ICAR Sponsored
Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Agricultural Microbiology
Annual Report (2014-15)
Department of Agricultural Microbiology Directorate of Natural Resource Management Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore - 641 003 ANNUAL REPORT
Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Agricultural Microbiology

General information
: Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Agricultural Microbiology
: Council 's letter number 1-2-/93 (CAS) dated 11-11- 1994 of Assistant Director General (UNDP), Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi Date of Inception Reporting period Name of the institute : Department of Agrl. Microbiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore 641 003 Name of the Post
Scale of Pay
Steno cum typist Rs. 5,200 – 20,200 +
7. Technical programme
 To strengthen the UG and PG programme in Agricultural Microbiology  To strengthen the research activities in one of the important areas of Agricultural Microbiology.  To offer training to scientists and faculty members of state agricultural universities and central  To upgrade the research and teaching facilities in Agricultural Microbiology. 8. Budget allocation and expenditure statement for 2014-15 (Rupees)
Cost of personnel Training programme Recurring contingencies 8,54,990
(-) 1,32,909
9. Training programmes to be conducted during 2015-16

2nd to 22nd September, 2015 Microbial mediated soil-nutrient transformation Course coordinators Dr R.Sridhar, Professor (Microbiology) Dr. T.Kalaichelvi , Professor (Microbiology) Dr. D.Balachander, Professor (Microbiology) Number of participants
10. List of Topics for Future programmes

 Advances in soil biotechnology  Antimicrobials from microbial sources and their applications  Recent advances in food fermentation  Fermented foods and beverages  Microbiological techniques for food processing  Plant microbe interactions  Microbial transformations in soil ANNEXURE I
Training Details
ICAR-CAF training on
ICAR sponsored Centre for Advanced Faculty Training on
"Biocatalysts for fuels and chemicals from biomass"
(7th to 27th August, 2014)
Principles of Biorefining - Biorefinery approaches for fuels and chemicals from crop biomass and
residues - Potential bioresources as future sources of biofuels - Overview of second generation
bioethanol and renewable chemicals from lignocellulosics - Lifecycle assessment of biofuels -
Lignocellulosic bioethanol: Current status and future perspectives – Techno-economic analysis of
lignocellulosic ethanol - Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulose to bioethanol conversion –
Evaluation of physical, chemical and enzymatic pre-treatment technologies – Biocatalysts for biomass
destructions - Production of cellulolytic enzymes for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass -
Production of hemicellulolytic enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Hydrolysis of
lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production - Production of bioethanol from agro-industrial
residues as feedstocks - Fermentation Inhibitors in ethanol processes and different strategies to reduce
their effects – Biomass derived lignin products; Production of biodiesel from algal biomass: Current
perspectives and future - Overview and assessment of algal biofuels - Production technologies -
Cultivation of algae in open systems and photobioreactors for biodiesel production; Production of
Biohydrogen: Current perspectives and future Prospects - Butanol fuel from biomass: revisiting ABE
fermentation - Production of green liquid hydrocarbon fuels – Biomethanation - Biogas production from
anaerobic treatment of agro-industrial wastewater - Biomass gasification: ways of generating biomass
carbon and bio-oil for biofuels production; Thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels – Biomass
-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels - The future of biofuels and biofuels of the future.
List of resource personnel

Faculty members
Name and Designation of Faculty Major areas of research Dr. S. Gunasekaran, Fermentation microbiology; Food fortification; Value addition Professor and Head of Agricultural products Biologial nitrogen fixation; Biofertilizer technology; Diazotrophic diversity; Soil metagenomics; Food fermentation Dr. R. Murugesan, Professor Industrial microbiology; Value added products; Antimicrobial compounds; Anaerobes; Biofertilizers Dr. P. Marimuthu, Professor Antimicrobial compounds Dr. K. Ilamurugu, Professor Soil microbiology; Biological nitrogen fixation; Anaerobes Nanobiosensors Dr. G. Prasad, Professor Bioconversion and Environmental microbiology Dr. K. Vijila, Professor Food and Fermentation Microbiology; Microbial nutraceuticals and functional foods; Dr. V. Gomathy, Professor Solid waste management; Soil aggregation; Liter degradation Dr.Z.John Kennedy, Professor Food Microbiology and safety Dr.N.O.Gopal, Professor Dr.R.Sridhar,Professor Food preservation , Probiotics Soil Microbiology Dr. S. Karthikeyan, Professor Fermentation technology; Environmental Biotechnology; algal biofuels Dr. K. Kumutha, Professor PGPR; AM biofertilizer Dr. U. Sivakumar, Professor Lignin degradation; Laccase production; Biofuels Dr.T.Kalaichelvi, Professor Biofuels, Forest Microbiology Dr. M. Senthil Kumar, Rhizosphere engineering using phages; nanotechnology in food Assistant Professor Dr. M. Gnanachitra, Biofertilizers; formulations and delivery systems Assistant Professor Dr. R. Subhashini, Probiotics, Microbial inoculants and formulations Assistant Professor Dr. R. Brindavathy, Soil microbiology; PGPR Assistant Professor
Other scientists of TNAU, Coimbatore
Name and Designation of Faculty Major areas of research Biomethanation and bioenergy for rural Professor & Head, Dept.of Bioenergy,TNAU, housing and small scale industries Coimbatore- 3 Dr. R. Murugesan Bioprospecting microbes for high value Director,ABD,TNAU,Coimbatore- 3 Nanomaterials and SEM imaging Professor, Dept. of Nanoscience and nanotechnology Dr. S. Marimuthu Biopolymers and nanomaterials for value Assistant Professor, Dept. of Nanoscience and nanotechnology

C. Experts from other institutions

Name and address
1. Dr.K.Gurumuthy
Former Director, IFGTB, 62/4, Block-2, Second Floor, Leela Apartments, Ponnayarajapuram, Coimbatore-641001 2. Dr.Kalai mathee
Professor & Head, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, Florida, USA 3. Dr.Palani Shanmugam
Principal Scientist Department of Environmental Technology, CLRI, Adyar, Chennai – 600 020 4. Mr.Sudhagar
DGM , Sakthi Sugars, Appakudal, Bhavani taluk, Erode 5. Dr. R.S. Prakasham
Sr.Scientist Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Tarnaka, Hyderabad 6. Dr. Mageshwaran V
Scientist Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, (CIRCOT), Matunga (E), Mumbai-19. 7. Dr. A Uma
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 085, Telangana, India 8. Dr.Annamma Anil
Assistant Professor in Biochemistry DBT-ICT Centre for Energy),Matunga, Mumbai, India 9. Salom Gnana Thanga
Asst. Professor & Head,University of Kerala,Thiruvananthapuram 10. Dr.V.Sivasubramanian
Director - Tech, Phycospectrum Environmental Research Centre 52A, A K Block, 7th Main Road, Anna Nagar, Chennai 600040 11. Dr.S.Seshadri
Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC)
Tharamani, Chennai,
Tamil Nadu – 600 113
12. Dr.G.Kalaichelvan,
Senior Professor, VIT, Katpadi, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 13. Dr.Sandeep Mudliar
Principal Scientist, Plant cell biotechnology, CSIR-CFTRI, Mysore - 570 020 14. Dr. Rajeev Kumar Sukumaran
Scientist, Centre for Biofuels, Biotechnology Division, CSIR- National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum 15. T. Sivasankar,
Assistant Professor National Institute of Technology, Trichy 16. Dr.Singaravadivel
Professor,Dep. of. Bioenergy, TNAU,Coimbatore- 3
S.No. Name of the participants

Dr. Sunil T. Ingle
Assistant Professor, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (DPDKV), Akola- 444104 Dr. Santhosh G P
Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Agricultural College, Bheemarayanagudi-585287 Shahapur, Yadgir, Karnataka Senior Scientist (Microbiology), Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-89 Scientist ‘D', Division of Bioprospecting, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding(IFGTB), Forest Campus, R.S.Puram, Coimbatore- 641002 Dr. E.Parameswari
Assistant Professor(Environmental Sciences) Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam east, Theni District, Tamil Nadu- 625 604 Dr. R.Uma Sankareswari
Assistant Professor(Agricultural Microbiology) Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killilkulam, Vallanad, Tuticorin- 628 252 Dr. S.R. Prabagaran
Department of Biotechnology Bharathiar University Coimbatore – 641046 Dr. Saravanan V.S.
Department of Microbiology Indira Gandhi College of Arts and Science Kathirkamam – 605009 ICAR-CAF training on "ICAR – CAF Training on
ICAR sponsored Centre for Advanced Faculty Training on Biocatalysts for fuels and chemicals from biomass
(7th to 27th August, 2014)
Programme schedule
Microbial quorum
sensing for biofilm
Overview of the Biomass feed stock and their issues
Biotrap enrichment training
Dr. Kalai Mathee, Dr.U.Sivakumar DBT Task force, Coimbatore International University, Miami Isolation of cellulolytic, Inoculation of isolates for cellulase, xylanase, xylanolytic & ligninolytic Inaugural function evaluation
laccase, tyrosinase, xylitol, xylooligosacharide isolates from enrichment & lipids production On site talk and demo of distillery and fermentation plant - Mr.Sudhagar, DGM, Sakthi Sugars, Appakudal, Bhavani Taluk,
Erode dst. Industrial visit
Cellulosic Ethanol: ethanol production:
Imperative role of
Assay of Carbohydrate hydrolytic enzymes Challenges
pretreatment for
Screening of cellulolytic, a) cellobiohydrolase, b) endo-1,4-β-D- sustainable
xylanolytic & ligninolytic glucanase, c) β-glucosidase and Dr. R.S. Prakasham IICT, Hyderabad. Biodegradation
and growth of

Biocatalysts: An
microorganisms in
degrading enzymes Tyrosinase assay Mageshwaran CIRCOT, Mumbai Forenoon
Algal biodiesel:
current status
and future
approaches for biomass
Microbiology lab prospects
deconstructing enzymes
SDS and Native PAGE of laccase protein Dr.S.Karthikeyan Dr.D.Balachander Professor (AGM), Professor (AGM),TNAU Tailoring enzymes for
development of
cellulose based
biocatalysis metagenomics for
hydrolysis and
Dr. Annamma Anil (Dr.N. Natarajan & Dr. S. Marimuthu) sugar recovery
DBT-ICT Centre for Visit to FC & RI, Mettupalayam & Visit to Nilgiris forest, Ooty Winning project
Bacterial adherence to
& Novel GHs for
Industrial visit - Biopharm Salom Gnana Thanga, University of Kerala Biomethanation: A successful rural
fuel technology

Visit to industrial scale and domestic biogas plants; Biomethane production and electricity conversion unit, Sempatti and Kinathukadavu P & H, Dept. of Bioenergy TNAU Anaerobic
Challenges in
fermentations for
delignification of Biomass pre-treatment & biorefinery
Professor (AGM),TNAU Dr.S.Karthikeyan Forenoon
pretreatment by
ultrasonic processing Comp. analysis of lignocell. subst;
Protein purification by FPLC Saccharification NIT, TRY
Algal Refinery for
Biodiesel producing
value Addition
experience on
biodiesel producing
algal strains
future fuels
algal strains
Dr.T.Kalaichelvi MCRC, Tharamani, Dr.T.Kalaichelvi Enzymatic bio-
refinery for the
production of

Lignin derived
Biphasic Biobutanol bioethanol,
from starchy
systems/Consolidated biohydrogen and bio-
Dr.G.Kalaichelvan, photo methane as an
automotive fuel from Vellore, TN
Mr. Karthikeyan) tannery solid wastes
Dr.Palani Shanmugam, CLRI, Chennai Non-chemical wet
oxidation based
pretreatment of

Process design for
crop-residues for
Yeast lipids
biofuel production
Dr. K. Kumutha Professor production
Asst. Professor, TNAU Dr. Sandeep Principal scientist, CFTRI, Mysore Commercialization of
algal biofuels
Breaking the
technology: Industrial
chains in biomass Assay for SSF and SmF
Dr. Rajeev Kumar Dr.V.Sivasubramanian Director - Tech, Chennai Biohydrogen
Business initiatives for
bio-fuel industry
Trainees session
Dr.Singaravadivel Dr. R. Murugesan Review by expert, Review by expert, Valedictory function Dr. D.J. Bagyaraj Dr. D.J. Bagyaraj

List of Books Purchased in 2014-15
Name of the Book Title of the book Microbial Ecology and Agricultural Microbiology Microbial Biodiversity Gene cloning & DNA Industrial Applications of Microbiology Biofertilizers for sustainable Agriculture Discount @ 20% 2,873.00 Net amount 11,492.00
Introduction to soil Net amount special price
33-34-35, Sreeji Apts., Biofertilizer Technology Net amount
Beneficial Plant Microbe M/s T.R.Publications Pvt Ltd., A-32, 3rd floor, 35, South Boag Rd, Discount @ 20% 3,174.00 T Nagar, Chennai- Net amount 12,695.00
Food Microbiology 3/5C, Sumitha Nagar, Umesh Kumar Soil & Agricultural Microbial genetics Net amount
NET AMOUNT 34,494.00
(Rupees Thirty four thousand four hundred and ninety four only) ANNEXURE III
Research Accomplishments/ Salient findings
 Effect of long-term nutrient managements on biological and biochemical properties of semi-arid tropical Alfisol during maize crop development stages-This study has revealed that the overall biological properties of Alfisol were controlled by the long-term nutrient management adoptions and to some epxtend by the growth stages of maize and their interactions.  Under this project, microbial biomass, counts of observed microbial communities and hydrolytic enzymes were highest in organically managed and integrated nutrient management enforced soils at active vegetative stage of maize crop.  The inorganic nutrient amendments and no fertilizer application had same magnitude on the biological and biochemical properties of soil throughout the maize crop growth. In general, the amplitude of interaction effect was higher order in OM and INM at vegetative stage than the mean values of the treatments at flowering, harvest and other samples. The respiration study indicates that metabolic quotient of the soil was significantly increased in early stage of maize due to agronomical disturbances and subsequently declined and stabilized during vegetative and flowering stages of maize.  Under the project on ‘Development of process for microbial delignification of lignocellulosic biomass/waste for fuel ethanol production' a potential laccase producing fungal isolate MSF2 was isolated from wood decay sample was identified which produced higher laccase yield of 1944.44 in much shorter period (12 days)  A maximum lignin removal of 47.6 and 32.9 % was achieved using a novel biodelignification process compared to enzymatic removal of 29.7% and 20.22% in wood and corncob, respectively  Higher tyrosinase producing actinobacteria Streptomyces sp JS-8 was isolated
 A novel High laccase producing fungi Basidiomycete was identified and characterized
 Attempts were made to isolate some thermophilic yeast from Himachal Hot Springs (Manikaran
and Kalath). The positive isolates were further purified and their screening and confirmation of hydrolytic enzyme production is under progress.  Lignin degraders were isolated and selected based on guaiacol oxidation and further confirmed for their extracellular enzyme production in SEA media containing guaiacol (0.04%).  Lignin depolymerization was carried for kraft and black liquor lignin using crude laccase enzyme and analysis of lignin derived products using GC-MS is under progress.  Twelve algal isolates viz., Navicula, Unkown diatom, 4 Chlorella sp, Oscillatoria sp, Tolypothrix sp, Synecococcus sp, Scenedesmus sp, Oedogonium sp, and Spirogyra sp were obtained by enrichment technique. Of which, four dominant, fast growing and lipid rich algal strains viz., Hindakia, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Chlamydomonad) were identified by phylogenetic studies  The stage-specific inoculants for rice was mass produced and its shelf life was assessed. All the inoculants has more than 1010 cells per ml. The inoculation of inoculants in the tray-based nursery enhanced the growth and biochemical constituents of rice. Field experiment to assess the impact of stage specific inoculants to rice cultivar ADT45 is in progress.  SCAR Primers designed for detecting Azospirillum strains performed well to discriminate the target strain from others with very high accuracy and sensitivity. The primers can detect the strains even at low ratio (about 5%) of target in a population.  A simple Sephadex matrix based DNA extraction assay has been developed to elute DNA from the microbial inoculants with high quality and ready-to-use for PCR.  The MPN-PCR method has low efficient (about 100 times) in detecting the inoculant than conventional MPN, however, can also used as quality standard, as the detection limit is in the range of inoculant cell load per ml.  The detection limit of SCAR markers to the Azospirillum strains is in the range of 104 cells per ml.  Azospirillum (Az 204), Phosphobacteria (Ps1), Potash bacteria (KRB9) and Pseudomonas (Pf1) were compatible under in vitro condition to develop the liquid bioinoculants. pH of the mixed liquid bioinoculant was slightly reduced from 7.5 to 6.5.  Among the four bioinoculants, population load was slightly reduced in potash bacteria, whereas the others were not reduced that much.  The effect of fluorescent pigment was very mildly affected the growth of potash bacteria based on inhibition zone formed in agar well diffusion method and others growth was not affected.  Ten Burkholderia isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of different crops viz., B1 and R1 were found to have phosphate solubilizing, nitrogen fixing and antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina.  B1 and R1 were found to produce 36 and 32 mg of P/100 ml broth respectively.  B1 and R1 were found to produce IAA 12 and 10 µg/50 ml broth respectively. These two isolates were identified as Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia vietnamensis.  Shelf life studies of the bacterial consortia experiment revealed that bioinoculants can be stored upto 120 days under refrigerated storage against 90 days under room temperature.  Field studies at CRS, Aliyar Nagar and ORS, Tindivanam revealed that seed treatment of groundnut with consortia along with soil application@5Kg/ha on 45 DAS registered the highest pod yield, shelling %, 100 kernel weight and compared to seed treatment alone with soil bacterial consortium.  Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus was isolated from sugarcane stem and characterized using standard microbiological techniques  Gluconacetobacter isolate showed better dissolution of phosphate and zinc nutrients
 Standardized the protocol for direct shoot induction with modified MS media with BAP 4 ppm+
NAA 2 ppm. Emergence of shoot was observed on 120DAI when compared to other treatments with BAP and NAA.  Average of three to four regenerated plantlets was obtained through this treatment  For in vitro acclimatization, the plantlets were dipped in Methylobacterium bacterial suspension (108 cells/ml) before planting has better survival than the uninoculated tissue culture plants. Physico-chemical and biological properties of sago effluent collected from a small scale sago industry (A.R.Durai, ARD with production capacity of <2000kg day-1), a medium scale sago industry (Sree Selliamman Sago, SSS with production capacity of 5000kg day-1) and a larger scale sago Industry (Vel Murugan Sago, VMS with production capacity of >10000kg day-1) during peak season were analysed  When the organically highly enriched sago factory waste waters were channeled through biogas plants, the pH raised to about 7, the population densities of fermenting and cyanide tolerating bacteria and methanogenic archaea significantly increased, introduced cyanides were consumed, but the BOD decreased only by around 32%, indicating scope for further purification of the sago effluent for safe recycling or reuse  Among the sugars, myo-inositol was found to be highly concentrated in untreated sago wastewater from all the three sago factories. After biomethanation process, all the sugars were reduced to lower concentration, while the glucose was found to be completely disappeared in the biogas plants of small and large scale factory.  Macronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium were highly concentrated in untreated and biomethanated sago wastewater from all the three factories. Among them, potassium was highest in untreated as well as biomethanated wastewater from all the three sago factories. While iron was least in untreated wastewater, it was found to be completely disappeared after biomethanation in all the three factories.  Regarding the micronutrients, zinc was observed to be in higher levels in untreated wastewater, which completely disappeared during treatment in the biogas plants in all the three factories. Similarly, the concentration of copper completely disappeared during biomethanation of wastewater from the large scale factory.  A total of ten cyanide degrading (CD) bacteria were isolated from the sago wastewater collected from the three factories using enrichment technique and all the isolates were screened for their ability to utilize cyanide as a nitrogen source.  Five starch degrading (SD) bacterial isolates was isolated from sago wastewater from the three factories using starch agar media and their starch hydrolyzing ability was determined by observing the clear zone produced in the respective medium when flooded with iodine after 48 h of incubation.  Identified bacteriophages as a new biocontrol agent for the management of soft rot disease losses under post harvest condition. The technology was standardized for the slow release of bacteriophages when treated with tomato and potato  Technology was optimized for the bacteriophage coating of tomato and potato  Entrapment of bacteriophages in a water soluble edible protein for the sustained / slow release of phages in coated tomato and potato Fig.1. Identification of an efficient lignolytic fungus
Technology Transfer: Success story

Bacteriophages – A Novel Biopreservative for Vegetables
Bacteriophage based biocontrol measurements have a great potential to enhance microbiological safety of food at all stages of production in the classic "farm to fork" approach throughout the entire food chain supply system. The bacteriophages are highly host specific in nature, and remain inert unless there is an interaction between host bacteria and phage. To increase the efficiency of the phages and its survival in the fresh vegetables, water soluble, non toxic nano thickness film was developed. The phages were encapsulated in water soluble edible emulsion and fresh vegetables were immersed in the solution for few seconds to form thin film of coating. The treated vegetables were shade dried for 15-30 minutes and can be packed. The water soluble emulsion treated vegetables can be stored for more than 10 days under room temperature depending on the nature of vegetables and fruits. The treated vegetables should be washed in tap water before consumption. The technology is ecofriendly, safe to handle, no residual effect & safe to human consumption. The technology is more useful for farmers, traders retailers & malls. This technology is non toxic to human consumption and can be done either manually or by automation. The technology developed is under progress for standardization of various parameters for further improvement. Bacteriophage treated potatoes and tomatoes
Novel biodelignification process for lignocellulosic biomass
• Isolated ligninolytic fungi from decayed wood and screened for substrate based laccase enzyme • The positive isolate MSF2 was identified using 18S rRNA sequencing. • Enzyme production of MSF2 in a simple medium containing inducer had higher laccase yield of 1944 Uml-1 within a shorter period of 12 days. • A low cost enzyme production technology was carried using natural lignocellulosic substrates under Solid (3345.06 Ug-1) and submerged (2666.67 Uml-1) fermentation. • Delignification process developed using the crude laccase enzyme with solvent recovered a maximum lignin removal of 48.17 % and 33.81 %, in wood and corncob respectively. LIQUID BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCTION USING TANGENTIAL FLOW
is a rapid and efficient method for separation and purification of biomolecules. TFF can be used to concentrate and desalt sample solutions ranging in volume from 10 mL to thousands of liters. It can be used to fractionate large from small biomolecules, harvest cell suspensions, and clarify fermentation broths and cell lysates. There are several options for culture free techniques (for example, gradient density centrifugation) to concentrate the target to a sufficient level that is compatible with downstream detection platforms. Although sensitive, techniques such as centrifugation are expensive and restricted to low sample volumes. In comparison, filtration based methods do not have a restriction of volumes and use relatively simple equipment that is compatible with field testing. TFF is a cross flow system that enables high filtration rates of large volumes of sample without excessive pore blocking as experienced with dead end filtration techniques. In tangential Flow Filtration, flows are directed across the membrane surface. The sweeping action of the fluid restricts retained material from settling and eventually reduction flow. It is a pressure driven membrane process used to concentrate separate or purify macromolecules.
• TFF system can filter/separate the microbial cells from liquid broth and concentrate the cells.
• The concentrated cells can be dissolved either in suitable minimal broth or water soluble carrier
• The inhibitory effect of toxic metabolites can be prevented by separation of microbial cells from
the fermentation broth • Highly suitable for biofertigation • Can be stored for longer period without losing the cell viability ANNEXURE V
Infra-structures developed
 Two 500 litre fermenters were installed to produce liquid biofertilizers to meet the demand  One 62.5 KVA generator was installed to get continuous power supply in the event of power  An air conditioned modern lecture hall with LCD Projectors, Computer with Internet facilities, Public address systems, TV and DVD players has been developed.  Laboratories have been upgraded for carrying out quality research in leak proof, dust free and researcher friendly environment.  A library containing about 550 books with browsing facilities for trainees students and staff has been established under ICAR CAS/CAFT programme at the Department of Agrl. Microbiology, TNAU, Coimbatore.  Following are the equipments available in the department: Electrophoresis units and Hofers; Bangalore Biorad; Bangalore Genei Refrigerated centrifuge Microplate reader Spectrophotometer GC PCR thermocycler Eppendorff, Applied Syngene, UK, Biorad, Biosystems, Biorad Fourier Transform-Infra – Red Spectroscopy Addition to this, following equipments were purchased in 2013 -15 Instrument
Ultra volume Spectrophotometer Class II Biological safety cabinet PCR thermocycler Applied Biosystems, USA Incubator Shakers Orbitec, India; Labcompanion, USA High temp incubator Labcompanion, USA Gel Documentation system Sample blender for food analysis Iso Electric Focusing system Protein Purification system (FPLC) ANNEXURE VI
Research articles published (2014-15)
 Adhilakshmi M, Paranidharan V, Balachandar D, Ganesamurthy K & Velazhahan R (2014) Suppression of root rot of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Streptomyces sp. is associated with induction of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 47 (5):571-583.  Adhilakshmi M, Latha P, Paranidharan V, Balachandar D, Ganesamurthy K & Velazhahan R (2014) Biological control of stem rot of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. with actinomycetes. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 47 (3):298-311.  Balachandar D, Doud MS, Schneper L, Mills D & Mathee K (2014) Long-term organic nutrient management fosters the eubacterial community diversity in the Indian semi-arid alfisol as revealed by length heterogeneity–PCR. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45 (2):189-203.  Bhattacharyya P, Roy KS, Dash PK, Neogi S, Shahid M, Nayak AK, Raja R, Karthikeyan S, Balachandar D & Rao KS (2014) Effect of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on phosphorus uptake in tropical flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Eur J Agron 53:28-37.  Chinnadurai C, Gopalaswamy G & Balachandar D (2014) Long-term effects of nutrient management regimes on abundance of bacterial genes and soil biochemical processes for fertility sustainability in a semi-arid tropical Alfisol. Geoderma 232-234: 563-572.  Cibichakravarthy B, Kumutha K & Balachandar D (2014) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in phosphorus-deficient Alfisols of a dry North-western agro-ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India. Ann Microbiol:1-11. doi:10.1007/s13213-014-0845-8.  Iniya Kumar Muniraj, Sivakumar Uthandi, Zhenhu Hu, Liwen Xiao, Xinmin Zhan.2015. Microbial lipid production from renewable and waste materials for second generation biodiesel feedstock. Environmental Technology Review, DOI: 10.1080/21622515.2015.1018340.  Jaivel, N., R. Rajesh, C. Uvarani and P. Marimuthu. 2014. In vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of Compound Derived from Streptomyces sp. TC1 against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Journal of Pure & Applied Microbiology, 8(2), 1-12.  Jaivel, N., R. Rajesh and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity against bacterial leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and antioxidant activities of Streptomyces sp. TC1. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8 (40), 3558-3564.  Jaivel, N., C. Uvarani, R. Rajesh, D. Velmurugan and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Natural occurrence of organo fluorine and other constituents from Streptomyces sp. TC1. Journal of Natural Products, 77, 2-8.  Jaivel, N., R. Rajesh and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Optimization of Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus under Various Fermentation strategies. Trends in Biosciences, 7(4), 658-662.  Jaivel, N., R. Rajesh and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Standardizing the extraction and evaluation of antimicrobial fraction from Streptomyces sp. tc1 against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Life Sciences Leaflets, 54, 16-26.  Khambalkar, P., R. Sridar, M. Sivaji.2014. Isolation and characterization of Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria Burkholderia sp. J.Soil Biol.Ecol.34: 1-8  Nikita E. Chavarria, Shiyun Cao, Mary Holman, Dina Elbanna, Suzanne Rodriguez, Deanna Arrington, Markus Englert, Sivakumar Uthandi, DieterSöll, and Julie A. Maupin-Furlow. 2014. Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 homolog required for wobble uridinetRNAthiolation is associated with ubiquitin-proteasome, translation, and RNA processing system homologs. PloS one 9 (6), e99104.  Ponvizhi Ramya, V., S. Gunasekaran and M.Senthilkumar. 2014. Genetic Diversity of soft rot Pathogens in Potato of South Indian Origin. Research Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 9 (5) :47-58.  Ponvizhi Ramya, V., S. Gunasekaran and M.Senthilkumar. 2014. Phenotypic identification of sour rot pathogen of tomato in TamilNadu. Pestology vol. 38 (5) : 11-16.  Priyanka, S., M Sivaji and R Sridar.2014. Isolation and characterization of a novel multifunctional sulphur oxidizing bacterium (SOB) and its use as biofertilizer. International Science Journal.1:28-34  Rajesh, R., N. Jaivel and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Muntingia calabura botanical formulation for enhanced disease resistance in tomato plants against Alternaria solani. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8 (20), 2059-2068.  Rajesh, R., N. Jaivel and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Antifungal metabolite from Muntingia calabura root against early leaf blight of tomato. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 8(13), 523-528.  Rajesh, R., N. Jaivel and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Bioefficacy Muntingia calabura of botanical formulation against Alternaria solani causing early blight in tomato. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 44(2), 166-171.  Rajesh, R., N. Jaivel and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Botanical formulation of Muntingia calabura for the management of early leaf blight in tomato. Madras Agricultural Journal, 100 (1-3), 747-750.  Ramasamy, K., U. Sivakumar and K. Sara ParwinBanu.2014. Unravelling Plant Microbiome: Proteins and Small Molecules in Signaling and Improving Plant health. Eds: Editor: K.RAMASAMY AND K. KUMAR, Published by NEW INDIA PUBLISHING AGENCY, ISBN: 9789383305834  Sarathambal C, Ilamurugu K, Balachandar D, Chinnadurai C & Yogita Gharde (2015) Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic isolates from the rhizosphere of semi-arid tropical grasses of India. Appl. Soil Ecol. 87:1-10.  Selastin Antony, R., G. Gopalaswamy and M. Senthilkumar (2014). Exo polysaccharides production of brinjal bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Trends in Biosciences 7(16): 2229-2232.  Selastin Antony, R., G. Gopalaswamy and M. Senthilkumar (2014). Characterization of devastating phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum from wilt infected brinjal plants from Mizoram, India. Life Science Leaflets Pp. 6-13.  Shenbagam. P., R. Sridar and M. Sivaji.2014. Developing Rhizobium Mutants for Enhanced Nodulation in Green Gram Grown in Acid Soils. J.Soil Biol.Ecol.34: 9-16  Sivaji, M., S Priyanka and R Sridar.2014. Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia sp from crops rhizosphere. J.Innov.Agriculture.1: 1-6  Sivaji, M and R Sridar.2014. Antagonistic activity of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from Bt and non Bt cotton rhizosphere against Rhizoctonia solani. J.Soil Biol.Ecol.34: 60-69  Sivaji, M and R Sridar.2014. Effect of Bt cotton root exudates on functional enzymes in the rhizosphere soil. J.Soil Biol.Ecol.34: 25-34  Sivaji, M and R Sridar.2014. Impact of Bt Cotton on the Functional Microbes in the Rhizosphere Under In Vitro Condition. Trends in Biosciences. 7: 3475-3478  Sivakumar Uthandi and G.Kalaichelvan. 2014. Enrichment and Isolation of Bluish Purple Producing bacterium. J. Soil Biol. Ecol. 34 (1&2) : 17-24.  Srinivasan, M., K.Kumar, K.Kumutha and P.Marimuthu. 2014. Establishing monoxenic culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices through root organ culture. J. Appl. & Nat.Sci., 6 (1):290-293.  Srinivasan, M., K.Kumar and K.Kumutha. 2014. Isolation and selection of efficient AM fungi spores from sugarcane rhizosphere for in vitro AM inoculum production. Biochem. Cell. Arch., 14 (1): 89-93.  Srinivasan, M., K.Kumar K.Kumutha and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Comparison of colonization potential of AM fungus Glomus intraradices cultured under In Vitro and In Vivo condition. Trends in Biosciences 7(3): 437-440  Srinivasan, M and K.Kumar. 2014. Production of Daucus carota hairy root for in vitro culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi., Res. J. Biotech 9(5): 38-41  Srinivasan, M., K.Kumar, K.Kumutha and P. Marimuthu. 2014. Influence of acetosyringone concentration on induction of carrot hairy root by Agrobacterium rhizogenes., African Journal of Microbiology Research 8(26): 2486-2491  Sujatha, K., K.Kumar. 2014. Biotransformation of cyanide by native bacteria from sago wastewater under anaerobic condition. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 8(5): 4209-4214  Tamilselvi SM, Chinnadurai C, Ilamurugu K, Arulmozhiselvan K & Balachandar D (2015) Effect of long-term nutrient managements on biological and biochemical properties of semi-arid tropical Alfisol during maize crop development stages. Ecol Indic 48:76-87. ANNEXURE VII
Externally funded Schemes obtained in 2014-15
Development of efficient processes for biomethanation and bioremediation of cassava sago effluent by nitrogen amendments and Spirulina cultivation under HRAP system for safe recycling DNA fingerprinting of lignocellulose degrading microbes isolated from protected forest areas of Assam and Mizoram Evaluation of crop response of liquid Dr.M.Gnanachitra inoculants and their effect in rice nutrient Authentication of recent bioinoculant 2014- 2017 Dr.R.Subhasini strains of TNAU by physiological and molecular profiling Studies on the nutritional/anti nutritional 2014- 2017 Dr.R.Subhasini changes in finger millet with thermotolerant Pediococcus pentosauceus Development of integrated (biotechnological and nanocatalytic) biorefinery for fuels and platform chemicals production from lignocellulosic biomass (crop/wood residues)' Centre of Excellence on MICROBES TO Dr. U. Sivakumar FEED THE WORLD: Plant-Microbe interactions to boost Agricultural Dr.D.Balachandar Dr.K.Kumutha Dr.M.Senthilkumar Formulation of microbial consortium of Directorate 6.40 liquid formulation for sustainable sugarcane production Molecular detection and quantification of Dr.D.Balachandar shiga – like toxin producing Escherichia coli in fresh vegetables Lactic acid bacteria of functional interest in 2015-2017 Dr.R.Subhashini nutrition of finger millet Patents filed:
1. Sivakumar Uthandi, Sujatha Kandasamy, Iniyakumar Muniraj, Namitha
Purushothaman and Ramasamy Kumarasamy 2015.High level secretion and method
of laccase production by Hexagonia hirta and uses there of (645/CHE/2015)
2. Sivakumar Uthandi, Iniyakumar Muniraj, Anbu P.V, and Ramasamy Kumarasamy
2015. Novel Delignification process for biomass deconstruction of woody biomass and corn cob (under filing) ANNEXURE VIII
Name of the biofertilizer
Quantity supplied (Kgs)
Amount (Rs.)
Carrier based biofertilizers (Kgs)
Azospirillum Rhizobium Azotobacter Liquid biofertilizer (lit)
Azospirillum Quality control analysis
Azospirillum Rhizobium Azotobacter Mother cultures supplied
Azospirillum Rhizobium Azotobacter 400000/-
ICAR – CAS in Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agrl. University, Coimbatore
List of training programmes conducted from the inception.
Title of the Training
Course Directors
1997 - 98 Biofertilizer technology and Dr P Santhanakrishnan 27.01.97 31.01.97 1997 - 98 Nitrogen fixing and Dr P Santhanakrishnan 10.10.97 08.12.97 phosphorus Solubilizing microorganisms 1998 - 99 Phosphorus Solubilizing and 21.12.98 03.12.98 17 1998 - 99 Recent trends in symbiotic Dr S Gunasekaran 01.03.99 14.03.99 Dr P Santhanakrishnan 1999 - 00 Microbial systems Dr P Santhanakrishnan 01.07.99 15.07.99 1999 - 00 Recent advances in microbial 03.12.99 23.12.99 1999 - 00 Microbial interactions in soil Dr K. Govindarajan 01.02.00 21.02.00 2000 - 01 Techniques in microbial 01.12.02 21.12.02 Dr V Udayasurian 2000 - 01 Bioconversion of cellulosic 31.01.01 22.01.01 10 2001 - 02 Techniques in Microbiology 11 2001 - 02 Microbial Transformations in 12 2002 - 03 Microbial inoculant 03.02.03 23.02.03 13 2003 –04 Microbial Processes for value Dr R Murugesan 04.02.04 24.02.04 14 2003 –04 Role of Microorganisms in P 03.03.04 23.03.04 nutrition of crop plants Dr K Govindarajan Microbial fermentations Dr S Gunasekaran 01.02.05 21.02.05 16 2004 –05 Molecular techniques in 29.03.05 18.04.05 Dr D Balachandar 17 2005 –06 Recent advances in Microbial Dr T Natarajan 24.03 06 13.04.06 Dr D Balachandar 18 2006 –07 Microbial conversion of Dr S Gunasekaran 08.11.06 28.11.06 biomass to biomolecules 19 2006 –07 Molecular techniques in 16.01.07 05.02.07 microbial diversity Dr D Balachandar 20 2007 –08 Microbial products and their 21.01.08 10.02.08 application in food 21 2007 –08 Techniques in soil 09.02.08 29.02.08 microbiology with emphasis 22 2008 –09 Screening and isolation of Dr G Gopalaswamy 02.11.08 23.11.08 anti-microbial compounds against plant disease 23 2009 –10 Bio-fuels from multiple feed 11.03.09 31.03.09 Dr S Gunasekaran Dr K Kumar 2010 –11 Mycorrhizal systems for 11.03.10 31.03.10 sustainable agriculture horticulture and forestry Current Perspectives in Molecular Microbial Diversity Microbial processes for value Dr R Murugesan addition in food and Dr S Gunasekaran Microbiological processes in Dr S Karthikeyan soil carbon dynamics and sequestration vis-à-vis anticipatory climate changes Faculty Training on Food Quality and Safety Dr. Z.John Kennedy Management systems Dr.M.Senthilmumar Dr.S.Gunseakran Biocatalysts for fuels and Dr.S.Gunasekaran 07.08.14 27.08.14 chemicals from biomass Dr U Sivakumar Dr S Karthikeyan Microbial mediated soil- Dr R.Sridhar, Dr. nutrient transformation Dr. D.Balachander Grants received and expenditure details for the past 15 years (in Rupees)


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El procés de constitució del barri santa maria de palafolls

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