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Referencing is not only important but is a legal necessity. Articles may not accurately reflect original work and therefore
readers should be given the direct reference to the original work. The following is a guideline on how to reference correctly.
Referencing does not have to be too time consuming if done correctly initially. Referencing style and format in
soundeffects is based on the Uniform Requirements of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
If you have any questions, please contact your editor for guidance.
When in doubt, refer to the Pubmed website, as our referencing style reflects theirs. Found at:
Simply copy/paste the journal article title out of the word document into the search line on the website. The
results will show how the article should appear as a reference.
• References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text.
Identify references in text, tables and legends as such: .
• References cited in tables or figure legends should be numbered in the sequence established by the first identification
in the article's text (regardless of where table appears).
• Quotes: Direct quotes should be used sparingly and only when the way they are worded adds particular emphasis.
When using a direct quote, try to keep the person's name close to the text and the quote should be in double quotation marks. E.g. Nicolaides (2002) states "The nuchal.".
• When referring to the work of others in similar fashion but not using direct quotes then: Nicolaides (2002)
• When generically referring to the work of others then the reference number, e.g.  should simply be used at the end of
the sentence before the full stop.
Electronic references (from ISO690-2:1997)
Database: Collection of data objects stored together, in electronic form, according to one schema and made accessible by
computer. NOTE - Some databases, or files within a database, may also constitute a monograph or serial publication. In
cases where it can be readily determined that a specific electronic document is a monograph or serial, those terms should
normally be preferred over the broader term "database".
Monograph: Non-serial bibliographic item, i.e. an item either complete in one part or complete (or intended to be
completed) in a finite number of separate parts. [ISO 690:1987]
Serial: Publication, in any medium, issued in successive parts, usually having numeric or chronological designations, and
intended to be continued indefinitely. [Adapted from ISO 3297:1986
Library Definitions of same
Database: a collection of computer records that have a standard format, usually contathat are searchable and
allow some electronic manipulation such as sorting or grouping.
Monograph: a scholarly book on a single subject, class of subjects, or person. Within the library field, this term is often
used for any non-serial publication. A more specific definition is a lengthy work on a particular subject or person, detailed in
treatment and often contain
Australian Sonographers Association – soundeffects – author guidelines 2
Serial: any publication issued in successive parts, appearing at intervals, usually regular ones, and, as a rule, intended to
be continued indefinitely. The term include newspapers, annuals, numbered monographic series and the
proceedings, transactions and memoirs of societies.
So from this: Use serial for journal articles, monograph for pdf files that open from a website and part of a homepage/
website for anything you read on the website that does not open in another window.
For soundeffects, the use of the open or closed database examples in the full-length referencing guidelines would be rare.
The website for PubMed is the most helpful if clarification for a reference is required. Found at:
Copy/paste the journal article title out of the word document into the search line on the website. If this doesn't work then try a combination of the first authors surname and part of the title.
Google or Google Scholar: enter either the name of the book or the publisher's name.
Try the link or part thereof. You will most likely need to "fill in the gaps" of the provided information as these are the
references least likely to be written as soundeffects requires
Check every reference even if it seems complete – names are often spelt incorrectly and issue and page numbers are regularly inaccurate.
List the first six authors followed by et al.
authors with initials
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002 Jun 20;935(1-2):40-6.
article title cont…
journal name (in italics)
If the author is an organisation
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in paticipants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002 Jun 20;40(5):679-86.
Both personal authors and an organisation as author
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European
men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.
Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of
migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
Australian Sonographers Association – soundeffects – author guidelines 3
Volume with part
Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002 Jun 20;83(Pt
If the article was: A type of article indicated as needed; an article containing retraction; an article retracted; an article republished with corrections; an article with published erratum; an article published electronically ahead of the print version, please contact your editor for the correct referencing. If unsure, include all information and enquire with the editor.
Books and other monographs
authors with initials
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd edn. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
Year of publication
Organisation(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.
If the reference was: chapter in a book; conference proceedings; conference paper; scientific or technical report;
dissertation; patent, please contact your editor.
Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Journal article on the internet
authors with initials
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from/june/Wawatch.htm Journal
exact URL – turn punctuation
over to next line
exact URL cont…
Monograph on the internet (to be used for pdf files that open from a website in a separate window)
Author (or editor) names
title of document
place of publication
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/
exact URL: no fullstop at end
Do not include full point at end of references as this may be inferred to be part of the URL. If a web address/URL needs to be broken over two lines, take over the punctuation first (ie don't leave punctuation symbols at the end of the line). Eg:
Australian Sonographers Association – soundeffects – author guidelines 4
Part of a homepage/website (pages from a website that do not open in a separate window)
American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www .ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html
date accessed on the internet
If the reference was a database on the Internet or part of a database on the Internet, please contact your editor.
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post.
2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
Dictionary and similar references
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th edn. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. p. 675.
If the reference was: a map; legal material; audiovisual material, please contact your editor.
Personal communications should be avoided unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. If
cited the name of the person and date of communication is required. The author should obtain written permission and
confirmation of accuracy from the source of personal communications.
For further information refer to www.icmje.org/index.html under the heading "Manuscript Preparation and Submission" and
Australian Sonographers Association – soundeffects – author guidelines 5
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