Literature review of potential health benefits of wild rice and wild rice products
Effects of reduced-fat
inclusion in feedlot
diets on cattle growth
D.M. Paulus Compart*, J.E. Johnston*, G.I. Crawford+, A. DiCostanzo*
*Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
+Form-A-Feed, Inc., Stewart, MN 55385
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Materials and methods -2
Results and discussion – 7
Literature cited – 10
Figures and tables – 12
An experiment was conducted to determine effects of partially replacing dry rolled corn with full- or
reduced-fat distillers grains with solubles in feedlot diets on cattle growth performance and carcass
characteristics. Nineteen Jersey (initial BW 455 ± 49 kg) and 29 Jersey-Limousin cross steers (initial BW 518 ±
40 kg) were utilized in a generalized randomized complete block design. Steers were individual y fed using
Calan gates with 4 dietary treatments (dry rolled corn control, C; reduced-fat distillers grains inclusion at 20%
of dietary DM with corn oil, FF; reduced-fat distillers grains inclusion at 20% of dietary DM, RFL; or reduced- fat
distillers grains inclusion at 47% of dietary DM, RFH). The latter was intended to provide similar dietary fat
content as the FF treatment. Cattle were harvested on d 93 at a commercial abattoir and objective carcass
measurements as wel as USDA Yield and Quality Grades were col ected. Strip loins (IMPS #180) and
shoulder clods (IMPS #114) were removed from the right side of each carcass 48 h postmortem. Strip loins
were evaluated for purge and drip loss and ultimate pH. Strip steaks were used to determine objective (L*, a*,
and b*) and subjective color for six consecutive days. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined
from two steaks from each loin. Fresh strip steaks were cooked for consumer sensory evaluation.
Ground shoulder clods were used in ground beef objective and subjective color evaluation. Thiobarbituic acid
reactive substance assay was evaluated on ground clods day 0 and day 7. The ground beef was then used
in further processed production of bologna. Bolonga was evaluated for objective and subjective color. A
consumer sensory panel evaluated bologna samples. No differences were observed in cattle consuming
full-fat versus reduced-fat distillers grains. Cattle consuming distillers grains (DG) had improved (P < 0.05) BW,
ADG, and BW gain relative to cattle not consuming DG. Cattle consuming DG also had improved (P <
0.02) HCW, USDA QG, and percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice and Select. Cattle consuming 20%
DG had improved (P < 0.05) USDA YG and percentage of cattle grading USDA Prime. Hot carcass weight (HCW)
was greater (P=0.02) in RF-L compared to CON (388.7 vs. 334.7±12.65 kg). Back fat depth was
unaffected (P=0.81) by dietary treatment but tended (P=0.06) to be less in Jersey steers (7.36 vs. 9.65±2.79
mm). Ribeye area (REA) was not impacted (P=0.81) by dietary treatment. However, Jersey steers had smaller
(P=0.01) REA (83.94 vs 102.26±7.94 cm2). USDA Yield Grade (YG) was not influenced (P=0.73) by dietary
treatment, but Jersey steers had lower (P=0.02) YG (2.69 vs. 2.90±0.06). Steers fed CON tended (P=0.09) to
have greater WBSF compared to steers fed RF-O (3.00 vs. 2.24±0.20 kg). Steak objective color (L*) was greater
(P=0.03) in steers fed RF-Low than steers fed CON (31.23 vs. 27.04±0.95). Consumers rated the liking of the
steak flavor higher for samples from the Crossbred cattle (P=0.03) but preferred the texture of Jersey
(P<0.001) strip steaks. On the other hand, consumers their overall liking of the bologna samples from
Crossbred steers as compared to Jerseys in overall liking, flavor liking, and texture liking (P<0.001, P<0.001,
and P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, Jersey X Limousin Crossbred steers had greater REA and HCW but no
differences in the carcass or meat quality attributes evaluated. Feeding reduced-fat distillers grains in
replacement of dry-rolled corn did not substantially affect the carcass or meat quality attributes evaluated.
Results from this experiment indicate that utilizing reduced-fat DG in place of full-fat DG does not impact
animal growth performance or carcass characteristics. Moreover, partially replacing dry rolled corn with
DG may lead to an improvement in ADG, HCW, and USDA QG, and a reduction in USDA Select-grading
Distillers grains (DG), a coproduct of the ethanol industry, has been utilized in feedlot diets extensively
for several years. Recently, ethanol producers have attempted to increase profits by removing oil from corn or
DG, thereby creating additional co-products of ethanol production.
Oil can be removed from corn prior to fermentation to ethanol by partial de-germination producing
low- fat distillers grains containing 3 to 5% fat (Faulkner et al., 2012). Oil can also be removed from
condensed distil ers solubles after fermentation of corn to ethanol. This is frequently done via centrifugation
(Díaz-Royón et al., 2012). When de-oiled condensed distillers solubles are added to DG, reduced-fat DG with
solubles (RFDG) is produced. Generally, RFDG will contain 7 to 9% fat, while traditional ful -fat DG product
will contain at least 10% fat.
Full-fat distillers grains with solubles have been extensively studied in feedlot diets to determine their
effect on rumen fermentation, digestion, growth performance, and carcass characteristics. However, RFDG has
not been studied as extensively. With lower fat concentration, there is concern that this may translate to
lower energy supply and may impact animal performance. Thus, it was the objective of this experiment to
determine the effects of replacing dry rolled corn in feedlot diets with either 20% full-fat or reduced-fat DG or
with 47% reduced-fat DG (at isocaloric concentrations with the 20% full-fat DG diet) on cattle growth
performance and carcass characteristics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All procedures involving animals were approved by the local institutional animal care and use
committee. Animals were housed at the Rosemount Research and Outreach Center in Rosemount, MN.
Nineteen purebred Jersey steers (initial BW 455 ± 49 kg) and 29 Jersey-Limousin cross steers (initial
BW 518 ± 40 kg) were arranged in a generalized randomized complete block design. Steers were blocked by
breed and allotted randomly to 1 of 4 pens.
Steers were individually fed in Calan gates (American Calan, Inc., Northwood, NH) for 93 d. Four
dietary treatments were evaluated in this experiment (Table 1 and 2). A dry rolled corn-based diet served as
the control treatment (C). The remaining treatments contained various concentrations of reduced-fat distillers
dried grains partially replacing dry rolled corn. A single, reduced-fat distillers grains source was used, and
where necessary, corn oil was added to the diet at mixing to achieve lipid content of full-fat distillers grains.
Distillers grains treatments consisted of reduced-fat distillers dried grains dietary inclusion at 20% with corn oil
(RF-O), reduced-fat distillers dried grains dietary inclusion at 20% (RF-L), or reduced-fat distillers dried grains
dietary inclusion at 47% (RF-H) of dietary DM. The latter was intended to provide similar dietary fat content as
the FF treatment. A vitamin and mineral premix containing monensin was added to all diets; a similar
premix containing urea was added to the C diet to meet cattle dietary protein requirements.
Steers were fed dietary treatments once daily at 0900 h. Steers were fed ad libitum and intakes were
recorded daily. Feed refusals were removed from feed bunks and weighed daily. Samples of all feed refusals
were col ected for DM determination. Dietary ingredients were sampled once weekly. All dietary and feed
refusal samples were stored at -20 C until laboratory analyses. Dietary ingredients and feed refusal
samples were dried in a drying oven (Blue M Electric, Charlotte, NC) at 60 C for 48 h. Ingredient samples
were then ground using a 1-mm screen (Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, NJ). Individual ingredient samples were
analyzed for CP, NDF, ADF, ether extract, Ca, P, K, Mg, and S contents by methods 990.03, 2002.04, 973.18,
920.39, and 953.01 (AOAC, 2012), respectively. Metabolizable energy content of the diet was also determined
using values obtained from Nutritional Requirements of Beef Cattle (NRC, 1996).
Cattle were implanted with Synovex-S (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) on d -28 and were harvested on d 93
at Tyson Inc. (Dakota City, NE). After harvest, carcasses were chilled for 48 h after which carcass
characteristics were analyzed. Cattle growth performance and carcass characteristics evaluated included BW,
BW gain, ADG, DMI, and gain: feed, HCW, dressing percentage, marbling score, LM area, 12th rib fat
thickness, KPH, and USDA YG and QG.
Fresh beef products were fabricated 96 h post-mortem, according to Institutional Meat Purchasing
Specifications (IMPS). Strip loins (IMPS #180) and shoulder clods (IMPS #114) were removed 52 h
postmortem from the right side of the carcass, and individually identified using carcass identification tags
crossbred-referenced to animal identification tags during harvest. Strip loins and shoulder clods were vacuum
packaged and maintained at 2° C during transport to the Andrew Boss Laboratory of Meat Science at the
University of Minnesota, (St. Paul, MN). All beef products were inspected for vacuum seal, re-packaged if
necessary, and shoulder clods were placed in a blast freezer (-20° C) until further evaluation. The strip loins
were processed upon return to the University of Minnesota 72H post-mortem.
Strip loins were faced perpendicular to the length of the loin, and steaks were serially cut, 2.54cm thick,
from the anterior end of each strip loin. The first steak was designated for drip loss analysis, the second
and third were designated for shelf-life analysis. The fourth through seventh steaks were designated for
sensory analysis and the eighth and ninth steaks were designated for Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF)
evaluation. A 10g back fat sample was collected from the posterior end of each strip loin before cutting
steaks, vacuum packaged, and stored frozen (-20º C) until processing for fatty acid profile analysis.
Shoulder clods, (approximately 9.5 kg each) were thawed (vacuum packaged) at 4° C for 3 d. Entire,
untrimmed shoulder clods were ground twice (Cabela's Electric Meat Grinder, Model: 32, Kearney, NE) with a
Two steaks were placed on polystyrene trays with polyvinylchloride (PVC) overwrap (oxygen
transmission rate 1400 cc/m2) and stored at 4º C under cool white fluorescent lighting (Sylvania H968, 100w, 2,
640 LUX) for seven days. Objective color values (CIE, L*, a*, and b*) were taken at six locations on each steak
(Hunter Lab Miniscan EZ model 4500S, Reston, VA).
For ground beef retail display, one 225g (±5g) patty per clod was placed on a polystyrene tray with
polyvinylchloride (PVC) overwrap (oxygen transmission rate 1400 cc/m2) and stored at 4º C under cool white
fluorescent lighting (Sylvania H968, 100w, 2, 640 LUX) for seven days. Objective color values (CIE, L*, a*, and
b*) were taken at six locations on each patty with a Hunter Lab Miniscan EZ (model 4500S, Reston, VA).
Subjective color scores (lean color, surface discoloration, and overall appearance) were evaluated by an
eight-person trained panel for seven days for both steaks and ground patties. Lean color was evaluated on a 1
to 8 scale with 1 = extremely brown and 8 = extremely bright, cherry red. Surface discoloration was evaluated
on 1 to 11 scale with 1 = 91-100% discoloration and 11 = 0% discoloration. Overall appearance was evaluated
on a 1 to 8 scale with 1 = extremely undesirable and 8 = extremely desirable (AMSA, 1991).
Drip loss was evaluated for each steak (approximately 158 g) by suspending steak samples for 24 h at 4°
C in a sealed Ziploc® bag wrapped loosely. Percent drip loss was calculated as the difference between the
initial (product and moisture minus the dried bag) and final weight (unpacked and patted dry) divided by the
initial weight multiplied by 100. Vacuum-packaged purge loss of the strip loin and shoulder clod was measured
after transport and before further fabrication. Purge loss was calculated as the difference between the initial
and final weight divided by the initial weight multiplied by 100.
Duplicate steaks were thawed for 24 h at 4° C, individually wrapped in aluminum foil, and cooked at
180ºC, using a George Foreman Indoor/Outdoor Gril (Model: GGR62. Lake Forest, IL) to an internal
temperature of 71° C as indicated by a probe placed at the geometric center of the steaks (Type T
thermocouple, Omega Engineering, Stanford, OH). Steaks were stored refrigerated (2º C), equilibrated to
room temperature (25º C), and six, 1.27-cm diameter cores were removed from each steak parallel to the
muscle fiber by a hand corer. Each core was sheared on a texture analyzer fitted with a Warner-Bratzler shear
force attachment (Shimatzu Texture Analyzer, Model: EZ-SX, Kyoto, Japan). Six cores were sheared per steak
to represent the entire surface of the longissimus dorsi muscle.
Procedures utilizing human subjects for consumer panel evaluation of sensory attributes were
approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board. The University of Minnesota Food
Science and Nutrition Sensory Center recruited eighty-nine untrained consumer panelists for sensory
evaluation of fresh strip steaks. All panelists were 18 years of age or older, had no food allergies, and
consumed steak at least twice per month. Panelists were paid $5 for their time. Sensory evaluation was
conducted by the University of Minnesota Food Science and Nutrition Sensory Center following the research
guidelines for sensory evaluation (AMSA, 1995).
Steaks were thawed for 36 h at 4° C, individually wrapped in aluminum foil, cooked at 180° C (General
Electric® Range, JASO2 ; Fairfield, CT), to an internal temperature of 71° C as indicated by a probe place at
the geometric center of the steak (Pyrex Professional Acu rite Thermometer; Racine, WI). Steaks were cut into
1-cm x 1-cm x 2.54 cm cubes and placed in the top portion of double boilers containing water in the bottom
portion heated to 82° C (replaced every h) to keep samples warm. Each panelist received two pieces of steak
per sample (approximately 38° C) in lidded 60 ml plastic soufflé cups coded with random 3-digit numbers. To
maintain sample serving temperature, the cups were nested in heated sand ( 60° C) contained in round,
aluminum pans. Samples were served to subjects balanced for order and carryover effects. Subjects were
asked to taste one piece of the sample and rate it for overall liking, liking of flavor, liking of texture, and off
flavor intensity. Subjects were then instructed to taste the second piece and rate the intensity of
toughness and juiciness. Liking ratings were made on 120-point labeled affective magnitude scales, with
the left most end labeled strongest dislike imaginable and the right most end labeled strongest like
imaginable. Intensity ratings were made on 20-point line scales with the left most ends labeled none
and the right most ends labeled extremely intense for off flavor, extremely tough for toughness, and
extremely juicy for juiciness.
Samples (10 g) of each ground beef batch were col ected on days 0 and 7 for analysis, vacuum
packaged, and stored frozen (-20ºC) immediately for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) analysis
(AOCS, 1998). Secondary lipid oxidation products were measured using the thiobarbituric acid assay (Tarladgis
et al. 1960). All samples were transported to Agricultural Utilization Research Institute (AURI, Marshall, MN)
for analysis. Samples were evaluated in duplicate and measured with a spectrophotometer (Spectronic
20+, Spectronic Instruments, Inc.) at 532 nm.
Meat blocks were created by combining clods from four animals per dietary treatment. 11.34 kg of
ground beef from the combined meat blocks were then combined with a commercial bologna seasoning blend
(Bologna SCTP, Newly Wed Food, Chicago, IL), 1.13 kg (2.5 lbs) of ice, sodium tripolyphosphate (30 g per
batch), and sodium nitrite cure 30 g per batch (Heller's Modern Cure #47688, Newly Wed Food, Chicago, IL).
Ground beef and ingredients were emulsified (Alipina, PB 80-890-II Gossau S G, Switzerland, Speed setting 2,
3-knife head with Alipina tangential form blades) for 10 min to 10º C and then stuffed (Handtmann VF-608,
Albert Handtmann Maschimen Fabrik GmbH & Co., Biberach, Germany) into inedible collagen casings (Bologna
10.8 cm Walsrober Casings, Mar/Co Sales, Burnsville, MN). Bologna was cooked to an internal temperature of
65.5º C, (Enviro-Pak, Model CVU 500E-IT, Portland, OR), cooled (12 hours) to 4º C and then sliced. Slices were
12-cm in diameter and 4-mm thick (Globe Slicer, Model 400, Globe Slicing Machine Co, Inc., Stamford, CT).
One slice of bologna from each batch was placed on a polystyrene tray, placed in a vacuum bag (3mil
standard barrier, Bunzl PD, North Kansas City, MO) sealed and stored at 4º C under cool white fluorescent
lighting (Sylvania H968, 100w, 2, 640 LUX) for ten days. Objective color values (CIE, L*, a*, and b*) were taken
at six locations on each slice with Hunter Lab Miniscan EZ (model 4500S, Reston, VA). Subjective color scores
(lean color, surface discoloration, and overall appearance) were evaluated by an eight person trained panel
for ten days, every other day. Lean color was evaluated on a 1 to 8 scale with 1 = extremely brown and 8
= extremely bright, cured pink. Surface discoloration was evaluated on 1 to 11 scale with 1 = 91-100%
discoloration and 11 = 0% discoloration. Overal appearance was evaluated on a 1 to 8 scale with 1 = extremely
undesirable and 8 = extremely desirable (AMSA, 1991).
The University of Minnesota Sensory Center conducted sensory evaluation for bologna. Panelists were
untrained consumers that were over 18 years old, had no food allergies, and had consumed beef at least
twice per month. Panelists were paid for their participation. The University of Minnesota's Institutional Review
Board approved all recruiting and experimental procedures. Bologna slices were cut into eight sections and
each untrained consumer panelist (n = 87) received two pieces for each replication with three replications per
treatment, stored refrigerated, and then served at room temperature. Samples were served to subjects
balanced for order and carryover effects. Subjects were asked to taste one piece of the sample and rate it
for overall liking, liking of flavor, and liking of texture. Liking ratings were made on 120-point labeled
affective magnitude scales, with the left most end labeled strongest dislike imaginable and the right most end
labeled strongest like imaginable. Panelists were then instructed to taste the second piece and rate the
toughness and off flavor; these ratings were made on 20-point line scales with the left most ends labeled none
and the right most ends labeled extremely tough, and extremely intense, respectively
Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure of SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Yield grade
and QG frequencies were analyzed using the Genmod procedure of SAS. Pen was considered a random effect.
The Reg and Robustreg procedures of SAS were used to detect and remove outliers based on DMI and gain. In
total, 2 steers were removed from the RFH treatment and 1 steer was removed from the FF treatment.
The Contrast statement was used to determine the effect of DG inclusion, inclusion of full-fat versus
reduced-fat DG, and concentration of dietary DG inclusion on data. Effects were considered significant when P
values were less than 0.05 and were considered trends when P values were between 0.05 and 0.10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Dietary treatment effects on cattle growth performance and carcass characteristics are presented
in Tables 3 and 4. Contrasts demonstrated no differences in any growth performance or carcass
characteristics when comparing full-fat DG inclusion versus reduced-fat DG inclusion in treatment diets.
Dry matter intake tended to be higher (P = 0.06) when DG were included in the diet. Dry matter intake
for cattle not consuming DG may have been reduced due to poor diet palatability. Furthermore, cattle not
consuming DG also consumed higher dietary starch. This may have led to a reduction in rumen pH due to rapid
fermentation of starch to VFA. Consequently, cattle not consuming DG may have had rumen upset due to a low
rumen pH, possibly experiencing sub-acute rumen acidosis. This also may have contributed to a reduction in
DMI. Contrasts revealed that dietary DG inclusion resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) BW, ADG, and BW gain
throughout the entire study Past research has revealed that partially replacing up to 45% grain in feedlot diets
with DG may lead to improvements in DMI, ADG, feed efficiency, and BW (Vander Pol et al., 2006;
Depenbusch et al., 2009; Anderson et al., 2011; Jaderborg et al., 2012; Luebbe et al., 2012). It is likely that
improved dietary energy values contribute to the improved growth performance observed in cattle consuming
DG versus other grains.
Contrasts also revealed that HCW, USDA QG, and percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice and
Select were improved (P ≤ 0.02) when DG was included in the diet. The difference in USDA QG between cattle
consuming DG and cattle not consuming DG can likely be attributed to differences in ME intake. Cattle
consumed 42.8, 57.4, 54.2, and 58.5 Mcal ME daily for the C, RF-O, RF-H, and RF-L treatments respectively.
Metabolizable energy intake was lower (P < 0.05) for cattle not consuming DG. This likely contributed to
reduced adipose deposition in cattle not consuming DG and consequently an increased number of USDA
Select-grading carcasses. It is likely that cattle not consuming DG were not fully finished at harvest, but would
produce carcasses with similar USDA QG had they been harvested at a later date.
Including DG at 20 versus 47% of dietary DM tended (P ≤ 0.09) to result in improved marbling score,
12th rib fat thickness, and USDA QG. Furthermore, 20% dietary DG inclusion led to (P ≤ 0.05) an increase in
percent of cattle grading USDA Prime and a reduction in cattle USDA YG. Improvements in adipose deposition
observed in cattle consuming 20 versus 47% DG may be attributed to greater dietary starch intake. This may
lead to improved rumen VFA production and consequently improved growth. Several studies have
demonstrated that partially replacing dry rolled corn with 15 to 30% full-fat DG led to an increase in rumen
VFA production, supporting this hypothesis (Ham et al., 1994; Leupp et al., 2009; Luebbe et al., 2012; Walter
et al., 2012). Moreover, Luebbe et al. (2012) revealed that partially replacing dry rolled corn with full-fat DG
led to an improvement in 12th rib fat thickness, suggesting that DG have a positive impact on adipose deposition
when utilized in low concentrations in dry rolled corn based diets.
Based on the results of this experiment, replacing 20% FFDG with 20% RFDG had no impact on cattle
growth performance or carcass characteristics. Moreover, increasing dietary inclusion of RFDG from 20 to 47%
may lead to a reduction in USDA Prime grading cattle, but may improve USDA YG. Thus, it can be concluded
that RFDG can replace FFDG in feedlot diets at the dietary inclusions investigated in this experiment.
Moreover, partially replacing dry rolled corn with DG may lead to an improvement in ADG, HCW, and USDA
QG, and a reduction in USDA Select-grading carcasses.
Difference in moisture loss across dietary treatment and breed were not statistically significant. There
was a trend in differences in drip loss between breeds; Jersey averaged 1.13% loss while Crossbred
measured 0.85% loss (P = 0.09). Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) was not affected by breed (P=0.09).
CON steaks required more force to shear the cores when compared to all other dietary treatments (P =
0.09). The WBSF values range from 2.24 kg for the RF-H group and 2.71 kg for the RF-O. Similar results were
seen in studies by Aldai et al. (2010) and Koger et al. (2010) when evaluating corn and wheat WDGS and DDGS
at 20-40% in the diet. Shackelford et al, (1991) reported consumer tenderness perception between 3.9 and
4.6 kg of force for slightly tender beef. With that understanding all the values in this study fal into slightly
tender or more tender. Rober et al (2005) and Gill et al (2008) found shear force below consumer
threshold when cattle were fed distillers grains.
Overall liking did not differ between the two breed treatments (P = 0.92). However, panelists
preferred the flavor of steaks from the Crossbred cattle (P = 0.001) and the texture of steaks from the Jersey
cattle (P =0.03). Jersey steaks were tougher (P = 0.001) yet juicier (P = 0.001). Steaks from animals fed the
RF-H diet were rated higher as compared to those of the animals fed the RF-L diet for texture liking (P=0.04)
and flavor liking (P=0.01). Panelists preferred the flavor liking of steaks from cattle fed the RF-H and CON diet
compared to RF-L. Panelists preferred the texture of the steaks from the steers fed the RF-H to the texture of
those from steers fed the RF-L diet. The steaks from the steers fed the CON and RF-O diet were tougher than
the steaks from the cattle fed the RF-H diet. Luepp et al. (2009) reported no differences in tenderness,
juiciness and flavor in steaks from steers fed 30% DDG in the finishing diet. Haack et al (2011) fed cattle wet
distillers grains with solubles at varying concentrations of fat. No differences were found in beef flavor
intensity and juiciness. Haack et al (2011) also found control and 4.72% fat WDG beef less tender, with lower
levels recorded for off- flavors than 6.91% fat wet distillers grain diet. In the current study there were no
differences in off-flavor (P =0.28) of steaks across breed and dietary treatments.
Overall liking was greater for bologna from Jersey cattle (P = 0.001). Panelists rated higher the flavor
(P = 0.001) and the texture (P = 0.03) of bologna from Crossbred as compared to Jersey cattle. Jersey bologna
was tougher (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the overall liking and flavor liking of bologna by dietary
Dietary treatment had no effect on TBARS for ground beef for day 0 or Day 7 (P = 0.96, 0.96). Ground
beef from Crossbred steers had higher TBARS levels on day 0 and day 7 (P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively).
Subjective color evaluation, by dietary and breed treatment, was different for lean color (P = 0.01) and a
trend was shown for surface discoloration (P = 0.09) for dietary treatment.
L* values for RF-L were higher than CON and RF-O on day two (P = 0.001, 0.03, respectively) and
three (P = 0.004, 0.01, respectively). Breed had no effect on L* values (P = 0.24). The a* values for strip
steaks were unaffected by diet (P = 0.63) but Jersey steaks were more red (a*) on days two (P = 0.003) and
three (P = 0.014). On days three (P = 0.05) and four (P = 0.01), steaks from Jersey cattle ( 11.6, 12.7) had
higher b* values than the steaks from crossbred cattle (10.3, 11.0).
For ground beef patties, starting on day three (P = 0.02) and day four (P = 0.007) lean color was affected
by breed. CON recorded the highest values from day 2 until the conclusion of the study, for all three subjective
parameters. There was no effect of dietary treatment on subjective surface discoloration (P = 0.21) and
overall appearance (P = 0.57), however a trend was found for lean color (P = 0.07). Breed affected
surface discoloration (P = 0.0002) and overall appearance (P=0.006). There was a breed effect on objective L*
This study suggests that RFDG can replace FFDG in feedlot diets without having a negative impact on
growth performance, carcass, or meat quality characteristics up to 20% dietary DM. Moreover, both RFDG and
FFDG can effectively replace dry rolled corn in feedlot diets. The increased energy content in feedlot diets
containing distillers grains versus dry rolled corn may lead to growth performance and carcass characteristic
improvements in cattle harvested at similar time points.
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NEWSLETTER - MAY 2014 welcome to the may 2014 edition of the boys clubhouse newsletter. in this monthly publication we hope to share with you information on our activities, courses and projects. A LETTER RECEIVED: Dear Boys' Clubhouse,I can't believe I am actually writing this letter. I never ever thought I would. My parents threw me out of homewhen I was 21. A the time I was bitter but looking back it was not their fault - I must have been impossible to livewith. I spent some nights sleeping rough but then I heard that The Clubhouse had an emergency accommodationshelter so I contacted Ari and moved in. Initially I was feeling at an all-time low and spent all day in bed but slowly Igained some confidence and now I have a good job in the catering industry - which I always wanted to do and Ihave a reason to get out of bed each day.
Inter national Organization for Succulent Plant Study para el Estudio de Plantas Suculentas de Recherche sur les Plantes Succulentes Inter nationale Organisation A short history of Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum The first issue of Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum (RPS) was produced in 1951 byMichael Roan (1909−2003), one of the founder members of the International Organizationfor Succulent Plant Study (IOS) in 1950. It listed the ‘majority of the new names [ofsucculent plants] published the previous year'. The first issue, edited by Roan himself withthe help of A.J.A Uitewaal (1899−1963), was published for IOS by the National Cactus &Succulent Society, and the next four (with Gordon Rowley as Associate and later JointEditor) by Roan's newly formed British Section of the IOS. For issues 5−12, GordonRowley became the sole editor. Issue 6 was published by IOS with assistance by theAcclimatisation Garden Pinya de Rosa, Costa Brava, Spain, owned by Fernando Riviere deCaralt, another founder member of IOS.