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The Power of Not Asking: How Do Generic Drug Substitution Laws Affect Patient's Demand for Generic Drugs? 1 Yan Song2 Douglas Barthold 3 Current Version: Nov/9/2015 Substituting generic for brand drugs whenever possible has been proposed as an effective way to control pre-scription drug expenditure growth in the United States. This work investigates whether mandatory switchingand presumed consent laws are effective in increasing generic drug use. The analysis uses plausibly exoge-nous changes in states' drug substitution policies for identification. The Difference-in-Difference regressionresults indicate that mandatory switching laws have little effect. However, presumed consent laws, wherebythe pharmacists could assume patients' consent to switch to generic drugs, reduce consumers' probability ofpurchasing brand drugs by 4.1 percentage points. We construct and estimate a bounded rationality modelto explain why presumed consent laws work. In the model, consumers in states with presumed consent lawsincur a cost when asking pharmacists for brand drugs. We find that presumed consent laws' effect in de-creasing brand drug use is equivalent to increasing the brand drug price by 3 dollars. The average marginaleffect of the policy is to reduce the probability of purchasing brand drugs by 6 and 11 percent. A welfarecalculation indicates that consumers' surplus loss exceeds the insurances' gain by 7.5 dollars per person perpurchase when states switch from explicit to presumed consent laws.
VersaLyse REF A09777 100 tests; 100 mL 1 mL / test VersaLyse Lysing Solution Ready-for-use Formulation Number of vials Volume per test 1 mL (ready-for-use when used with no concomitant fixation) PRECAUTIONS PREPARATION OF SAMPLES This reagent is intended for the lysis of red
Good Business…Better Health A comprehensive guide for smoke-free workplaces Acknowledgements: We thank our community partners, fel ow health units and internal departments for their insight and Adapted from the fol owing: Smoking Cessation in the Workplace: A Guide to helping your employees quit smoking. Health Canada, 2005 Towards a Healthier Workplace A Guide Book on Tobacco Control Policies. Health Canada, 2003 Employers' smoking cessation guide: Practical approaches to a costly workplace problem. Second Edition, Date unknown Updated 2015
Li et al. / J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 2011 12(12):983-989 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology) ISSN 1673-1581 (Print); ISSN 1862-1783 (Online) www.zju.edu.cn/jzus; www.springerlink.com E-mail: jz[email protected] Gastric motility functional study based on electrical bioimpedance measurements and simultaneous electrogastrography*
8.8. Mo 19:00 @Alte Synagoge Erfurt (Waagegasse 8) Bobe Mayses – Yiddish Knights and Other Impossibilities Theaterperformance/Theater Performance Eintritt/Admission: 14,50 €/8,50 € In Koproduktion mit dem Kunstfest Weimar bringt der Yiddish Summer ein neues Theaterstück nach Erfurt, das sich mit der mittelalterlich-jüdischen Geschichte der Stadt auseinandersetzt: Bobe Mayses – Yiddish Knights and Other Impossibilities, geschrieben vom New York Times-Bestsel erautor
A guide to International Volunteeringby Young Citizens In Action involving young people in the community through volunteering The GuideAdvice on International Volunteering .3How to use this Guide .3Making the right decision about where to go and what to do .4Our Personal Experiences! .4Preparing for your trip – what to do once you decide to go .7Getting ready to go .8List of essential items.9While you are away.10Keeping Healthy.11Disclaimers .14
August 2009 THE NEWSLETTER OF THE WASHINGTON STATE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION • VOLUME 64 • ISSUE 4 The Future of Psychology at Tri-State Bob Grubbs, PhD, WSPA Vice-President A s a relative newcomer to both the and practice styles to the lack of common protocols. Pacific Northwest and the language and patient treatment preferences. The keynote address for the second day of WSPA, a road trip to Idaho for In order to establish a good working the meeting, "Looking Forward: Future the Tri-State Psychological