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Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research Vol. 2 (1), pp. 7-14, December 2010
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/jebr
ISSN 2141-6583 2010 Academic Journals
Ful Length Research Paper
The effect of magnetic field on the physical, chemical
and microbiological properties of the lake water in
Molouk Mohammed Khazan Alkhazan1 and Amna Ali Nasser Saddiq2*
1Department of Botany, Faculty of Education, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Education, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Accepted 9 November, 2010
The present study aims at solving the problem of stagnant water due to receiving of sewage water in a
lake at Eastern Jeddah, using state of the art safe techniques. Samples were collected from the lake,
then treated using magnetic fields with different intensities in two states, static and shaking, for 30
days. Hence, the physical and chemical properties for samples were measured, in addition to their
bacterial content. In both cases of static and shaking, increasing the magnetic flux density caused
water clearness, in addition to a relative increase in the pH value and a remarkable decrease in its odor
and electric conductivity (EC). In addition, it was observed that lead ions and bacterial content
decreased. The study shows that the increasing magnetic field intensity to the level used in this study,
accompanied by shacking, is supplemented with the findings of the experiment. It also suggests that
the magnetic field plays a major role in finding successful solutions for a lot of environmental
problems, as the strong bonds that connect man to nature should be avoided.
Magnetic field, stagnant water, electric conductivity, pH, bacteria.
Water pol ution is regarded as one of the most critical
after treatment with chlorine and ozone. Using Ozone has
environmental problems, as it causes change in water
no side effects, however, some disadvantages were
color and increase in microscopic harmful living
discovered, like the short life-time of its effect and
organisms count, which causes the spread of dangerous
needing water pretreatment for removing high
epidermal diseases, The water pol utants can be
concentration of organic substances and algae. As a
eliminated by physical methods like filtration, as wel as
result, new efficient and safe methods were needed.
chemical treatments like chlorination which is one of the
Thus, a biological technique using the magnetic field to
most widely used disinfectants (Vesilind et al., 1990),
purify water was introduced. This technique is considered
although chlorine does treat water from change of odor
as a simple simulation of what happens in nature, as
and color, hydrogen sulphide, growth of algae, germs;
when water is subjected to a magnetic field and as a
however, its addition resulted in the appearance of
result, becomes more biological y active.
increased resistance of bacteria to biological antibiotics
The phenomenon of water treatment with an applied
such as ampicil in, streptomycin and sulphagolanamy (El-
magnetic field has been known for many years and has
Zanfaly, 1991). Ozone also is used as a disinfectant in
been reported as being effective in numerous instances
water treatment, as it oxidizes the organic blemishes,
(Kronenberg et al., 1985; Lin et al., 1990 and Balcavage
removes color, odor and taste problems and is a fast
et al., 1996). Magnetism sciences has developed and
become more complicated, when its properties were
Nieminski and Bradford (1991) found that, water
found to have linkage with al solid, liquid and gaseous
bacterial content decreased by 85 and 98.8%, respectively,
matters in addition to living organisms. Johan-Sohaili et
al. (2004) explained that, magnetic technology is a
promising treatment process that can enhance the
separation of suspended particles from the sewage. Tai
*Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected]
et al. (2008) observed that on subjecting water to magnetic
8 J. Evol. Biol. Res.
field, it leads to modification of its properties, as it
decrease in cel ular thickening and disappearance in
becomes more energetic and more able to flow which
most elements from the cytoplasm. Additional y, Pengfei
can be considered as a birth of new science cal ed
et al. (2007) found inhibition in the growth and concen-
Magneto biology. He also pointed out that, magnetized
tration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
bacteria by using
water prevents harmful metals such as, lead and nickel,
wireless magneto-elastic, which facilities the sterilization
from uptake by roots and reaching fruits and roots.
process special y in canned food.
However, it increases the percentage of nutrient
Therefore, our aim in this study is to improve physical,
elements like phosphorus, potassium and zinc.
chemical and biological properties of stagnant water, by
Magnetic wastewater treatment has been introduced to
subjecting samples taken at random from a lake located
the chemical industry to remove heavy metals (Tsouris,
at Easter Jeddah, to magnetic fields with different
2001) and the magnetic wastewater treatment can also
intensities, as a new, safe biological method for man and
be applied to remove color, phosphates and oil at low
concentration. Some researchers reported that magnetic
treatment affects water properties, such as light
absorbance, pH, zeta potential and surface tension (Joshi
MATERIALS AND METHODS
and Kamat, 1966; Holysz et al., 2002; Chibowski et al.,
2003; Cho and Lee, 2005). However, these effects have
not always been confirmed (Limpert and Raber, 1985;
The lake of the study is located in Eastern Jeddah. This lake is
Baker et al., 1997). Chibowski et al. (2003) reviewed the
considered as one of the environmental problems because it
literatures on magnetic field treatment and carried out
receives great amount of sewage water daily (50 x 103 m3) by
tests on magnetic field effects on precipitated calcium
sewage systems. Hence, it is alarming, if it mixes with underground
carbonate in wel -defined and control ed systems and
water which can cause soil and building col apse, in addition to bad
odor that spread and cause health troubles. The size of the lake is
conditions. Amiri and Dadkhah (2006) found that changes
9.5 x 106 m3 and its surface 2.6 km2 approximately.
in surface tension due to magnetic treatment, can be a
key point in tracing impurities in water. Meaningful
changes in surface tension of a liquid sample after a day
Water samples magnetic field application
can be a good indicator for the presence of physical and
Eight water samples were col ected randomly from different
chemical changes in the sample.
locations in the lake. The samples were mixed together to form a
It was observed that magnetized water helps in
homogenous sample which was subjected to magnetic fields with
dissolving minerals and acids by a higher rate than un-
different intensity (µT) treatments. The treatments were 130, 260
magnetized water, in addition to dissolving oxygen and
and 390 µT in addition to control. These intensities were measured
increasing the speed of chemical reactions (Moon and
by Gauss meter in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Sudan
Chung, 2000). Smirnov (2003) noticed that water can
for Science and Technology. The experiments were done statical y
and dynamical y in a shaker incubator of 200 rpm velocity. Each of
receive signals produced from magnetic forces that have
these treatments was represented by five replicates, resulting in 40
a direct effect on living cel s and their vital action. Hence,
research is going on to use magnetic field in limiting
microbial water pol ution. Abel (2002) pointed out that
water pol ution and its red color is caused by reproduction
Physical and chemical analysis of water samples
of microscopic living organisms in great rates. It was
The physical properties of the samples such as clearness,
found that Ferro bacteria (Clonothrix
sp. and Creothr
sedimentation, odor, pH and EC were measured, according to
sp.) accumulates ferric hydroxide in their cel s and their
Chapman and Pratt (1978) by using pH meter WTW model 530 and
wal s, causing some troubles in sewers including bad
conductivity meter ORION model 160. The results were recorded
odor. It also forms adhesive substances which cause
every week for 30 days. Some elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe,
trouble in nutrient labs when water is used in production.
P, Pb, Cu and Cl were measured in the laboratory of Water and
The presence of Escherichia coli
is considered as an
Environment, Saudi Society of Area and Geology (community
indicator of water pol ution in sewage water (Neil , 2004)
and hence higher probability of the presence of microbes
that cause intestine diseases such as typhoid,
paratyphoid, cholera and intestinal docentaria. El-Sayed
et al. (2006) discovered that, when E. coli
is subjected to
Bacteriological studies were carried out to show the effect of
magnetic field on the bacteria counts of Heterotrophic Plate Count
a magnetic field (50 hertz) and electromagnetic waves (2
(HPC) after 24 h from col ection and after 30 days from the
µT) for different time periods, it caused a great inhibition
beginning of the experiment. The studies also used dilution method
in the growth of bacteria after 6 h and became more
as described by Col ins and Lyne (1985). Series of dilutions were
sensitive to antibiotics, with the effects in the
prepared from 10 to 1 to 10 to 4. 1 ml sample was taken from each
morphological characters which are represented in the
dilution into sterilized plates with a suitable amount of prepared
decrease in the length of bacterial cel . However, the
nutrient agar (Oxoid Company, 3 g beef extract, 5 g peptone, 20 g
agar and 1 L distil ed water) at pH 7.2 and was sterilized at 15
results were the opposite after 16 h, accompanied by a
Ltd/inch2 for 15 min in autoclave. The plates were incubated at 37°C
Molouk and Amna 9
Effect of different magnetic intensities of static and shaking treatments on the physical properties of stagnant water of a
lake located at Eastern Jeddah through 30 days.
Days of measurements (magnetization)
Magnetic intensity ( T)
-Unclear - Non sedimentation - No odor; + Low clear + Low sedimentation + Little odor; ++ Clear ++ Medium sedimentation ++ Medium
odor; +++ High clear ++ High sedimentation +++ High odor.
for 24 h. The heterotrophic bacterial numbers were recorded and
efficiency of bio-system. Some researchers have claimed
presented by colony forming units (CFU/ml). This count was used
that, homogeneous nucleation was increased and gave
as a substitution for total bacterial count (Reasoner, 1990).
resultant crystals greater in number with smal er sizes
Some bacterial isolates which were grown on the prepared
nutrient agar were chosen and re-grown on blood agar (3 g beef
(Wang et al., 1997 and Ferreux et al., 1993).
extract, 10 g treptose, 5 g NaCl, 15 g agar and 1 liter distil ed water
The results of pH value showed significant increase
and sterilized at 15 LTD /inch2 for 15 min in an autoclave) to study
with increasing magnetic intensity in static and shaking
some of the properties and distinguish between experimental types
treatments (Table 2). However, it was observed that pH
(Gratten et al., 1994). Horse blood (5%) was added to the nutrient
value was lower in shaking samples than static ones, as
agar after reaching temperature of 45°C and was distributed in the
plates and then incubated after making lines with bacteria at 37°C
it recorded 6.3 and 7.3, respectively at magnetic density
for 24 h. The results were used to distinguish the different types of
390 µT after 30 days. However, Maheshwari and Grewal
tested bacteria. The hydrolyzed bacteria to blood was from the type
(2009) stated that the use of magnetical y treated
B-haemolysis, while the non hydrolyzed one was from the type Y-
irrigation water reduced soil pH. Busch and Busch (1997)
haemolysis, whereas, the type ∝-Haemolysis caused partial
reported a change in the pH difference between the
hydrolysis and gave a green color (Broughton et al., 1981). In
surface and the bulk of magnetical y treated water.
addition, gram pigment test was used to distinguish between the
different types of bacteria. Statistical analysis (T-test) was done on
In addition to the breakage of hydrogen bonds
the obtained results by using SPSS program.
electromagnetic fields may perturb the gas/liquid
interface and produce reactive oxygen species (Colic and
Morse, 1999). Changes in hydrogen bonding may affect
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
carbondioxide hydration. The different magnetic densities
have an effect on EC of experimented water, at static and
Water pol ution is due to the change in physical, chemical
shaking treatments. The results in Table 3 show a
and biological properties which is either directly or
significant decrease in EC values with an increase of
indirectly caused by human activity and their derivatives.
both magnetic intensity and time. The decrease was
A blackish precipitate was found in static samples while a
more remarkable for dynamic treated samples than static
brown one was found in samples treated by shaking. It is
one which recorded 300 and 500 µm at the magnetic
thought that modifications to the properties of solutions
intensity 390 µT, respectively as compared with EC of the
through the magnetic field changes in the molecular
control sample (720 and 1003 µm, respectively) after 30
structure of liquids, polarization, resulted from arrange-
days. The decrease in EC may be explained as thus, that
ment of particles and final y from changes of the electric
water treated by magnetic power contains fine col oidal
potential (Lebkowska et al., 1991; Szczypiorkowski, 1995
molecules (in the state of constant motion resembling
and Krzemieniewski et al., 2002). The present study has
Brownian motion) and electrolytic substances which
proven that a strong magnetic field, has effects on the
respond to magnetic treatment by their increasing ability
properties of liquids such as clarity, sedimentation and
to sediment that results in a decreased EC. Those results
are in accordance with Kronenberg (1985) and Wie et al.
Recently, Xu and Sun (2008) have shown that the
(2000) who pointed out the role of the magnetic field in
magnetized magnetic powder could improve the sludge
the increase of water nucleation. Nucleation is a process
sedimentation capability, turbidity of out flow and
in which ions come together and form nuclei. Malkin (2002)
10 J. Evol. Biol. Res.
. Effect of different magnetic intensities and static and shaking treatments on pH value of stagnant water of a lake
located at Eastern Jeddah.
Days of measurements(magnetization)
intensity ( T)
Analysis of variance
HS = highly significant (P < 0.005) NS = non-significant (P > 0.05).
Effect of different magnetic intensities and static and shaking treatments on EC value of stagnant water of a lake
located at Eastern Jeddah through 30 days (average ± standard deviation).
Days of measurements (magnetization)
Analysis of variance
Between magnetic intensities
HS = highly significant (P < 0.005) NS= non-significant (P > 0.05).
reported that the ions in the water are affected by
in the build up of scale, due to the loose nature of the
exposure to magnetic fields. A further benefit of the
ions which may cause the reduction in EC for samples.
alteration in the ion states of both calcium carbonate and
The present study showed an inverse proportional
magnesium carbonate is that, the change in structure of
relationship between nutrient elements and intensities of
these compounds (which are the cause of the scale build
magnetic fields (Table 4). The element variations in
up in water pipes, kettles etc) resulting in much decrease
response to magnetic intensity appeared to be variable.
Molouk and Amna 11
Chemical analysis of elements in static and shaking samples of stagnant water of a lake located at Eastern
Jeddah after 30 days.
Magnetic intensity (µT)
>0.18 0.49 6.80 9.20 12.60 15.70 38.90 153.3 254
>0.10 0.12 4.80 8.20 11.50 15.70 34.55 148.0 227
>0.10 0.10 1.77 8.10 9.20 15.20 28.62 147.7 222
>0.10 0.10 1.21 7.80 8.76 15.10 28.42 144.8 208
>0.10 0.20 6.40 8.10 10.61 15.50 31.86 147.9 233
>0.10 >0.10 2.84 8.10 8.52 15.40 30.33 146.7 213
>0.10 >0.10 1.82 7.90 5.53 15.30 27.50 145.3 210
>0.10 >0.10 1.15 7.80 4.88 15.00 20.10 144.5 205
The decreases in both Fe and K were negligible while
of organic matter (Szczypiorkowski and Nowak, 1995;
they were 80 and >50% in Pb and 15 and 4% in Mg for
Goldsworthy et al., 1999). The relatively long detention
static and shaking samples, respectively, at the magnetic
time in the technological system, which in the second
intensity 390 µT. Clear inverse correlations between
phase amounted to 48 h, may have positively stimulated
metal ic pol utants concentrations and concentration-
and determined the growth of some microorganism
dependant magnetic characteristics are observed by
groups. It seems that the proliferating bacterial biomass
Georgeaud (1998) and Matasova et al. (2005).
may have taken up the organic substratum present in the
Krzemieniewski et al. (2004) revealed that the
magnetical y-treated wastewater, which has been
magnetization of tap water al ows it to achieve its ful
confirmed by laboratory studies of biological degradation
oxygenation capacity. Likewise, in the municipal
of organic compounds introduced in the magnetic-activity
wastewater, the introduction of magnetic field to the
area. It was revealed that within the induction range of
technological system al owed for carbondioxide, ozone,
0.005 to 0.14 T, the constant magnetic field intensifies
hydrogen sulphide and chlorine reduction.
biological degradation processes by activated sludge of
The results showed that the decreases in P, Ca, Cu,
most of the tested organic compounds and pol utants
Na and Cl were 82, 27, 30, 6 and 18%, respectively in
contained in wastewater. It was also confirmed that, the
static state, while they were 82, 37, 54, 2 and 12%,
magnetic field's effect on organic compound degradation
respectively in shaking state, at the magnetic intensity
continues for about 12 h after termination of exposure
390 µT, as compared to the control environment (Table
4). Sodium recorded the least decrease with the increase
The results in Table 5 showed that, the highest
of magnetic intensity for both treatments. These results
numbers of heterotrophic bacteria were recorded with the
are considered beneficial as the overconcentration of Na
least magnetic intensity (130 µT) where it was 330×10-3
leads to water toxicity for living organisms (Nair et al.,
and 287x10-3 CFU/ml, for both static and shaking
1989). The decrease can be explained thus, that
treatment, respectively. The bacterial numbers were
magnetic force breaks hydrogen bonds between water
decreased proportional y by the increase in the magnetic
molecules, so the ions become separated and combine
force intensity. It was recorded that 240 × 10-3 and
with elements and precipitate. In addition, Chang and
133×10-3 CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation for both static
Weng (2008) showed that the enhanced mobility of the
and shaking cases, under the highest magnetic intensity
ions under a magnetic field, causes serious damage to
390 µT. The magnetic intensity had even more inhibition
the hydrogen bond network in the high Na concentration
effect on bacteria after 30 days of magnetic treatment,
solution. Conversely, in the low-concentration solution,
when bacteria counts were 169.67 x 10-3 and 47.33 x 10-3
the structural behavior is dominated by the properties of
CFU/ml, for both static and shaking cases, under the
the water molecules and hence the hydrogen bonding
highest magnetic fields. This is due to the effect of a
ability is enhanced, as the magnetic field is increased.
magnet on the metals in treated water, especial y organic
The phenomenon of effective penetration of the
substances, nitrogen and phosphorus which are essential
atmospheric oxygen into the solutions prepared with the
in the reactions of bacterial metabolism. Additional y,
magnetic field is advantageous from another point of
water forms 80% of bacterial cel s, so when its physical
view. Most microorganisms breaking down the organic
and chemical properties were changed by magnetic
compounds are aerobic by nature. Thus, in the
force, the growth of bacterial cel s was inhibited as their
magnetized liquids, with increased oxygen concentration,
composition changed. This is in accordance with Strasak
their growth is more intense and so, is the degradation
et al. (2002), the ability of bacteria to form decreased
12 J. Evol. Biol. Res.
Effect of different magnetic intensities on the bacterial numbers (CFU x10-3 /ml) of static and
shaking treatments of stagnant water of a lake located at Jeddah after 1 and 30 days (average ± standard
Magnetic intensity (µT)
Number of bacteria (CFU x10-3 /ml)
330.00 ± 10.00**
205.67 ± 1.15**
288.00 ± 12.00**
191.67 ± 6.66**
240.00 ± 16.62**
169.67 ± 6.65**
298.00 ± 10.00**
167.67 ± 2.52**
287.00 ± 28.16**
149.67 ± 6.51**
200.00 ± 7.00**
123.00 ± 12.53**
** Highly significant (P < 0.005).
Morphological and physiological characters of isolated bacteria from stagnant water of a lake located at Eastern Jeddah,
which were grown on agar medium and blood agar.
Morphological and physiological characters of isolated bacteria
Isolates Cell shape Movement Catalase activity Gram pigment Haemolysis Coagulase (simmoris)
colonies with increasing magnetic field intensity and with
mentioned that some types of heterotrophic bacteria were
increasing time of exposure. The decrease in
a source of enterogastritis.
oxidoreductive activity and ability to form colonies, were
Table 6 shows the variations in some morphological
compared with the assumption that, the effect of
and chemical properties of bacterial isolates. Most
magnetic field is probably bactericidal.
isolates were negative gram cocci which recorded 56.6 %
In addition, Mohamed et al. (1997) found that, the
from total isolates, 23.7% from positive gram cocci and
exposing of Salmonel a typhi
to magnetic force of 10 and
19.7% positive gram bacil us, this indicates the diversity
20 gauss for 2 h, caused changes in the numbers of cel s
of microbial pol ution present in the water samples. In
in the stationary phase. Piatti et al. (2002) found also
addition, some types of bacteria such as Y-haemolysis
that, when exposing Serratia marcescens
(non-decompose blood) and B-haemolysis (decompose
force of 80 ± 20 gauss lead to the inhibition of its growth.
blood which forming clear halos around themselves) were
El-Sayed et al. (2006) confirmed that, the growth of E.
found in isolations. The B-haemolysis is considered with
can be reduced by exposing it to a magnetic intensity
other properties as indicators of the kinds of human
of 2 µT for 6 h of 50 Hz. Additional y, the growth of
harmful bacteria (McFeters, 1990) and as a result, it lead
was affected by using
to many problems in the general health of humans.
levofloxacin and tetracycline antibiotics, after being
The results of this study concluded that, the biological
exposed to a magnetic field, from sensitive wireless
treatment of water using magnetic force has a vital role in
instruments for different time intervals (He et al., 2009)
treating stagnant water; the magnetic flux density
This indicates the possibilities of using a magnetic force
increases the values of physical, chemical and
to inhibit bacterial growth in water. However, the
bacteriological properties. This is one of the interesting
presence of bacterial pol utants in water, also leads to
findings in this field of research. This encourages more
appearance of some diseases like cholera, bacterial
research in this field. Using magnetism to overcome
dysentery, typhoid, diarrhea, hepatitis and other epidemic
negative effects of water pol ution is considered a
diseases (Abd-Al ah, 1991). Payment et al. (1991)
potential technology. It should be adapted to suit
Molouk and Amna 13
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LABOR AND DELIVERY Dosage/Range: IM, IV 500 mg to 3 g q 6 hrs, PO 250-500mg q 6 hrs Onset /Peak/ Duration: rapid/ 1-2 hr/ 4-6 hr / Indication: Anti- infective Binds to bacterial cel wal , resulting in cel death. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to penicil ins, Use cautiously in lactation: distributed into breast milk. Can cause
Instructions 3. Collect your urine into a clean container (not provided) and dip the absorbent pad cyclotest® Early Pregnancy Test into the urine for at least 10 seconds. You can also point the absorbent tip downward and place it in urine stream for at least 10 seconds until it is thoroughly wet. Ich bin mir sicher. cyclotest® Early Pregnancy Test is a self-performing immunoassay designed for the qua-