Psychiatric Medications and School Shooters Peter Langman, Ph.D. There is a widespread belief that an "epidemic" of psychiatric effects. Medications can also have withdrawal effects, meaning medications is causing an "epidemic" of violence, particu- that people have adverse reactions when they stop taking the larly in students. Some who hold this belief also believe that medication, particularly if they stop suddenly. there is a conspiracy to hide the connection between medica- What is the evidence supporting the link between psychi- tions and murder from the public. Those accused of conspiracy atric drugs and school shootings? This article examines the is- range from pharmaceutical companies to the government to the sue from two perspectives: the societal and the individual. The media. One website proclaims, "It is nearly synonymous that societal perspective considers the overall claim that the rise in every school shooting or mass killing of some type is lucidly medication use has caused a rise in violence, and the individual linked to the shooter taking antidepressants, but our precious perspective examines claims about specific shooters going on lap dog media rarely if ever mentions this connection."1 rampages due to medications. Another site states: Every young, male shooter that has gone on a kil - The Increasing Use of
ing spree in the United States also has a history of treatment with psychotropic drugs… It was only after psychiatric medicine started targeting young people with mind-altering medications that we witnessed this The use of psychiatric medications in this country has indeed explosion in violence."2 increased significantly since the 1980s. Between 1987 and 1996 the use of psychostimulants such as Ritalin increased nearly Another site contains an article with the headline, "Violence four-fold and the use of antidepressants by adolescents ages 15 in Schools? It's the Prozac and Ritalin Stupid!"3 Yet another site to 18 increased over four-fold.6 Similarly, there was 75% increase has an article titled, "Antidepressant Drugs Causing Epidemic of in the use of antidepressants from 1996 to 2005.7 There is no Mania, Mayhem and Murder: America's addiction to dangerous question that the use of psychiatric medications has grown SSRI's hits crisis levels."4 (SSRI stands for Selective Serotonin substantial y in the last twenty-five years.
Reuptake Inhibitors, a class of antidepressant medications.) The problem with the argument against medications, how- The general argument is that in the last two decades the use ever, is that though there has been a significant increase in of psychiatric medications, particularly among young people, the use of psychiatric medications, there has not been a cor- has increased drastical y, resulting in a dramatic increase in responding increase in violence. In fact, just the opposite has youth violence, including school shootings. This view is ex- occurred. Violent crime has decreased dramatical y. As noted pressed by the following passage: in an article in 2012: It is abundantly clear that the epidemic of craziness The last time the crime rate for serious crime – murder, and violence we are witnessing in America … is being rape, robbery, assault – fel to these levels, gasoline cost fueled by dangerous psychotropic drugs … that are 29 cents a gallon and the average income for a working causing normal y sane people to fly off the hook and American was $5,807. That was 1963.8 act out with insane acts of mania or violence.5 In other words, through the very decades when there was It is true that psychiatric medications, like all drugs, can a dramatic increase in the use of psychiatric medications, there have side effects. I worked for over ten years in a psychiatric hos- was a dramatic decrease in violent crime, including murder in pital for children and adolescents and have seen this first-hand. general and homicides by youths in particular. For example, There were clients whose medications made them drowsy, gave Graph 1 shows the decrease in violent crime in the United States them tics, tremors, rashes, weight-gain, or had other negative for the twenty years from 1991 through 2010.
Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 1
strikingly, youths between the ages 10 and 24, the population Violent Crime Rate in the U.S. per 100,000 Inhabitants9
that includes the children and adolescents who had four-fold increases in particular psychiatric medications, had a 40% de- crease in the male homicide rate and a 51% decrease in the female homicide rate.
Thus, the dramatic increase in psychiatric medications co- incided with a dramatic decrease in homicide and other violent crimes. Perhaps the medications resulted in decreased violence; perhaps there is no connection between the medications and decreased violence. Either way, the claim of epidemic violence as a result of the increased use of psychiatric medications simply is not supported by the data. There is no "epidemic of mania, mayhem, and murder." 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
The next graph shows the decline in the murder rate in the Who Was Taking Medications?
United States from 1991 through 2010.
According to journalist Jim Marrs, "Nearly every school shooter Graph 2: Murder Rate in the US per 100,000 Inhabitants10
in this country can be shown to have been involved with psycho- tropic drugs – either taking them at the time of the shootings, or what can be even worse, coming off them."12 Many websites list school shooters and the drugs they allegedly were taking at the time of their attacks. Here are excerpts from one such list, a list that appears in identical or similar form on multiple sites: • Fifteen year old Kip Kinkel (Prozac and RITALIN) shot his parents while they slept then went to school and opened fire killing 2 classmates and injuring 22 shortly after beginning Prozac treatment.
• Luke Woodham aged 16 (Prozac) killed his mother and then killed two students, wounding six others.
Not only was there a decline in overall homicides, but also a • Michael Carneal (Ritalin) a 14-year-old opened fire on decrease in homicides by youth ages 10 to 24. This is seen in data students at a high school prayer meeting in West Paducah, from the Centers for Disease Control, presented in Graph 3. The Kentucky. Three teenagers were kil ed, five others were numbers on the graph are the homicide rates per 100,000 people. wounded, one of whom was paralyzed.
• Andrew Golden, aged 11, (Ritalin) and Mitchell Johnson, aged 14, (Ritalin) shot 15 people killing four students, one Trends in Homicide Rates Among Persons Ages 10-24
teacher, and wounding 10 others.13 Years, by Sex, United States, 1991-200711
Based on my research, this list is wrong in many ways. Kip Kinkel (Springfield, Oregon) did not murder his parents as they slept and he had not just begun treatment with Prozac. Kip first shot his father while he was talking on the telephone, and then shot his mother after helping her bring in groceries from the car. More importantly, Kip was not on any medication when he Males  10-­‐24   went on his rampage. He had taken Prozac and Ritalin in the emales  10-­‐24   ot anywhere near the time of his attack.
Regarding Luke Woodham (Pearl, Mississippi), I have not found any reliable source that states he was on Prozac. I have read books, book chapters, and many articles about Luke and not found any mention of Prozac. The coverage by The New York Times and many other sources don't mention it. Even in These graphs document a remarkable trend. The violent his court cases where he appealed his sentence on numerous crime rate declined 47% from 1991 through 2010. The homicide grounds, including insanity, there is no mention of his being rate across al ages decreased 51% from 1991 through 2010. Most on Prozac. There are mental health professionals who testified Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 2
about Luke's mental health, but they made no reference to prior His roommates had found a medication container but this was treatment or medication. Unless other information becomes for a skin condition.21 available, Luke Woodham should not be on the list of school Was Cho on an antidepressant at the time of his attack? shooters who took psychiatric medications.
No. Did the powers-that-be avoid investigating his drug use? The shooting by Michael Carneal, as well as that by Andrew No. The official report on the attack thoroughly reviewed Cho's Golden and Mitchell Johnson, were investigated by Dr. Kath- mental health history and medication use and noted that he had erine Newman and her team of researchers. They interviewed taken Paxil from June, 1999 to July, 2000. Did Paxil make him 163 people in the towns where the shootings occurred (West violent? Not at al . The report noted, "Cho did quite well on this Paducah, Kentucky, and Jonesboro, Arkansas). This was the regimen; he seemed to be in a good mood, looked brighter, and most thorough investigation of these shooters that anyone has smiled more. The doctor stopped the medication because Cho conducted. Regarding Golden and Johnson, Newman's team improved and no longer needed the antidepressant."22 concluded, "There is no evidence that either boy was on any Did Cho ever use any other psychiatric drug? Yes. On De- form of medication."14 Similarly, though the research team ex- cember 13, 2005 he had one dose of 1 milligram of Ativan at 11:40 plored Michael's mental health history, there was no report that pm.23 What about the allegation that the toxicology results of his he had been diagnosed or prescribed any psychiatric medica- autopsy were never released? After the autopsy was completed tion. Golden, Johnson, and Carneal should not be on the list the toxicology results were widely reported in the media. The of medicated shooters.
conclusion: Cho "had no prescription drugs or toxic substances Thus, as far as I can determine, all five claims that Kinkel, in his system."24 Woodham, Carneal, Golden, and Johnson were on medication There is no reason to think that the Paxil Cho took seven at the time of their attacks are wrong. Nor are these the only years before his attack, or that a single milligram of Ativan shooters for which such claims have been made.
taken sixteen months prior to his attack, caused mass murder. Asa Coon (Cleveland, Ohio) is sometimes said to have been Cho was not on any psychiatric medication, nor was he going on medications at the time of his attack. This, however, does not through withdrawal, at the time of his attack. appear to have been the case. At some point in his life – perhaps Cho is not the only shooter whose records have allegedly two or three years prior to his attack – he had been prescribed been withheld. One site lists the school shooters known or be- Trazodone and Clonidine.15 The fact that the medications were lieved to have been on medications, and says of other shooters, prescribed, however, does not mean that they were ever taken. "The relationship of psychiatric drugs in the remaining incidents According to an article in The New York Times, court records of violence has not been publicly disclosed or the person's records indicated that Coon "regularly refused to take the medicines."16 are sealed"25 (italics in original). The implication is that the lack In addition, the coroner found no drugs or alcohol in Coon's of disclosure is part of a cover-up. body.17 The newspaper report of the coroner's findings did not One of the shooters to whom this applies is Dylan Klebold differentiate psychiatric drugs from street drugs, but given the (Littleton, Colorado). One site claims, "Harris was on the anti- furor over medications causing school shootings, the absence depressant Luvox.  Klebold's medical records remain sealed."26 of any reference to Trazodone or Clonidine suggests that there Another site states, "Dylan Klebold's autopsy that would have was no trace of any medication. Thus, based on the available revealed drugs in his system was never made public."27 This information, there is no evidence that Coon was taking medica- was written in 2007; Klebold's autopsy was released in February, tions at the time of his attack. 2001,28 over six years before the claim that it had never been The same problematic reporting occurs with older shooters, released. The conclusion of the toxicology tests? "No drugs too. For example, there are many who claim that Seung Hui detected."29 Nor is there any evidence that Klebold ever took Cho (Virginia Tech) was on psychiatric medication at the time any psychiatric medications. of his attack. One person declared, "the fact is that the cultural In the case of German shooter, Tim Kretschmer, we see brainwashing of violent video games and psychotropic drugs how a belief about psychiatric medications causing rampages directly contributed, as it does in all these cases, to the carnage leads someone to make an unwarranted assumption: "The re- at Virginia Tech."18 Another writer stated, "the psychiatric- port that Germany's shooter, Tim Kretschmer, ‘walked calmly pharmaceutical cartel is working at a frenzied pace, deflecting into three classrooms and opened fire, without saying a word' media and government attention away from the facts: Cho … is a strong indication that he was almost certainly suffering the was reported to have been prescribed ‘depression' drugs."19 brain-altering side effects of psychiatric medication."30 Contrary Yet another writer stated, "Initial reports stated that ‘depres- to this, however, it was reported that Kretschmer was "receiving sion medication' was found among Cho's belongings. But neither counseling for depression but police sources say he was not on his toxicology reports, nor his recent medical history were ever any medication."31 This was confirmed by a later court report.32 released to find out whether Cho had been in withdrawal from Similarly, when Kimveer Gill committed a rampage attack psychiatric medication."20 at Dawson College in Montreal in 2006, people speculated or What can be said in response to these claims? Several points assumed that he must have been taking medication. One organi- can be made. "Initial reports" about school shootings are notori- zation published a document, noting that the attack "leads one ously inaccurate and the case of Virginia Tech is no exception. to wonder whether the Montreal shooter was under the influ- No antidepressant medications were found in Cho's belongings. ence of mind-altering psychiatric drugs."33 Another document Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 3
by the same organization noted that Gill "had been treated for Odighizuwa was without his medication at the time of his attack.
depression,"34 with the implication that the treatment must have Some people might assume that if Odighizuwa were not caused his attack. I have found no evidence, however, that he taking any medication at the time of his attack, the violence received any mental health treatment – medication or otherwise. must have been caused by withdrawal from the medication. Pending the discovery of new information, Gill should not be This, however, is not the only way of looking at the situation. on the list of medicated school shooters. First, Odighizuwa did not blame his actions on either the medi- Other perpetrators who may have taken medications at cation or withdrawal from it. Second, his presentation to the some point in their lives are often included in lists of medicated judge made clear that he believed the medication would help shooters, even if they were not using the drugs during their ram- him, not make him manic or violent. Third, after his attack he pages. For example, Finnish shooter Pekka-Eric Auvinen began was placed on psychiatric medication to treat his mental illness. taking an antidepressant in April, 2006.35 Though he reportedly The treatment was successful enough that despite his psychotic responded well initial y, he decided against continuing with the symptoms, he was eventual y able to stand trial.45 Thus, rather medication: "Despite the parents' support, the perpetrator took than assuming that the medication caused his attack, it might his medication irregularly and by the autumn of 2007 did not make more sense to think that the attack may not have occurred want to use it any longer."36 He may have been off the medication if he had been taking medication. for several weeks or a couple of months, but he was no longer Patrick Purdy (Stockton, California) was a heavy user of on it at the time of his attack on November 7, 2007. alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, PCP, James Wilson was a 19-year-old shooter who committed heroin, amphetamines, modeling glue, and LSD.46 In the two an attack at Oakland Elementary School in Greenwood, South years before his attack he had been prescribed psychiatric medi- Caroline, in 1988. He had been prescribed medications and cation but reportedly was not compliant with his treatment.47 admitted to taking deliberate overdoses at times. By his report, A thorough toxicology screening was conducted during his however, he had not had any medication for weeks before his autopsy. It revealed traces of caffeine and nicotine and no other drugs. Purdy was not high on illegal drugs or prescription medi- We see similar issues with claims about adult shooters being cations at the time of his attack.48 on medication at the time of their attacks. Joseph Lieberman What is striking about the argument blaming Purdy's at- has argued that rampages by Charles Whitman, Patrick Purdy, tack on prescription medication is the way it minimizes the and Peter Odighizuwa were a result of psychiatric drugs.38 In potential role of street drugs. Purdy was a severe alcoholic and support of his argument, Lieberman quoted a physician who heavy drug user for years. Rather than speculating about the wrote of school shootings, "These monstrous acts were done not possibility that Purdy damaged his brain with glue sniffing, by criminals, but ordinary people high on prescription drugs."39 alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, and Whitman's biographer, Gary Lavergne, noted that reports LSD, Lieberman focused on prescription medications that Purdy of Whitman's drug use varied significantly. He concluded that was not compliant with long before his attack as the cause of Whitman apparently used Dexedrine heavily during final ex- his rampage.
ams at the University of Texas. He also used Librium at times.40 Whitman's autopsy, however, found no traces of any drugs.41 Thus, his use of medications during spring finals does not ex- Shooters Who Did Take Medication
plain what he did in August. As for Peter Odighizuwa (Appalachian School of Law), it is As noted above, some shooters did use prescription medications. possible he was taking medication at the time of his attack, but Just because a shooter took a medication at some point in his life, evidence suggests otherwise. He was given either medication however, doesn't mean there was any connection between the or a prescription by a physician in the fall of 2001.42 What this drug and the attack. For example, though Kip Kinkel was not medication was, and whether or not Odighizuwa ever took it on Prozac at the time of the shooting, he had been on Prozac remains unknown. One reason he might not have taken is that for three months the summer before his attack. By the time he Odighizuwa was so poor that he could not support his wife went on his rampage, however, he had been drug-free for eight and four children: months. Thus, he was not on Prozac when he killed and neither Early in his first semester he brought his 4 children to a had he just come off the medication.
meeting of the Student Bar Association to plead for money to When Kinkel was on Prozac, he was less depressed and pay his electric bil . Later that semester, he took over the podium less angry. His psychologist's notes from the summer preced- in his Civil Procedure class and again appealed for money.43 ing the attack document that both Kinkel and his mother re- Given these financial straits, Odighizuwa may have been ported significant improvement while he was on Prozac.49 In unable to afford the medication.
fact, Kinkel described the summer he was on medication as a It appears, however, that even if he had taken medication, "wonderful time" and the "best summer ever."50 Based on these he was no longer doing so at the time of the attack. Two days multiple reports, it appears that rather than causing his attack, after his rampage on January 16, 2002, Odighizuwa told a judge, it was more likely that the absence of Prozac was a factor in his "I was supposed to see my doctor. He was supposed to help rampage because he was more depressed and angry without me out….I don't have my medication."44 This clearly indicates the medication.
Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 4
What about Ritalin? Kinkel reportedly told friends in having seemingly endless energy. People who are manic have middle school that he took Ritalin. Kinkel's attack occurred in a decreased need for sleep, are highly active, and can talk on high school.51 He was not on Ritalin at the time of the attack, and on and not let anyone get a word in. They tend to have and had not been on it for anywhere from a year and a half to "racing thoughts" or "flight of ideas," meaning their minds are three years. Final y, Kinkel's family had a devastating history of in overdrive and their thoughts are flying. They tend to be im- severe mental illness and Kinkel's psychotic symptoms began at pulsive and distractible and disorganized. In fact, for a diagnosis age twelve. Blaming his rampage on medications he had been of mania, their symptoms have to be severe enough to cause on long before the attack ignores his family history and his own impairment in various domains, such as work, education, and psychotic symptoms.
social functioning. Jason Hoffman (El Cajon, California) was another high This does not describe Eric Harris. Harris's behavior the last school shooter who benefitted from being on antidepressants. year of his life was not characterized by impulsivity, distract- His mother commented that when he took his medication, "I ibility, or impaired functioning. He was highly organized and real y see a different kid … He is so much more open, positive, meticulously planned a large-scale attack for over a year; this happy."52 Unfortunately, his medication gave him headaches, was the opposite of being impulsive. He sat for hours doing te- made him dizzy, and impaired his concentration. He stopped dious computer programming. He was a good student at school taking his medications six months before his attack.53 and a good employee at work. His teachers praised him and his Though sometimes Eric Hainstock (Cazenovia, Wisconsin) boss at work promoted him the week before the attack. There is included as an example of a school shooter on medication, are no indications that once Harris began his medication he this is also wrong. Hainstock had been on Ritalin when he became manic. He continued to function in all his life domains. was younger, but was not on it at the time of his attack. Also, There are multiple testimonies of people who knew Harris like Kip Kinkel, Hainstock was said to have functioned much that paint of picture of him as being anything but manic. One more effectively on Ritalin. Despite his improved behavior with classmate said he seemed very withdrawn. Another commented medication, his father reportedly objected to his son being on that he often did not talk to anyone and just read books in the it or else didn't want to pay for it. After the attack, Hainstock cafeteria. Several classmates said he was quiet, withdrawn, and wrote a letter in which he complained about his father "taking rarely spoke. The family's hairdresser said she could hardly get me off meds that worked because he didn't want to spend the a word out of him, in contrast to Harris's brother who was very money."54 As with Kip Kinkel, it is possible that if Eric Hainstock outgoing. Two neighbors of the family said that Harris was not had been allowed to continue with the medication that helped talkative. Altogether there are reports from sixteen people from him function he may never have committed murder. Even if multiple settings that describe Harris as quiet, withdrawn, and this would not have been the case, there is no reason to think not speaking much. This is not a picture of mania.55 If Harris that because he had been on Ritalin several years before his at- had suddenly changed from being quiet and withdrawn to a tack that the medication had any connection to the murder he state of mania, wouldn't someone have noticed – parents, teach- committed. In addition, blaming his attack on Ritalin he had ers, coworkers, friends? Yet, there is no indication that Harris's taken long before overlooks that fact that Hainstock reportedly behavior changed once he took Luvox. used marijuana, LSD, mushrooms, cocaine, and heroin. If any Jeffrey Weise (Red Lake, Minnesota) is another shooter substances contributed to his rampage, it seems more likely who was taking psychiatric medication (Prozac) at the time of that it was illegal drugs.
his attack. Weise was a highly traumatized, abused child who One of the prime cases in the argument that medications described his life as "16 years of accumulated rage." He was cause rampage attacks is that of Eric Harris (Littleton, Colo- fascinated with guns and violence and severely depressed. After rado). Eric had been taking Luvox for approximately a year at he attempted suicide, he was put on Prozac. Eventual y, despite the time of his attack. Prior to this he had been on Zoloft briefly, his efforts to turn his life around, he went on a rampage and but this was quickly changed to Luvox. It has been argued that killed himself as wel . Did the Prozac make him into a killer? Luvox made Harris manic and caused his attack. The main evi- We have no way of knowing. We could theorize that it did, but dence cited for this is that Harris was grandiose. Though gran- this would only be speculation. diosity can occur with mania, it can also occur with psychotic Let's look at Weise's case by comparing him to Evan Ramsey, disorders such as schizophrenia (e.g., delusions of grandeur) or another traumatized shooter. The sequence of life events be- with narcissistic personality disorders. In my book, Why Kids tween these two young men contained remarkable parallels. Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters, I discussed Harris in Both were physical y abused. Both had absent fathers; Ramsey's terms of several personality disorders, including narcissistic. spent ten years in jail and Weise's committed suicide. Both had Apart from being grandiose, what are the symptoms of absent mothers due to alcoholism and/or brain damage. Both mania? A manic episode is a period in which a person feels were placed in foster care. Both were picked on. Both were either euphoric or extremely irritable. Harris certainly was not suicidal. The point being made here is that the boys had similar a euphoric person. He was irritable and bad-tempered, but life experiences and ended up committing similar acts. Weise testimony from his parents and peers makes it clear that Har- was on Prozac; Ramsey wasn't. It doesn't make sense to assume ris was like this long before he was on psychiatric medication. that Prozac made Weise go on a rampage when Ramsey did the Mania is a condition of feeling "revved up" or "wired" – of same thing without being on Prozac. Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 5
After Steven Kazmierczak's rampage at Northern Illinois University, it was written, "Stephen [sic] was considered a ‘nor- mal, undistressed person' … There is no doubt in my mind that So how many school shooters were on psychiatric medications the Illinois shooter's history of taking psychiatric medications at the time of their attacks? In a sample of 24 secondary school was the primary cause of his violent behavior."56 shooters, only two: Eric Harris and Jeffrey Weise. This means If Kazmierczak had been a "normal, undistressed person" that 8% of the sample was taking medications. Put differently, there would have been no reason for him to be given medica- 92% of the secondary school shooters were not on psychiatric tions. Kazmierczak, however, had an extensive history of sig- medications at the time of their attacks. Furthermore, there is nificant mental health problems. He had been so depressed and no evidence that medication made Harris or Weise manic or suicidal, including multiple suicide attempts, that he had nine hospitalizations before he turned eighteen, along with multiple The numbers are similar for the college and adult shoot- placements in residential treatment programs. He also had ers. Of the 22 in these two groups, two were taking psychiatric significant symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Even medications at the time of their attacks: Laurie Dann and Matti worse, Kazmierczak was psychotic: Saari. Because Stephen Kazmierczak had only recently stopped Steven acknowledged that he was paranoid and claimed to taking his medication, perhaps he should be included, for a total have "special powers." He claimed to hear voices that continual y of three shooters with at least some trace of medication in their commented about what he was thinking and how he behaved. bodies at the time of their attacks. Thus, 14% of the college and It was reported that Steven suffered auditory hal ucinations and adult shooters were on medication at the time of their attacks. on at least one occasion had a visual hal ucination.57 Again, there is no evidence that medication made them manic, Added to Kazmierczak's severe mental health problems was agitated, or violent. Even if we were to accept that psychiatric his fascination with Hitler, Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, Harris drugs caused these attacks, this still leaves over 86% of the and Klebold, and Seung Hui Cho. Kazmierczak was a depressed, incidents unaccounted for. Taken all together, only 5 out of 46 angry, psychotic person who was fascinated with mass murder- shooters (11%) were on medication at the time of their attacks.
ers, serial kil ers, and rampage school shooters. He was anything The belief that psychiatric medications cause school shoot- but a "normal, undistressed person." ings is unfounded at both the societal and the individual levels. Furthermore, there is no indication that medications made At the societal level, the argument that the rise in the use of psy- Kazmierczak agitated, manic, or violent. He did have side effects, chiatric drugs has caused a corresponding rise in violence and including weight gain, drowsiness, and flattened emotions, but homicide does not hold water for the simple fact that there has none of these accounts for murder. Besides, Kazmierczak's attack been no corresponding rise in violence and homicide. Just the was anything but impulsive and manic. It was highly planned opposite. In the last twenty years violent crime in general and and executed with composure.
homicides by youths in particular have decreased significantly. Final y, Kazmierczak's girlfriend reported he had stopped Medications cannot be blamed for a crisis of "mania, murder taking his Prozac three weeks before the attack. She said his and mayhem" because there is no such crisis. behavior did not change as a result of this.58 In fact, it appears The argument at the level of individual shooters is damaged that he had stopped taking all of his medications. The only by the frequent errors made by people espousing their views, psychiatric drug that showed up in the autopsy was "minute including inaccurate claims about which shooters took medi- amounts" of Xanax, an anti-anxiety medication.59 cations, whether they were on medications at the time of their Similarly, Laurie Dann (Winnetka, Illinois) and Matti Saari attacks, and the effects the medications actual y had on them. (Kauhajoki, Finland) were on medication at the time of their The concern about adverse effects of psychiatric medica- attacks. They both had long histories of mental health prob- tions is a legitimate concern and worthy of ongoing research. lems. Neither one became manic on medication. They both This concern, however, is not well served by assumptions, mis- methodical y planned and carried out their attacks. They were information, and innuendo in the place of facts. not impulsive acts done in a manic state.
These are not cases of ordinary people who underwent radical transformations into crazed killers under the influence of medication. They were people with significantly disturbed functioning – that's why they were given medication in the first place. School shooters are variously angry, depressed, sadistic, 1 "Incarcerate Big Pharma for Known Genocide for Once," April 22, 2012.
psychotic, traumatized, suicidal, homicidal, and/or obsessed with weapons, death, mass murderers, serial killers, or other 2 Mike Adams, "Illinois Shooter was Treated with Psych Meds Prior
to Shooting Rampage," February 17, 2008. http://www.naturalnews.
school shooters. There is no reason to assume that medication caused their rampages. If their behavior on medication was consistent with their behavior prior to the medication, it sug- gests that the medication had no significant impact on their 4 Paul Joseph Watson and Alex Jones, "Antidepressant Drugs Causing
functioning – for good or for il .
Epidemic of Mania, Mayhem and Murder," April 9, 2012. www.infowars.
Peter Langman, Ph.D. Copyright Version 2.0 6
5 Watson and Jones, "Antidepressant drugs."
6 Mark Olfson, Steven Marcus, Myrna Weissman, and Peter Jenson,
26 "Incarcerate Big Pharma for Known Genocide for Once," April 22, 2012.
"National Trends in the Use of Psychotropic Medications by Children," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27 David Icke Newsletter, "The Man from Manchuria…Via Blacksburg
41:5, May, 2002, pp. 514–521.
Mountain," April 22, 2007. 7 Mark Olfson and Steven Marcus, "National Patterns in Antidepressant
Medication Treatment," Archives of General Psychiatry, 66:8, August, 28 Kieran Nicholson, "Autopsy: Klebold Shot Self," The Denver Post, Febru-
2009, pp. 848–856.
ary 24, 2001.
8 Daniel Wood, "US Crime Rate at Lowest Point in Decades," Christian
29 "Dylan Klebold's Autopsy Report," p. 8. Available on www.schoolshoot-
Science Monitor, January 9, 2012.
9 "United States Crime Rates 1960–2010,"
30 Mike Adams, "Shootings in Germany, Alabama Underscore Violent
crime/uscrime.htm. Side Effects of Psychiatric Medications," March 11, 2009. http://www.
10 "United States Crime Rates 1960 – 2010,"
crime/uscrime.htm. 31 Bojan Pancesvskiin, "Mass Killer ‘Rejected' by Girl at Party," The Sunday
11 Youth Violence: National Statistics – Homicide, Centers for Disease
Times (United Kingdom), March 15, 2009.
32 State Court of Stuttgart, Criminal Division 18, Criminal Case Against
Jorg Wilhelm Kretschmer, born January 12, 1959, in Stuttgart; Case 12 Jim Marrs, "Drugged to Death; Our Kids and Our Troops," Citizens
Number18 KLs 112 Js 21916/09, p. 33.
Commission on Human Rights International, August 19, 2009. www.
33 Citizens Commission on Human Rights, "Another School Shooting;
Is It Another Psychiatric Drug," September 23, 2006. http://www.24- 34 Citizens Commission on Human Rights, "Psychiatric Drugs And Anger
14 Cybelle Fox, Wendy D. Roth, and Katherine Newman, "A Deadly Part-
Management Curricula – A Perspective on School Violence," p. 21. nership: Lethal Violence in an Arkansas Middle School." In National Research Council, ed., Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence, pp. 101–131 (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 35 Ministry of Justice, Finland, "Jokela School Shooting on 7 November
2003), p. 114.
2007 Report of the Investigation Commission," 2009, p. 50. Available 15 Scott Stephens and Rachel Dissel , "Who was Asa Coon?", Cleveland
on Plain Dealer, October 11, 2007. 36 Ministry of Justice, Finland, "Jokela School Shooting on 7 November
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Phaenews spring 2010

MariposaNews 1 Spring 2010n. SPRING ISSUE OF THE NEWSLETTER OF PHA EUROPE,EUROPEAN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION ASSOCIATION Dear friends,first of all I would like to thank you again for electing me President of PHA Europe. I am honoured by the trust you placed in me and look forward to working closely withthe Board and Members of PHA Europe in promoting the cause of Pulmonary Hyper-


Clinical Neurophysiology 119 (2008) 842–852 Non-provocative diagnostics of photosensitivity using visual evoked potentials Joost Vermeulen a,1, Stiliyan Kalitzin b,*, Jaime Parra c, Erwin Dekker c, Albert Vossepoel f, Fernando Lopes da Silva d,e a Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology,