar). was less than one percent. Today comes in several forms, the main ones most commercial grade marijuana being "black tar" from Mexico (found from Mexico/Colombia and domestic primarily in the western United States) outdoor cultivated marijuana has an and white heroin from Colombia (pri- average THC content of 4 to 6 percent, marily sold on the East Coast). although some samples have tested as In the past, heroin was mainly high as 25 percent THC.
injected. Because of the high purity High doses of marijuana can result of the Colombian heroin, in hal ucinations. Marijuana smokers many users now snort or experience the same health prob- smoke heroin. All of lems as tobacco smokers: bronchitis, the methods of use emphysema, and bronchial asthma. can lead to addic- Extended use is associated with anti- tion, and the use of motivational syndrome, lung damage, intravenous needles and risk to reproductive systems. can result in the Drug Effects:
transmission of HIV. Effects: Increased alertness,
Hashish and Hashish Oil
excitation, euphoria (sometimes followed by a "crash"), increased (smoked, ingested)
pulse rate and blood pressure, insomnia Hashish consists of the THC-rich Cocaine is a powerful stimulant de- and loss of appetite. • Overdose Effects:
Agitation, increased body temperature,
resinous material of the cannabis plant rived from coca leaves grown in Bolivia, hallucinations, convulsions, possible which is col ected, dried, and then Peru and Colombia. The most common death. • CSA Schedule: Approved for use
as an anesthetic for ear, eye and throat
compressed into a variety of forms, method of use is snorting the cocaine surgeries: Schedule II. • Street Names:
such as bal s, cakes, or cookie-like powder (Cocaine Hcl). Its crack form is Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, and sheets. Pieces are then broken off, smoked (freebased). Cocaine is usu- placed in pipes, and smoked. The al y distributed as white powder, often Middle East, North Africa, Pakistan, and diluted ("cut") with a variety of sub- stances, the most com- one's thoughts, and auditory and visual mon being sugars and hal ucinations. These effects can last local anesthetics. This for months and even years after using is done to stretch the methamphetamine, and violent and amount of the product erratic behavior is often seen among and increase profits for Crack is sold in small, Drug Effects:
inexpensive doses that are smoked. Its effects are felt imme- Pain Kil ers
Effects: Increased alertness, excitation,
diately and are very intense and short- Vicodin™ is hydrocodone mixed euphoria, increased pulse rate and blood pressure, insomnia and loss of appetite. lived. The intensity of the psychological with acetaminophen. Hydrocodone is a • Overdose Effects: Agitation, increased
effects of cocaine depends on the dose semi-synthetic opioid similar in effects body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death. and rate of entry to the brain. Cocaine to morphine. Hydrocodone products, • CSA Schedule: Methamphetamine
reaches the brain through the snorting when abused, can lead to dependence, hydrochloride is prescribed for appetite method in three to five minutes. Intra- tolerance, and addiction. Vicodin™ is suppression: Schedule II. • Street Names:
Crank, Ice, Crystal, Krystal, Meth, Speed,
venous injection of cocaine produces one of the most frequently prescribed a rush in 15-30 seconds, and smoking medications for pain. Other products produces an almost immediate intense include Vicoprophen™, Tussionex™, experience. These intense effects can be fol owed by a "crash." Oxycodone is used as an analge- The cocaine manufacturing process sic and is formulated into numerous takes place in remote jungle labs where pharmaceuticals including OxyContin™ the raw product undergoes a series of (a control ed-release product) and with aspirin (Percodan™) or with acet-aminophen (Percoset™). These drugs are prescribed for pain relief. They all require a doctor's prescription and are Methamphetamine is a stimulant prescribed for moderate to severe pain.
which is general y produced in large Fentynal is extensively used for laboratories in Mexico, the United anesthesia and analgesia. Duragesic™ States and Asia, or in "small is a fentanyl transdermal (through the toxic labs" in the United skin) patch used in chronic pain man- States. It can be injected agement, and Actiq™ is a solid formu- or smoked. "Ice" is lation of fentanyl citrate on a stick that the crystal ized form dissolves slowly in the mouth for ab- of methamphetamine sorption through mucous membranes.
Drug Effects:
and it is general y Il icit use of pharmaceutical fentanyl smoked. In all its forms, first appeared in the mid-1970's in the Effects: Euphoria, drowsi-
methamphetamine is highly medical community. To date, over 12 ness, respiratory depression, addictive and toxic. different analogues of fentanyl have constricted pupils, and nausea.
• Overdose Effects: Slow and shallow
The onset of meth effects is been produced clandestinely and iden- breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, about the same as cocaine, but they tified in the U.S. drug traffic. coma, and possible death. • CSA
Schedule: Pure hydrocodone and oxy-
last longer. Meth remains in the central The biological effects are indistin- codone are in Schedule II. Hydrocodone nervous system longer than cocaine, guishable from those of heroin, with the products fall into schedules III and V.
and chronic abuse produces a psycho- exception that the fentanyl may be hun- sis that resembles schizophrenia. Other dreds of times more potent. Fentanyl signs of meth use include paranoia, is most commonly used by intravenous picking at the skin, preoccupation with administration, but like heroin, it may also be smoked or snorted. to stimulant medica- Ultram™ (tramadol hydrochloride) tions when taken in and Ultracet™ (tramadol with acet- the form and dosage aminophen) are prescription medica- prescribed by doc- Drug Effects:
tions indicated for the management of tors. In fact, it has Effects: Xanax™ and
moderate to moderately severe pain. been reported that Valium™ misuse is associ- stimulant therapy in ated with amnesia, hostility, childhood is associ- irritability, and vivid or dis- turbing dreams, as well as toler- ated with a reduction in ance and physical dependence. Xanax™ (alprazolam) is from the the risk for subsequent drug • Overdose Effects: Concurrent use of
alcohol or other depressants with Valium™ benzodiazepine family of depressants. and alcohol use disorders.
or Xanax™ can be life-threatening. • CSA
It is used to treat anxiety and panic Adderal ™ is an amphetamine which Schedule: Xanax™ and Valium™ are in
is used to treat attention deficit hyper- Schedule IV.
Valium™ (diazepam) is also from the activity disorder (ADHD) in children 6 benzodiazepine family of depressants. years of age and older and in It is usual y used to treat anxiety, alco- hol withdrawal, muscle spasms, and seizures. Valium™ is among the most widely prescribed medications in the Effects: Misuse of Ritalin™
United States. Concurrent use of alco- and Adderall™ may cause hol or other depressants with Valium™ kinds of GHB abus- short, intense periods of high can be life-threatening.
ers: those who take • Overdose Effects: High
Alprazolam and diazepam are the drug to get high, doses of Ritalin™ or Adderall™ can produce agitation, tremors, the two most frequently encountered those who use it in euphoria, palpitations, and high benzodiazepines on the il icit market. bodybuilding, and those blood pressure. Psychotic episodes, Abuse is frequently associated with who commit sexual assault paranoid delusions, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior have been associated with adolescents and young adults who take after drugging their victims. GHB is also stimulant abuse. the drug to get high. Abuse of benzo- frequently used in combination with • CSA Schedule: Ritalin™ and Adderall™ are in
Schedule II.
diazepines is particularly high among MDMA (Ecstasy) to counter over-stimu- heroin and cocaine abusers.
lation. It is frequently taken with alcohol and is often found at bars, parties, nightclubs, raves and gyms.
GHB is often cal ed the "date-rape" Methylphenidate (Ritalin™, Concer- drug. Because of its effect on memory, Drug Effects: GHB
ta™) is a stimulant which is prescribed GHB may cause users to forget details Effects: Slurred speech, disorientation,
for attention deficit/hyperactivity dis- surrounding a sexual assault. drunken behavior without the odor of alcohol, impaired memory of order. It has a high potential for abuse GHB is quickly eliminated events, and interaction with and produces many of the same effects from the body, and it • Overdose Effects:
as cocaine and amphetamines. Binge is sometimes hard to Shallow respiration, use, psychotic episodes, cardiovascular confirm its presence complications, and severe psychologi- during rape investiga- lated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma and cal addiction have all been associated with methylphenidate abuse. Accord- • CSA Schedule:
GHB in its illegal form is ing to the National Institute on Drug schedule I; a prescription Abuse, methylphenidate is a valuable drug, Xyrem™, formulated medicine for adults as well as children Ecstasy is a synthetic drug from components of GHB, is Schedule III. • Street Names:
with attention deficit and hyperactivity that produces both stimulation and GHB, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily disorder. Research shows that individu- hal ucinatory effects and is associated Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, and Xyrem™.
als with ADHD do not become addicted with increased energy, sensual arousal and enhanced tactile sensations. The The ability to make sound judg- effects of MDMA are felt within ments and see common dangers is im- 30-45 minutes, peaking paired, making the user susceptible to at 60-90 minutes, and personal injury. It is possible for users lasting 4-6 hours. to suffer acute anxiety and depression after an LSD "trip" and flashbacks have Effects: Heightened
nerve cell damage been reported days, even months, after senses, teeth grinding that can result in taking the last dose. and dehydration. • Over-
dose Effects: Increased
psychiatric distur- body temperature, elec- bances, muscle ten- trolyte imbalance, cardiac
arrest, possible death. • CSA
sion, tremors, blurred Schedule: Schedule I. • Street
vision, and increased PCP is general y produced in Names: Ecstasy, XTC, Adam, Love
body temperature which can clandestine laboratories in the United Drug, Eve, Hug, and Beans.
result in organ failure and death.
States. It was original y used as a The majority of MDMA is pro- veterinary anesthetic and is il egal y duced in laboratories in Europe and produced for human consumption in then smuggled into the United States. powder, capsule and liquid form, and MDMA is usual y distributed in tablet is frequently sprinkled on parsley, mint, form and many of these tablets are oregano or marijuana and smoked.
imprinted with pop culture designs or PCP use often causes a user to commercial logos.
feel detached from his surroundings. Numbness, slurred speech, and loss of coordination can be accompanied by a sense of strength and invulnerability. Auditory hal ucinations and severe has been produced mood disorders can occur. In some Effects: Illusions and
in laboratories in the users, acute anxiety, paranoia, hostility, hallucinations, altered perception of time United States. It is and psychosis can occur. and distance, impaired general y sold in the judgment leading to pos-sible personal injury. form of impregnated paper Schedule: No recognized medi-
typical y imprinted with colorful cal use: Schedule I. • Street Names:
graphic designs. It has also been found Ketamine is a fast-acting anesthetic Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, and Boomers.
in tablets (microdots), thin squares of and can be used on both humans and gelatin (window panes), in sugar cubes, and (rarely) in liquid form.
As a drug of abuse, it can be taken During the first hour oral y, snorted, or injected, and can be after ingestion, us- sprinkled on marijuana or tobacco and Drug Effects:
ers may experience smoked. If used intravenously, effects Effects: Illusions and
visual changes with can be felt immediately, and if snorted hallucinations, altered or taken oral y, effects are evident in perceptions of space
and time. • Overdose
in mood. While hal- Effects: Suicidal and
lucinating, the user Ketamine can act as a depressant hostile behavior, coma, may suffer impaired or a psychedelic and low doses can convulsions, and possible death from respiratory depth and time per- produce vertigo, slurred speech, slow arrest. • CSA Schedule: Was
ception accompanied reaction time and euphoria. In higher used in 1950's as intravenous anesthetic and discontinued for by distorted perception of doses, Ketamine produces amnesia human use in 1965: Schedule I. • Street
the shape and size of objects, Names: PCP, Angel Dust, Killer Weed, and
movements, colors, sound, touch and the user's own body image.
nail polish remover, Drug Effects:
Anabolic steroids are synthetical y cleaning fluid, gaso- produced variants of the natural y oc- line, and spray paint.
Effects: Illusions and
hallucinations, altered per- curring male hormone testosterone. ceptions of space and time. The two main effects of these drugs are • Overdose Effects: Unable
androgenic (developing male character- to direct movement, feel pain, or Over The Counter
remember. • CSA Schedule: Used as
istics) and anabolic (building muscles). veterinary anesthetic: Schedule III. • Street
The three main patterns of abuse Names: Special K.
include: cycling (alternating periods of DXM (dextromethorphan) is a use); stacking (using two or more at the cough suppressant available same time); and pyramiding (progres- in a variety of over-the- sively increasing and then decreasing counter cough and doses and types of steroids).
cold medications. Besides the short-term effects on both men and women, long-term use Effects: Virilization,
can lead to adverse cardiovascular taken in doses that edema, testicular atrophy, effects, liver dysfunction, liver tumors, dramatical y exceed gynecomastia, acne, aggressive behavior, and liver cancer, and cancer of the pros- those recommended tate in men. Among the most prevalent by physicians and • CSA Schedule: Anabolic
steroids are used medically to side-effects of steroids is the develop- pharmacists, it produces treat hormonal imbalances and ment of female characteristics in males hal ucinations and a sense other medical conditions. (developing breasts) and the masculin- of dissociation. As an over-the-counter • Street Names: Depo Testosterone, Juice,
ization of women. medication, DXM is available in various forms includ-ing liquids, lozenges, tablets, capsules, and Inhalants are a diverse group of substances that are sniffed, snorted, Individuals who huffed, or placed in bags and inhaled to produce intoxication. Common sume much higher Effects: Flushing,
household products such as aerosol doses (typical y more hypotension, and headache. • Overdose Effect: Can
propel ants, glue, lighter fluid, cleaning than 360 mil igrams), include damage to the heart, fluids, and paint are the most abused which produce hal u- liver, kidneys, lungs, and brain; death can occur from a single use inhalants. Inhalant users experience cinations and dissociative or after prolonged use. • CSA Schedule:
headache, nausea, slurred speech and effects similar to those experienced Inhalants are not scheduled under CSA. loss of motor coordination. They sniff or with PCP (phencyclidine) or ketamine. • Street Names: Poppers, Rush, Snappers,
Whippets, Kick, Bang and Amys.
"huff" ordinary household products like While under the influence of the drug, which can last for as ment or while physical y exerting long as 6 hours, DXM themselves—such as at a rave or dance abusers risk injuring club. Other risks associated with DXM themselves and oth- abuse include nausea, abdominal pain, ers because of the vomiting, irregular heartbeat, high drug's effects on vi- blood pressure, headache, numbness sual perception and of fingers and toes, loss of conscious- ness, seizures, brain damage, and In addition, indi- death. Over-the-counter medications Effects: Dissociation and hal-
viduals who ingest high containing DXM frequently contain lucinations. • Overdose Effects:
Loss of consciousness, seizures, brain
doses of DXM risk hyperthermia other ingredients that can cause ad- damage, death. • CSA Schedule: OTCs
(exceptional y high fever), particularly ditional health problems. are not scheduled under the CSA. • Street
Names: Dex, DM, Drex, Robo, Rojo,
if they use the drug in a hot environ- Skittles, Triple C, and Velvet. Costs to Society
he consequences of drug use are not limited to the individuals who take drugs.
Even non-users are at risk; drug use costs our society over $180 bil ion a year. Drug production harms the global environment; methamphetamine production uses toxic chemicals which seep into the ground and contaminate water sources. The Amazon region is being depleted by coca production. Drugged drivers injure and kill innocent people every year. Terrorist activities are connected to drugs; many organizations raise money for their violent attacks through drug produc-tion and trafficking. Children are adversely affected by drugs their parents use or manufacture in their homes.
Did you know that:

According to government surveys which ask young people about their drug use patterns, about 600,000 high school seniors drive after smoking mari-juana. More than 38,000 seniors told surveyors that they had been involved in accidents while driving under the influence of marijuana. Other surveys conducted by MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) and the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company revealed that many teenagers (41 percent) were not con-cerned about driving after taking drugs. Medical data indicates a connection between drugged driving and accidents. A study of patients in a shock-trauma unit who had been in col isions revealed that 15 percent of those who had been driving a car or motorcycle had been smoking marijuana and another 17 percent had both THC and alcohol in their blood. From the clear-cutting of rain forests in Central and South America for the planting of coca fields, to the destruction of national forests in the United States for the growing of marijuana, to the dumping of What costs are you hazardous waste byproducts into the water table after the manu- and your family paying facture of methamphetamine, il egal drugs have a far-reaching for others' drug use? What impact on the environment. These activities have consequences evidence have you seen that for the health of the groundwater, streams, rivers, wildlife, pets and drugs damage our society the people living in those areas. Il egal drug production contributes and other societies to deforestation, reduced biodiversity, increased erosion, air pol u-tion and global climate change.
around the world? Drug exposed children cost society mil ions of dol ars. The total lifetime costs associated with caring for babies who were exposed to drugs or alcohol range from $750,000 to $1.4 mil ion. These figures take into account the hospital and medical costs for drug exposed babies, housing costs, and other care costs. The long-term health damage to meth-exposed children has not yet been calculated. Drug money helps to support terrorists operating in countries around the world.
Why Do Young
People Use Drugs?
hen asked, young people offer a number of reasons for using drugs; most
often they cite a desire to change the way they feel, or to "get high." Other reasons include: Escape school and family pressures To be accepted by their peers To feel adult-like or sophisticated Perception of low risk associated with drugs Availability of drugs Prevention experts have identified "risk factors" and "protective factors" to help determine how drug abuse begins and how it progresses. Risk factors can increase a person's chances for drug abuse, and protective factors can reduce the risks. It's important to remember that not everyone at risk for drug abuse actual y becomes a drug user. Here are some early signs of risk that may predict later drug use: Association with drug abusing peers A lack of attachment and nurturing by parents or caregivers Ineffective parenting A caregiver who abuses drugs Aggressive behavior Lack of self-control Poor classroom behavior or social skil s Young people are most vulnerable to drug use during times of transition; for instance, when teens make the switch from elementary to middle school or agree that when they enter high school, new social and emotional chal enges affect them association with drug on many levels.
abusing peers is often Scientists have also studied the adolescent brain, and have determined the most immediate risk that the teen brain is not ful y formed until young adulthood. Using drugs for exposing adolescents during the time that the brain is developing increases the potential for drug to drug abuse and addiction. According to the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, adults who had first used substances at a younger age were more likely to be classified with dependence or abuse than adults who initiated use at a later age. This pattern of higher rates of dependence or abuse among persons start- ing their use of marijuana at younger ages was observed among all demographic subgroups analyzed.
What other factors contribute
to drug abuse among youth?

because something comes from a drug store doesn't make it safe to We are a pil -taking society. Many of us believe there's a pill for Our society frequently portrays anything and everything that ails drug-taking in a positive light, us; for improving our appearance; and there is not enough realistic for better performance and mood. depiction of the consequences of There are thousands of good medi- cations which are safe and effec- Leading figures in sports, tive, and new drugs come on the entertainment and market often. We are bombarded public life openly What are some of the most with advertisements about the ben- discuss their drug efits of these drugs. But don't be obvious signs of drug addiction? fooled: legal prescription drugs are Are there other signs that may not be not something to play around with. obvious to family and friends? What are Neither are some over-the-counter the physical manifestations of drug addic- medications, like cough syrup. Just tion? What has technology taught us about because a doctor prescribed them the impact of drugs on the brain? You may to a relative or a friend doesn't want to ask your friends and classmates make them safe for you. Just to discuss these questions. What other causes can they suggest Attitudes About Drugs
Adult Behavior and Attitudes May
Contribute to the Problem

Many adults are uninformed—or in denial—about drug use, and their attitudes
contribute to or enable young people to engage in drug-using behavior. According to the Partnership for a Drug Free America, many parents need to get better educated about the drug situation.
• Today's parents see less risk in drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even inhal-ants, when compared to parents just a few years ago.
The number of parents who report never talking with their child about drugs has doubled in the past six years, from 6 percent in 1998 to 12 percent in 2004.
Just 51 percent of today's parents said they would be upset if their child ex-perimented with marijuana. While parents believe it's important to discuss drugs with their children, fewer than one in three teens (roughly 30 percent) say they've learned a lot about the risks of drugs at home.
Just one in five parents (21 percent) believes their teenager has friends who use marijuana, yet 62 percent of teens report having friends who use the drug. Fewer than one in five parents (18 percent) believe their teen has smoked mari-juana, yet many more (39 percent) already are experimenting with the drug. What can adults do to Denial Can Make the Problem Worse
educate themselves about Some parents may be afraid to confront the realities of drug use, so they may drugs? How should adults deny the truth, even to themselves. You may have heard some adults say: "My kid discuss drugs with their doesn't use drugs." "It's not a problem for our family." "I used drugs and survived." children? How can children "Drug use is a normal part of growing up." "We'll never solve the drug problem." talk to their parents "Alcohol is more dangerous than marijuana." Community Indifference Al ows the Drug Problem to Escalate
In some communities, drug abuse goes hand-in-hand with community apathy. If drug dealing and use are al owed to flourish within a community, there is little chance that progress can or will be made.
Sociologists who have studied the phenomenon of urban crime understand the links between community neglect and escalating crime rates. James Q. Wilson, a noted sociologist, put forth the "broken window theory" which claims that little things—like a single broken window—convey a message to criminals that it is okay to break other windows, leading to a succession of actions which further degrade a community. Problems accumulate when the broken window is not fixed quickly. When communities recognize problems quickly, and take positive steps to ad- dress these problems, criminal activity element in successful strategies is the like drug trafficking has less chance to inclusion of all sectors of a community: damage that community. law enforcement, businesses, educa- Many communities have opted to tors, elected officials, the clergy, com- develop and implement comprehensive munity leaders, medical and treatment strategies to address issues related professionals, etc.
to crime and drug abuse. One critical For examples of how communities success- community dealt with fully addressed problems and reduced drug traf- the problems of crime and ficking and abuse visit the following web sites: drugs? If you were mayor for a day, what strategies would you employ to address the drug problem? What Is Addiction?
According to the experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), addic-
tion is a chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and abuse, and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. Some drugs are more addictive than others; however, depending on an individual user's propensity for addiction, someone can become addicted to drugs very quickly.
Experts say that there are several ways to determine if you have a drug problem. A user should ask questions about drinking or drug use ". addiction and assess how he/she feels when using. "Am I losing control of my is a chronic, relaps- life? Am I giving up things I used to love because of drugs? Have fam- ing disease character- ily and friends become less important? ized by compulsive drug- seeking and abuse and Obtain more information on drug addiction from the National by long-lasting chemical Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at Information on the changes in the brain." signs of drug addiction is also available at
Drug Treatment
IDA scientists tell us that "There is no cure for drug addiction, but it is a treat-
able disease; drug addicts can recover. Drug addiction therapy is a program of behavior change or modification that slowly retrains the brain. Like people with diabetes or heart disease, people in treatment for drug addiction learn behavioral changes and often take medications as part of their treatment regimen." Did you know that over 60 percent of the young people currently in treatment are there for dependence on marijuana? When using il egal drugs, or abusing other substances such as inhalants, prescription drugs, or over the counter medications, there is a tremendous potential for addiction, and treatment What strategies do treat- may be the only option.
ment programs employ to help Drug treatment is available to those who need help, including users remain drug free? What are in-patient and out-patient centers, therapeutic communities and 12- the different outcomes that can be step programs. In addition to medical treatment programs, some are faith-based. Additional y, community programs such as Drug Courts expected from the various forms of give non-violent drug users in the criminal justice system opportuni- drug treatment? How can you help ties for treatment—with conditions—instead of jail time. For more a friend or family member who is information on drug treatment, go to the Center for Substance Abuse abusing drugs get into drug Treatment (CSAT) at www.samhsa/ Drug Court information is available at There are also many stories on the internet about teens seeking drug treatment. For information on how to help some- one who needs treatment, go to the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign What About Drug Legalization?
ome people are of the opinion that drug use is a personal choice and that
the U.S. Government should legalize drug use. They support their claims with opinions that marijuana is a medicine and is not harmful, that legalization will remove the violence and profit from the drug trade, and that adults will be able to take drugs safely and responsibly. The vast majority of Americans do not want drugs legalized. They believe legalization will lead to further disintegration of families, increase health and social costs, and jeopardize the safety of inno-cent people. Given the enormous toll that legal substances such as tobacco and alcohol have taken on our society, why would we want to compound our problems by adding legal drugs to the mix? Marijuana is not harmless, nor is it a medicine. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether or not marijuana should be approved as a medicine. There are many rigorous and complex elements to the U.S. government's approval of any drug that is used as medicine in this country. If scientists conclude that marijuana should someday be considered a medicine, these same rigorous steps would need to be fol owed before doctors are permitted to prescribe it to patients.
Furthermore, there are no smoked medicines. Have you ever heard of anyone who smoked medicine? After all we know about the dangers of cigarette smoking, why would the scientific com-munity approve smoked marijuana? Those who smoke marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers do, Imagine a scenario such as daily cough and phlegm production, more where drugs were legal in frequent acute chest il nesses, a heightened risk your community. What would be of lung infections, and a greater tendency toward affected by the increased drug use obstructed airways. Marijuana has the poten- that occurred? How would the impact tial to promote cancer of the lungs and other of this policy affect young people? What parts of the respiratory tract because marijuana smoke contains 50 percent to 70 percent more would the consequences of increased carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco availability and use be on non-users? smoke. Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, How would this compare to Research Report Series - Marijuana, October 2001. the problems caused by Part Two:
Drug Prevention and Awareness

Drug prevention is a criti- field, and evaluating whether
cal component in our prevention programs actual y nation's effort to reduce drug work has been critical to their use, particularly among young success. While drug preven-people. When it is part of a tion efforts continual y evolve comprehensive strategy which based on actual situations and includes law enforcement and needs, there are some guid-drug treatment, prevention is ing principles which are basic a very powerful tool to reduce to successful drug prevention drug use. Over the decades, various types of drug preven- The ultimate aim of drug tion approaches have been prevention programs is to implemented to help people change behaviors which reject drugs and choose encourage drug abuse and to healthy alternatives. Over the reinforce positive behaviors years, many lessons have which lead to the rejection of been learned in the prevention drugs.
Principles of Prevention
Know What The Problem Is
and Who You Are Trying To Reach
Address Appropriate Risk and
Protective Factors for Substance Abuse in a Defined Population

Define a population. A population can be defined by age, gender, race, geog-
raphy (neighborhood, town, or region), and institution (school or workplace).
Assess levels of risk, protection, and substance abuse for that
population. The risk factors increase the risk of substance abuse, and
protective factors inhibit the risk of substance abuse in the presence of risk.
Risk and protective factors can be grouped in domains for research purposes
(genetic, biological, social, psychological, contextual, economic, and cultural)
and characterized as to their relevance to individuals, the family, peers, school,
workplace, and community.
Focus on all levels of risk, with special attention to those exposed to high
risk and low protection. Prevention programs and policies should focus on
all levels of risk, but special attention must be given to the most important risk
factors, protective factors, psychoactive substances, individuals, and groups
exposed to high risk and low protection in a defined population. Population
assessment can help sharpen the focus of prevention.
Find Out What Works—and Use It
Use Approaches that Have Been Shown to be Effective

Reduce the availability of il icit drugs, and of alcohol and tobacco for the
under-aged. Community-wide laws, policies, and programs can reduce the
availability and marketing of il icit drugs. They can also reduce the availability
and appeal of alcohol and tobacco to the underaged.
Strengthen anti-drug-use attitudes and norms. Strengthen environmental
support for anti-drug-use attitudes by sharing accurate information about substance abuse, encouraging drug-free activities, and enforcing laws, and policies related to il icit substances.
Strengthen life skil s and drug refusal techniques. Teach life skil s
and drug refusal skil s using interactive techniques that focus on critical thinking, communication, and social competency.
Define "critical • Reduce risk and enhance protection in families. Families
thinking" and "social strengthen these skil s by setting rules, clarifying expectations, competency" and put monitoring behavior, communicating regularly, providing social support, and modeling positive behaviors.
them into the drug • Strengthen social bonding. Strengthen social bonding and caring
abuse prevention relationships with people holding strong standards against sub- stance abuse in families, schools, peer groups, mentoring programs, religious and spiritual contexts, and structured recreational activities.
Ensure that interventions are
abuse, including homes, social appropriate for the populations
services, schools, peer groups, being addressed. Make sure that
workplaces, recreational settings, prevention interventions, includ- religious and spiritual settings, and ing programs and policies, are acceptable to and appropriate for the needs and motivations of the Stay On Top of
populations and cultures being Your Program
Manage Programs Effectively
Understand When And
Ensure consistency and
Where Drug Use Begins
coverage of programs and
policies. Implementation of
Think of three age prevention programs, policies, and appropriate programs • Intervene early and at develop-
messages for different parts of the and activities for mental stages and life transi-
community should be consistent, elementary students. tions that predict later substance
compatible, and appropriate.
abuse. Such developmental stages • Train staff and volunteers. To
and life transitions can involve ensure that prevention programs biological, psychological, or social and messages are continual y circumstances that can increase delivered as intended, training the risk of substance abuse. should be provided regularly to Whether the stages or transitions staff and volunteers.
are expected (such as puberty, • Monitor and evaluate programs.
adolescence, or gradu- To verify that goals and objectives ation from school) or are being achieved, program unexpected (such as monitoring and evaluation should Successful drug the sudden death be a regular part of program prevention programs of a loved one), implementation. When goals are depend on the contributions not reached, adjustments should and expertise of many segments be made to increase effectiveness. of our society: for example, the preventive inter- Source: ONDCP. media, educators, parents, peers, the clergy, law enforcement, ventions as soon the medical community and as possible-even Successful drug prevention pro- before each stage or grams depend on the contributions transition, whenever and expertise of many segments of our society: for example, the media, educa- • Reinforce interven-
tors, parents, peers, the clergy, law tions over time. Repeated
enforcement, the medical community exposure to scientifical y accurate and community leaders. The success of and age-appropriate anti-drug-use prevention efforts increases when vari- messages and other interventions ous segments col aborate and provide can ensure that skil s, norms, ex- clear anti-drug messages to targeted pectations, and behaviors learned earlier are reinforced over time.
Intervene in appropriate settings
and domains. Intervene in settings
and domains that most affect
risk and protection for substance
Drug Prevention Programs
rug prevention programs are designed and implemented on many levels. The
federal government has instituted a number of national drug prevention pro- grams which reach targeted populations through public service announcements, grant programs, educational programs and the sharing of expertise. State and local governments also have a significant number of prevention programs which are tailored to address particular problems and needs. Law enforcement and the military have brought drug prevention expertise into classrooms and communities; businesses have also contributed significantly to drug prevention through spon-sored programs, drug-free policies and corporate support for community initia-tives. Other segments of society, including faith-based institutions, civic organiza-tions and private foundations are also active forces in drug prevention.
Below is a partial list of drug prevention agencies and programs. There are
many other outstanding efforts which are ongoing across the nation; it is impossible to include them all. Some programs are aimed at particular populations or specific drugs. Within a given agency, there may be many prevention programs which are aimed at different audiences. Federal Drug Prevention Agencies and Programs:
Office of National Drug Control Abuse Treatment (CSAT) are part of
This office reports to the President of the United States. ONDCP administers the Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.
U.S. Department
of Education (DOE):

Substance Abuse and
DOE has many anti-drug programs.
Mental Health Services
Drug Enforcement
This organization is responsible for overseeing and administering mental In addition to dismantling the major health, drug prevention and drug treat- drug trafficking organizations, DEA is ment programs around the nation. The committed to reducing the demand Center for Substance Abuse Prevention for drugs in America. DEA's Demand (CSAP) and the Center for Substance Reduction Program is carried out by Special Agents across the United enforcement agencies and prosecutors States who work in communities to cooperate in "weeding out" criminals share expertise and information on drug and "seeding" to bring in human trends, emerging problems and the services, prevention intervention, dangers of drugs.
treatment, and neighborhood National Institute on Drug
Abuse (NIDA):

Other Anti-Drug
NIDA conducts and disseminates the results of research about the effects of National Association of State Alcohol drugs on the body and the brain. NIDA and Drug Abuse Directors is an excel ent source of information on drug addiction.
Community Anti-Drug Coalitions Of The National Guard provides drug edu- cation to communities in all 50 states. National Crime Prevention Council Weed and Seed:
Operation Weed and Seed is a strategy to prevent and reduce violent crime, National Families in Action (NFIA) drug abuse, and gang activity in targeted high-crime neighborhood. Law You can obtain free anti-drug
Youth Anti-Drug
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) Learning For Life The National Center on Addiction PRIDE Youth Programs and Substance Abuse at Columbia Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE America) (DARE) Elks Drug Awareness Program Students Against Destructive Decisions Partnership for a Drug-Free America Teens In Prevention Scott Newman Center Law Enforcement Exploring American Council for Drug Education Youth Crime Watch of America Part Three: What You Can Do
How Teens Can Assist With
Drug Awareness Programs
here are many avenues for teens to work in reinforcement of attitudes against drug use. Good prevention
drug prevention. You can work with estab- programs include interactive methods, such as peer discus- lished programs, create your own anti-drug sion groups, rather than just lecture methods alone.
programs, or work individual y as role models You can play an important role in drug awareness and or mentors. Working within the community, prevention by informing the public about the perils of sub-stance abuse. A prerequisite for youth involvement in this schools, faith organizations, or in conjunction area would be a comprehensive training program covering with businesses, young people can make a the identification, use, misuse, and effects of drugs. Teens tremendous difference in reducing the demand should also be familiar with the dangers and effects of al-for drugs.
cohol and tobacco abuse. A vital component of this training would be public speaking skil s and methods of presenting Working With Schools:
substance abuse information to various types of audiences.
Young people who are aware of the risks and conse- quences of drug use can make sound life decisions. Pre-vention programs help to improve skil s to resist drugs, Early Elementary School
strengthen personal commitments against drug use, and Prevention programs for youth in this age category should increase social competency (communications, peer relation- be based on the concept that only sick people need drugs. ships, self-efficacy, and assertiveness), in conjunction with Children should be taught that while drugs can be beneficial if medical y prescribed and used, all drugs are dangerous if they are mis- School organizations, community
used. Acquaint this age group with the service groups, etc
techniques used to lure young people There are many avenues for teens into experimenting with drugs. Be- to engage adults in drug prevention cause students in this age bracket are efforts, and it's important for young more responsive to visual than audio people to know what perspectives stimulus, audiovisual aids should be an and attitudes adults have about drugs. integral part of any such presentation.
Many parents don't know the extent of the drug problem facing teens, and may not be familiar with current drugs of abuse. Some parents are also skeptical Use a factual approach with junior about how successful communities and high school students. They should families can be in reducing drug use. be told about the legal, physiological, You can provide insight and information and psychological consequences of to adults in many sectors of your com- substance abuse. The adverse results of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use In dealing with adults, be straight- should receive considerable atten- forward about the realities you are fac- tion at this level. The importance of ing in school, with peers, on weekends positive decision making as it relates and in our culture. They need to know to the sometimes negative effect of these things. Share your ideas on what peer pressure should be examined and they can do to help teens be drug free. discussed. Peer pressure can be used For example, members of the busi- to support either type of decision. Role- ness community can join with you to playing scenarios would be helpful in tighten up restrictions on cigarette and reinforcing this information.
alcohol sales to minors. Civic leaders can help make communities and living areas safer for kids and teens. Adults High School
can help get the word out to the media, Research shows that teens rely on political leaders and others about your peers for accurate information on all needs and prevention plans.
important issues, including drugs. You Encourage adults to read as much have lots to say, and are both question- as they can about drug use trends, and ing and skeptical. So, it's important to familiarize themselves with informa- tell the real truth, without exaggerating, tion about what teens are up against. because if teens sense that one bit of They can be real al ies in your efforts information is untruthful or exaggerated, to reduce drug use in your schools and you will tend not to believe any of it. Be prepared to be chal enged and ready Key elements in the success of any to back up your information with good prevention program are training and sources. Don't forget to respect differ- preparation. Teens can be of vital as- ing opinions, cultures, and experience sistance to our communities and fel ow levels. It would also be a good idea to citizens in combating substance abuse.
get pointers from a trusted teacher or counselor about persuasive ways to deliver information to your peers.
Drug Prevention Projects
Red Ribbon Week
Red Ribbon Week is an important tradition for the drug preven-
tion community, and especial y for the DEA. The event that has become a national symbol of drug prevention began as a grassroots tribute to a fal en DEA hero, Special Agent Enrique Camarena. The National Red Ribbon Campaign was sparked by the murder of DEA Special Agent Camarena by drug traffickers. In March of 1985, Camare- na's Congressman, Duncan Hunter, and high school friend Henry Lozano, launched Camarena Clubs in Imperial Val ey, California, Camarena's home. Hundreds of club members pledged to lead drug-free lives to honor the sacri- fices made by Camarena and others on behalf of all Americans. From these clubs emerged the Red Ribbon Week Campaign. Today, Red Ribbon Week is national y recognized and celebrated, helping to preserve Special Agent Camarena's memory and further the cause for which he gave his life. The Red Ribbon Campaign is a symbol of support for DEA's and America's efforts to reduce demand for drugs through prevention and education programs. By wearing a red ribbon during the last week in October, Americans demonstrate their ardent opposition to drugs, and pledge to live drug free lives.
Ideas For Other Substance Abuse Prevention Projects
Forums or discussions:
Hold assemblies that help your peers think about, understand, and make constructive contributions to problems that affect their lives. Subject ideas include: drunk or drugged driving, underage use, Red Ribbon
drug testing in the schools, impact of drug use on individual and society.
• A "wear red" day or week • Poster Contest • Door Decoration Contest • Essay/ Fairs and displays:
Letter Writing Contest • A "plant red tulips" day Hold a drug abuse prevention fair in the school park- ing lot or hal way. Design educational displays for • Drug-Free pledge banner • Anti-drug/ anti-alcohol mal s, school, hospitals, businesses, and commu- nity centers to get more people outside your school Projects for Businesses:
or program involved in drug prevention projects.
• Employees wear Red Ribbons • Display Red Ribbon posters • Support local schools' Red Ribbon activities Community and Religious Group Projects:
Design and distribute pamphlets on different sub- • Host Red Ribbon speakers • Pass out Red stance abuse prevention topics. If inhalant abuse or marijuana is the problem in your community, research Ribbon handouts at events • Support local the issue and make that the subject of your publica- schools' Red Ribbon activities tion. You may find assistance from the Elks Club, a local • Include Red Ribbon information printer, or other community group in printing your pamphlet.
in group publications Write, tape and edit a script for a video as part of an education pro- gram. You might find assistance at a local public interest television station, and they might even broadcast your Puppet show:
You could write your own script, design your own puppets, and give performances for younger children after Write and perform skits and shows for other students, younger children, the neighborhood, or community dealing with some aspect of drug abuse.
You could sponsor a drug-free day at school, or organize a drug and alcohol- Writing, music, or art contests:
free prom or dance, or perhaps a 5K run.
Organize these for your school or your whole community to have fun, educate, and build interest. You might have an You could organize a conference on essay, song, or poster contest. You drug-free youth and give presentations could print the essays in the school on various drugs and how to say no and newspaper or literary magazine, have live a drug-free life as well as teaching a talent show with the songs or skits, leadership skil s.
and display the posters in the hal ways or other venue. Sponsor positive graffiti Get training to be peer counselors to help other young people with problems.
Media campaign:
You could produce public service
announcements (PSAs) for radio or Set up a student teaching service to television and urge your local stations help educate your peers or younger to carry them. You could write letters to children about substance abuse. Being the editor of your local newspaper. You a big brother or big sister for younger could write an article for your school children can make a big impact on their newspaper on drug abuse.
Inspiration from
Drugs are less likely to flourish in areas South Carolina Teens
that are clean. With appropriate adult In the Jesse Jackson Housing supervision clean up trashy, run-down, Project in Greenvil e, South Carolina, a or overgrown public areas. Spruce up group of teens decided they would like schools, neighborhood parks, and the to make a difference, and they wanted yards of those unable to do the work. to focus on drug prevention in their Wipe out or paint over graffiti.
community. You have probably heard about McGruff the Crime Dog and The National Crime Prevention Council Plan and staff recreation programs (NCPC). With the help of this national for young children; build playgrounds, crime prevention organization and help provide outings for disadvantaged some local pharmacists, these teens re- searched drugs and their interactions to put together a presentation for parents and grandparents on ways to help keep Real Life Examples
their kids drug free. They started small by visiting local churches and speaking Learning for Life (LFL)
to the seniors. Within a year, though, Learning for Life is a youth-serving they were out there in their community organization which aims to help youth and in the schools doing drug preven- meet the chal enge of growing up by tion. You can learn a lot about how teaching character and good decision- teens can contribute to community making skil s and then linking those efforts at
skil s to the real world.
As part of the Elementary Learning for Life program, LFL has developed Teens In Prevention
a set of lesson plans for kindergarten Teens in Prevention (TiP) is a youth- through grade six. Each set of plans driven network sponsored by the Drug contains age appropriate and grade Enforcement Administration which specific lessons and activity sheets. aims to empower America's youth to For more information call your lo- become part of the solution to their cal Learning for Life office, or visit drug problem and provide a community solution to a community problem. Every Real Life Example Highlight
Learning for Life
Meet Reginald "Renel " McCul ough, former National Youth Representative for Law Enforcement Exploring, a program of Learning for Life. Renell is a former member of Post 219 sponsored by the Franklin, TN, Police Department. He volunteered hundreds of hours to work events with his post and with the Police Department. He has taken part in a number of leadership trainings and experi- ences, including a four-month program cal ed Youth Leadership Franklin. In May 2008 Renell graduated from the University of Tennessee in Knoxvil e and is preparing for a career in public service. He believes that knowing that you have made a difference in somebody's life is the greatest feeling in the world.
October, teens from El Paso, Texas; in high school. PRIDE team members Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Cuidad reach out to their peers and community Juarez, Mexico meet at the International with an assertive, drug-free message. Bridge of the Americas and exchange They also organize drug-free, fun activi- red ribbons as part of the Annual Bi- National Red Ribbon Ral y. The ribbon A PRIDE team from Newaygo exchange is fol owed by a parade and County, Michigan, performs at Cham- entertainment as well as exhibits where pion Cheerleading, a summer camp. anti-drug material is distributed.
The PRIDE team goes to the camp for The TiP chapter at LaCueva High four days during the months of July and School in New Mexico set up a booth August every year to do an hour-long for Homecoming and had "drunk presentation of high energy drug pre- goggles" that students could put on. vention and awareness to the cheer- The students could throw a cream pie leaders attending the camp. The object at a teacher if they answered a drug is for the cheerleaders to go back to question correctly, but they had to put their schools in the fall and spread the on the goggles before they took the enthusiasm of drug free youth and the shot. The goggles showed what 1.0, PRIDE organization.
1.5, and 2.0 blood alcohol look like. These same students went to the Zia Native American Pueblo and presented Oregon Teens Create
a drug-free program to the students at the Zia Elementary School.
Students at Newberg High School in Oregon created two anti-meth public service announcements (PSAs) as part PRIDE Youth Programs
of the Oregon Partnership's Yamhill America's PRIDE is a drug and County's Meth Awareness Project violence prevention program for youth (MAP). The 30 second ads point out Real Life Example Highlight
any people know DARE as an elementary school program where police
officers teach children about drugs. Did you know that DARE also has a Youth Advisory Board made up of high school representatives from each state? Their role is to provide feedback to the DARE organization and assist DARE programs in the local schools. Working with DARE is a good way to gain leadership experience and help the community at the same time.
Meet Haida Boyd from South Dakota. She has just finished her 2-year term as her state's representative. Among the projects she helped estab-lish was an after-school program in Aberdeen, South Dakota, a community without a DARE program. She worked with the school superintendent and the police department on projects for several schools in that community. Her first project, cal ed PEER PLUS, was a program focused on homework help and outdoor recreation. She says she has learned a lot from the experience and has pledged to never drink alcohol or abuse drugs. "Seeing other teens around me doing drugs only makes me stronger," she said. "To me, life is priceless and drugs always come with a consequence. Learn more at:
the dangers of methamphetamine to address and telephone number of your other teens. The PSAs were created state office by contacting your state in conjunction with the Northwest government, the Center for Substance Film Center. They are currently be- Abuse Prevention, or the National Asso- ing broadcast by several television ciation of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse stations at a time when methamphet- amine use by teens in Oregon is a Films, videos, PSAs and news clips growing problem. See their PSAs at: can help make your programs interest- ing. Your local library may have some for loan, or check with your state pre-vention coordinator for other possibili- ties. The National Clearinghouse for There are lots of resources to help Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) put a program together, including has audiovisual materials available for publications, audiovisual material, a very minimal cost. Videos are also financial support, and local experts. available from many commercial firms. Speakers are available, often free There are also a number of web sites Are you aware of other of charge. Contact local police which host satel ite broadcasts on top- organizations which have departments, the Chamber of ics of interest.
sponsored events or activities? Commerce, hospitals, parent Talk to people involved in those groups, and other local groups efforts to learn what worked. to obtain speakers for your It's important to be up to date on Can you join forces with drug trends and anti-drug programs. existing programs to ac- On the federal level, the Drug Get some training from local contacts Enforcement Administration (DEA) and programs to help you in these ar- and the National Clearinghouse on eas. Some potential trainers for you and Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) your groups include: have limited quantities of free publica- Your police department's narcotics or community relations unit; Each state has a drug and alcohol The local DEA office has personnel abuse prevention division. These offices in each Field Division around the are responsible for putting together a prevention plan for the state each year, The National Guard in each state and they are aware of resources located has a Drug Demand Reduction around the state. You can obtain the Substance Abuse Counselors at activities. Adjust the timetable if
drug rehabilitation centers; Your local pharmacist or doctor; • Get training from experts in the
Local teachers and col ege areas you will need help with.
Keep notes on the progress of
your project. Record informa-
Planning And Implementing A
tion on obstacles you faced Successful Drug Prevention
during your project, and how you overcame Successful prevention programs do • Keep track of
Do some research in your not need to be elaborate—sometimes any funding
own community. Your local the most successful programs are library or mental health or drug simple. But planning and carrying out a received and
treatment center should have lots of good program requires some thought, information that you can use in your planning and oversight. Here are • Report back
program. There are many experts in some things to help with a successful to advisors/
your community who may be wil ing to sponsors on
Decide what type of effort you
the progress
assist your group. These include the want to undertake. Do you want to
you have made,
police, doctors, pharmacists, influence peers? Help children stay and what you
psychologists, and away from drugs? Improve your have accomplished.
community? Get the attention of adults and organizations? • Identify an advisor/sponsor
for your program. This person
Implementing a community drug can be an adult involved in drug awareness program need not involve prevention, a teacher, coach, large sums of money. The important guidance counselor, clergy thing to remember is that there are member, etc. It could be another organizations wil ing and able to help teen who is already involved in a young people make a difference in program or a business person or fighting drugs. Potential sources of sup- civic leader who is interested in port may include service or civic clubs, drug prevention.
neighborhood watch groups, local cor- • Form a team of interested people porations, etc. The Elks are one service
and pick a team leader. If you
group which has selected drug abuse choose to work by yourself, identify prevention as a major project. In addi-who is there to help you if you need tion, groups can earn money by holding assistance.
events such as dances, bowling, car • Do research on the drug problem washes, bake sales, etc.
in your area. Find out as much as
you can about the problem and
community resources to address
the problem.
Have a plan. Identify your ob-
jectives and set realistic goals. Remember that small steps some-times lead to great successes. • Establish a timetable for your
Sample Drug Abuse Prevention Program Planning Worksheet
Group/Project Name: Advisor/Sponsor: Nature of Drug Problem: _ Selected Target: _ Brief Statement of Program: Group Resources: _ Community Resources Available: Materials Needed: _ Goals: These are the goals and objectives the group hopes to accomplish in the next year.
30-Day Objectives: 60-Day Objectives: 90-Day Objectives: 6-Month Objectives: _ 1-Year Objectives: _ 2008 United States Department of JusticeDrug Enforcement AdministrationDemand Reduction Programswww.dea.govwww.justthinktwice.comwww.GetSmartAboutDrugs.comwww.learning-for-life.orgItem No. 99-349


Recent Developments in Greece – the milk, oil and pharmaceuticals Cases Despina D SamaraCalavros & Partners The year 2006-2007 saw three industry sectors coming under the public consultation procedure, announced concrete structural meas-scrutiny of the Hellenic Competition Commission, namely, milk, oil ures and behavioural recommendations that it considered absolutely and pharmaceuticals. Following either ex-officio investigations or necessary to establish and enforce effective competition in the oil complaints filed by other market participants the national authority market. These measures relate mainly to observance of the principles was dealing with all three sectors by late 2006. Of particular note, in of transparency, non-discriminatory treatment, accounting separa-the pharmaceuticals sector, after almost seven years of proceedings, tion and cost-orientation in setting prices. A more specific look at the Competition Commission reached a much-anticipated decision the measures the Syfait case.

From PreConCePTion environmenTal and nuTriTional sTraTegies For lowering The By DAviD BERGER, MD, FAAP prevalence not only of ASDs but also of allergies, asthma, and autoimmune and Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a cluster of neurobehavioral- hyperinflammatory conditions in children for whom there is a family history of developmental conditions characterized by varied levels of impairment in such conditions. Families with such histories may be particularly interested in communication, behaviors, social interactions, and sensory integration. To date,