Microsoft word - 4.11 app com drugs and dyes.doc

AC 27/2/13
Item No. 4.11
Syllabus for Sem V & VI
Applied Component
Program: B.Sc.
Course: DRUGS & DYES
(Credit Based Semester and Grading System with effect from the academic year 2013–2014) T.Y.B.Sc.
Applied Component
DRUGS & DYES Syllabus
Credit Based Semester and Grading System
To be implemented from the Academic year 2013-2013
1. 1General Introduction to Drugs (6L)
1.1 .1 Definition of a drug, Requirements of an ideal
drug, Classification of drugs (based on
therapeutic action)
1.1.2 Nomenclature of drugs: Generic name, Brand
name, Systematic name
1.1.3 Definition of the following medicinal terms:
Pharmacon, Pharmacophore, Prodrug, Half-life
efficiency, LD50, ED50, Therapeutic Index.
1.1.3 Brief idea of the following terms: Receptors, Drug-receptor interaction, Drug Potency, Bioavailability, Drug toxicity, Drug addiction, Spurious Drugs, Misbranded Drugs, Adulterated Drugs, Pharmacopoeia. 1.2. Routes of Drug Administration and Dosage
Froms (2L)
1.2.1 Oral and Parenteral routes with advantages and
1.2.2 Formulations, Different dosage forms(emphasis
on sustained release formulations.)
1.3. Pharmacodynamic agents
A brief introduction of the following
pharmacodynamic agents and the study with
to their chemical structure, chemical class,
therapeutic uses, and side effects.
1.3.1 CNS Drugs: (5L)
Classification based on pharmacological actions
Concept of sedation and hypnosis, anaesthesia.
Phenobarbitone (Barbiturates), Phenytoin
(Hydantoins), Trimethadione (Oxazolidinediones),
Piracetam (Pyranones), Midazolam, Alprazolam
Methylphenidate (Piperidines)
Chlorpromazine (Phenothiazines)
Fluoxetine (Phenyl propyl amines)
Synthesis of Trimethadione, Methylphenidate,
1.3.2 Analgesics and Antipoyretics (2L)
Morphine (Phenanthrene alkaloids), Tramadol
(Cyclohexanols), Aspirin (Salicylates), Paracetamol
(p-Aminophenols), Synthesis of Tramadol,
2.1 Anti-inflammatory Drugs (2L)
Mechanism of inflammation and various
inflammatory conditions.
Prednisolone, Betamethasone (Steroids), Aceclofenac
( N- Aryl anthranilic acids), Mefanic Acid (N-Aryl
anthranilic acids).
Synthesis of Aceclofenac
2.2 Antihistaminic Drugs (2L)
Mechanism of histamine release & its action
Diphenhydramine (ethanolamines), Cetrizene
(piperazine), Chloropheniramine maleate (ethyl
amines),Omeprazol, pantoprazol(Benzimidazoles)
Synthesis of cetrizine
2.3 Cardiovascular drugs (3L)
Classification based on pharmacological action
Enalapril ( -amino acids), Isosorbide dinitrate
(Nitrates), Atenoldol (Aryloxy propanol amines),
Nifedipine (Pyridines), Chlorthiazide
(Thiazides), Frusemide /Furosemide
(Sulfamyl benzoic acid), Spironolactone (Steroidal-
17- -lactones), Synthesis of Furosemide,
Atenolol from 3-Hydroxy phenyl acetamide
2.3 Antidiabetic Agents
General idea and types of diabetes; Insulin therapy
Glibenclamide (sulphonyl ureas), Metformin
2.5 Antiparkinsonism Drugs(2L)
Idea of Parkinson's disease.
Procyclidine hydrochloride (Pyrrolidines),
Ethopropazine hydrochloride (Phenothiazines)
Laevodopa ( -amino acids)
Synthesis of Levodopa from Vanillin.
2.6 Drugs for Respiratory System (2L)
General idea of Expectorants; Mucolytes;
Decongestants and Antitussives, Bromhexine
(Phenyl methyl amines), Salbutamol, Pseudo-
ephedrine (Phenyl ethyl amines)
Oxymetazoline (Imidazolines)
Codeine Phosphate (Opiates)
Synthesis of Salbutamol
2.7 Mode of Action of the Following Drugs (2L)
Barbiturates (As sedatives and hypnotics), Atenolol
(As β-1 blocker), Diphenhydramine (As
Anthistaminic agent), Glibenclamide (As oral
hypoglycemic agent)
3.1 Introduction to Dyestuff Chemistry
3.1.1 Important landmark in the history of dyes Natural colouring matter and their
limitations:e.g,; Heena, Turmeric, kesar,
Chlorolphyll, Indigo, Alizarine from roots of madder
plants, Logwood. Tyrian
Purple. Synthetic Dyes: Important molestones, i.e.
Mauve, Diazotization, aniline Yellow, Congo Red,
Synthesis and structure of Indigo, disperse Dye,
fluorescent Brighteners, procion reactive Dyes,
Remazole Dyes. (Emphasis on Name of the Scientist
and dyes and the year of
the discovery is required and structure is not
3.1.2 Defination of dyes, Properties i.e. colour,
Chromophore and Auxochrome, Solubility, Linearity,
Coplanarity, fastness properties, substantivity,
Economic viability
3.1.3 Explanation of nomenclature of commercial
dyes with atleast one example .suffixes-G, O, R, B,
6B, GK, 3GK, 6GK, L, S Explanation: naming of
dyes by colour index(two examples)
3.2. Classification of dyes based on constitution
(Examples are mention below with structures)
(i) Nitro Dyes-Napyhol yellow S
(ii) Nitroso Dye-Gambine Y
(iii) Azo Dyes- (a) Monoazo Dyes- Metanil yellow
(b) DiazoDyes- Napthol Blue Black (c) Triazodyes -
Chloroamine Green B
(iv) Diphenymethane Dyes-Auramine G
(v) Triphenyl methane Dyes-
(a) Malachite Green Series- Naphthalene green V
(b) Magenta Series- Acid Magenta (c) Rosolic acid
Series-Chrome Violet
(vi) Heterocyclic Dyes
(a) Xanthene-Rhodamine 6G
(b) Acridines-Acriflavine
(c) Azines- SafranineB
(d) Oxazines-Capri blue
(e) Thiazines-Methylene Green
(f) Quiolines- Quinoline Yellow
(g) Thiazoles-Primuline
(vii) Benzoquinones and naphthaquinones-
(viii) Anthraquinone Dyes- Indanthrene, Turquoise
Blue 3GK
(ix) Indigoids-Indigo Caramine
(x) Pthacyanines-Sirius Light green FFGL
3.3 Classification Based on Application (6L)
Definition, fastness properties & applicability on
substrates examples with structures
(a) Acid Dyes- Orange II,
(b) Basic Dyes-methyl violet, Victoria Blue B (c)
Direct cotton Dyes- Benzofast Yellow 5GL (d)
Azoic Dyes-Diazo components; Fast yellow G,Fast
orange R. Coupling components. Naphtol AS,
Naphthol ASG (e) Mordant Dyes-Erichrome Black
A, Alizarin. (f) Vat Dyes- Indanthrene brown RRD,
Indanthrene Red 5GK. (g) Sulphur Dyes- Sulphur
Black T (no structure) (h) Disperse Dyes-Celliton
Fast brown 3R, perlon fast blue FFR (i) Reactive
Dyes- cibacron Brillant Red B, procion briilant Blue
4. 1 Colour and chemical constitution of dyes

4.1 .1 Absorption of visible light, colour of
wavelength absorbed, complementary colour.
4.1.2 relation between colour and chemical
(i) Armstrong theory (quinonoid theory) and its
limitations (ii) Valence Bond theory; Comparative study and relation of colour in the following classes of compounds/dyes: Benzene, Nitrobenze, Nitroanilines, Nitrophenols, Benzoquinones, Azo, Triphenyl methane, Anthraquinones. (iii) Molecular Orbital Theory. 4.2. Non-textile Uses of Dyes (6L)
Structural features of the substrate, fastness and other
property requirements and main classes of dyes used
to be mentioned as applicable. (Two examples with
structures for each of the following.) . 1. Leather 2.
Paper 3. Foodstuff 3. Cosmetics
5. Medicinal 6. Biological Stains 7. Indicator &
Analytical Reagents 3. Coloured Smokes &
Camouflage colours 3. Laser Dyes
4.3 Optical BrightenerS (2L)
General idea and important characteristics of optical
brighteners, one example each with structure of the
following classes: Stilbene, Coumarin, Heterocyclic
vinylene derivatives, Diaryl pyrazolines,
Naphthalimide derivatives.
4.4 Organic Pigments
General idea, distinguish between dyes and pigments, important characteristics of organic pigments, Toners, Lakes, Classification of organic pigments with suitable examples, i.e. Ionic pigments-Lake of acid and basic dyes. Nonionic pigments-Azo, Indigoid, Anthraquinone, Quinacridone, Phthalocyanine (Copper phthalocyanine).
I) Dye Preparation:
1) Preparation of Orange-II
II)Dyes Estimation:
1. Estimation of Primary amino group by
III) Drug Estimation :
1. Estimation of Ibuprofen
2. Estimation of Acid neutralizing capacity of a drug
IV)Preparation of monogram of any one drug
from syllabus by I.P. method V) Drug Preparations:
1) Preparation of p-Nitroacetanilide from
2) Preparation of p-Nitroaniline from p-Nitroacetanilide 3) Preparation of Methyl Salicylate from Salicylic Acid   SEMESTER VI 
1.1 Drug Discovery, Design and

1.1.1 Discovery of a Lead compound: Screening, drug metabolism studies and clinical observation. 1.1.2 Drug development from Natural Sources: Anti infective agents Anti cancer agents CNS agent 1.1.3 Development of drug: The Pharmacophore identification, modification of structure or functional group, Structure activity relationship (Benzodiazepines, Sulphonamides).
1.1.3 Structure modification to
increase potency: Homologation,
Chain branching, Ring-chain
transformation, Extension of the
1.1.5 Computer assisted drug
1.2 Drug Metabolism (3L)
Introduction, Absorption,
Distribution, Bio-transformation,
Different types of chemical
transformation of drugs with
specific examples.
1.3 Chemotherapeutic Agents
Study of the following
chemotherapeutic agents with
respect to their chemical
structure, chemical class,
therapeutic uses, and side effects.
1.3.1 Antibiotics (2L)
Definition, Characteristics and
properties of :
Amoxicillin; Cloxicillin ( -
lactum antibiotics)
Cephalexin (Cephalosporins)
Doxycycline (Tetracyclines)
Gentamycin (Aminoglycosides)
Ciprofloxacin (Quinolones)
Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin
1.3.2 Antimalarials (2L)
Types of malaria: Symptoms;
pathological detection during
window period (Life cycle of the
parasites not o be discussed)
Chloroquine (3-Amino quinolines)
Paludrine (Biguanides)
Pyrimethamine (Diamino
Artemether (Benzodioxepins)
Following combination to be
(i) Sulfadosine-Pyrimethamine
(ii) Atremether-Lumefantrine (no
Synthesis of Paludrine.
1.3.3 Anthelmintics (2L)
Drugs effective in the treatment of
Nematodes and Cestodes
Diethyl carbamazine (Piperazines)
Mebandazole; Albendazole
Niclosamide (Amides)
Synthesis of Albendazole 
2.1 Antiamoebic Drugs (1L)
Types of Amoebiasis
Metronidazole; Diloxamide furoate (Furans) Following combination therapy to
be discussed:
Synthesis of Metronidazole
2.2 Antitubercular and
Antileprotic Drugs
Types of Tuberculosis; Symptoms
and diagnosis of Tubeculosis.
Types of Leprosy.
General idea of Antibiotics used in
their treatment.
PAS (Aminosalicylates)
Isoniazide (Hydrazides)
Pyrazinamide (Pyrazines)
(+) Ethambutol (Aliphatic
Ethionamide (Thioamides)
Dapsone (Sulfonamides)
Clofazimine (Phenazines)
Following combination therapy to
be discussed:
(i) Rifampin + Ethambutol +
(ii) Rifampin + Isoniazide +
(iii) Rifampin + Clofazimine +
Synthesis: (+) Ethambutol,
2.3 Anti-Neoplastic Drugs (2L)
Idea of malignancy; Causes of
cancer, brief idea of Immuno
Stimulants, Immuno depressants.
(1) Lomoustine (Nitrosoureas)
(2) Fluorouracil (Pyrimidines)
(3) Estrogen (Steroidal hormones)
(3) Mitomycin C (Antibiotics)
(5) Vincristine; vinblastine;
vindesine (Vica alkaloids-no
Synthesis of 5-Fluorouracil from
2.3 Anti HIV Drugs (1L)
Idea of HIV pathogenecity,
Symptoms of AIDS,
AZT, Lamivudine, Stavudine
(Pyrimidines), DDI (Purines)
2.5 Drug Intermediates:
Synthesis and uses
(i) 2-Amino-5-
chlorobenzophenone from p-
(ii) 2,3,6-Triamino-6-
hydroxypyrimidine from
(iii) 3-Chloro-5-sulphonyl amino
anthranilic acid from 3-Chloro-2-
(iv) p-[2'-(5-Chloro-2-methoxy
benzamido) ethyl]-
benzenesulphonamide from
(v) 3-(p-Chlorophenyl)-3-
hydroxypiperidine from 3-
(vi) p-Acetyl amino
benzenesulphonyl chloride from
(vii) Epichlorohydrine from
2.6 Nano particles in Medicinal

Introduction, Carbon nano particles (structures), Carbon nano tubes: Functionalisation for Pharmaceutical applications Targeted drug delivery In vaccine (Foot and mouth disease) Use in Bio-physical treatment. Gold nano particles in treatment of cancer, Parkinsonism, Alzheimer. Silver nano particles: Antimicrobial activity.  3.1 Intermediates (11L)
3.1 A brief idea of Unit processes
3.1.1 Introduction of primary
intermediates, unit processes 3.1.2 (a) Nitration (b) Sulphonation (c) Halogenation
(d) Diazotization : 3 different
methods, importance
(e) Ammonolysis
(f) Oxidation
N.B.: Definition, Reagents
Examples with reaction conditions
(mechanism is not expected)
3.2 Preparation of the following
3.2.1 Benzene derivatives:
Benzenesulphonic acid; 1,3-
Benzenedisulphonic acid; phenol;
resorcinol; sulphanilic acid; o-,m-
,p-chloronitrobenzenes; o-,m-,p-
nitroanilines; o-,m-p- phenylene
diamines; Naphthol ASG.
3.2.2 Naphthalene derivatives: α,β-
Naphthols; α,β-Naphthylamines;
Schaeffer acid, Tobias acid;
Naphthionic acid; N.W. acid;
Clev-6-acid; H acid; Naphthol As.
3.2.3 Anthracene derivatives:
anthraquinone-1-sulphonic acid;
Anthraquinnone-2-sulphonic acid;
3.3 Dyeing Method of Cotton
Fibres (3L)
3.3.1 (i) Direct dyeing (ii) Vat
dyeing (iii) Mordant dyeing
(iv) Disperse dyeing
3.3.2 Forces binding of dyes to the
fibres: Ionic forces, Hydrogen
bonds, Van-der-Wall's forces,
Covalent linkages. 
4.1 Synthesis of Specific Dyes
and their Uses

(i) Orange IV from sulphanilic acid (ii) Eriochrome Black T from β- naphthol
(iii) Eriochrome Red B by using
ethyl aceto acetate and 1-amino-2-
naphthol-4-sulphonic Acid.
(iv) Direct Deep Black EW by
using benzidine, H acid, aniline,
and m-phenylen diamine.
(v) Congo Red from nitrobenzene
vi) Diamond Black F by using 5-
amino salicylic acid, N.W. acid
and α-naphthylamine.
(vii) Malachite Green by using
benzaldehyde and N,N-
(viii) Auramine O from
(ix) Methylene Blue by using 4-
amino-N,N-dimethylaniline and
(x) Safranine T by using o-
toluidine and aniline
(xi) Pararosaniline by using p-
toluidine and aniline
(xii) Alizarine Cyanine Green G
by using phthalic anhydride and p-
(xiii) Indanthrene from
(xiv) Disperse Yellow 6G from
(xv) Indigo from aniline
(xvi) Eosine by using phthalic
anhydride and resorcinol
(xvii) Bismark Brown from m-
4.2 Types of Fibres and Classes
of Dyes Applicable to them
Introduction to the following types
of fibres with structures and
classes of dyes applicable to it.
Cotton, Wool, Silk, Polyester.
4.3 Ecology and Toxicity of Dyes
With reference to the textile dyes,
food colours, benzidine etc. 
I) Drug Preparation:
1) Preparation of Aspirin from Salicylic Acid
USACDD6P1 II) Drug Estimation:
1. Estimation of Tincture of Iodine 2. Estimation of Free Acid in Vegetable oil III) Dyeing of fabric ( cotton )by Direct Dyeing
or by Vat Dyeing
IV)Dyes Preparations:
1) Preparation of m-dinitrobenzene 2) ) Preparation of m-nitroaniline V) Dye Estimation:
1.Estimation of Methyl Orange/ Eriochrome
Black T/Eosin/Congo Red by colorimetry Modality of Assessment :
Internal Assessment - 40%
40 marks.
Active  participation  in  routine  class  instructional  deliveries(case  Semester End Theory Assessment - 60% 60 marks
Duration - These examinations shall be of two hours duration. Theory question paper pattern :- There shall be five questions each of 12 marks. On each unit there will be one question
& fifth one will be based on all the four units .
All questions shall be compulsory with internal choice within the questions. Each
question will be of 24 marks with options.
Questions may be sub divided into sub questions a, b, c & d only, each carrying six
marks OR a, b, c, d,e & f only each carrying four marks and the allocation of marks
depends on the weightage of the topic.
(A)Internal Examination:-
There will not be any internal examination/ evaluation for practicals.

(B) External (Semester end practical examination) :-
Sr.No. Particulars

1. Laboratory
2. Journal

Assessment pattern for semester end / External practical examination
of 80 marks shall be finalized in the workshop of the subject
Semester end practical examination in applied component shall be
conducted by the concerned department of the Institute/ College at the end of
each semester and the marks of the candidates are to be sent to the University in
the prescribed format.
Semester V:

Practical examination will be held at the college / institution at the end of the
The students are required to present a duly certified journal for appearing at the
practical examination, failing which they will not be allowed to appear for the
In case of loss of Journal and/ or Report, a Lost Certificate should be obtained
from Head of the Department/ Co-ordinator of the department ; failing which
the student will not be allowed to appear for the practical examination.
Semester VI
Practical examination will be held at the college / institution at the end of the
semester. The students are required to present a duly certified journal for appearing at
the practical examination, failing which they will not be allowed to appear for the

In case of loss of Journal and/ or Report, a Lost Certificate should be obtained
from Head of the Department/ Co-ordinator of the department ; failing which
the student will not be allowed to appear for the practical examination.


The outsourcing of R&D through acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry† Matthew J. Higgins Department of Finance J. Mack Robinson College of Business Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30302-3991 [email protected] Daniel Rodriguez Department of Organization & Management Goizueta Business School, Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322-2710

CASE REPORT online © ML Comm J Neurocrit Care 2012;5:30-32 Olanzapine-Induced Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy: Hyo Jeong Kim, MD, Dong Wook Kim, MD, Dong Joo Yun, MD, Gun-Sei Oh, MD and Sang Hyun Jang, MD Department of Neurology, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea Antipsychotic medications are associated with increased risks of metabolic abnormalities. We present a 44-year-old woman with under-lying bipolar disorder who had been treated with atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine. After taking 50 mg olanzapine to commit suicide, she developed altered mentality. The serum glucose level was 15 mg/dL and she was treated with glucose infusion immediately. Brain MRI findings were compatible with hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Olanzapine may induce serious hypoglycemia, even in the absence of any risk factors of hypoglycemia.