JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, June 2006, p. 2032–2038
0095-1137/06/$08.00⫹0 doi:10.1128/JCM.00275-06Copyright 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Distribution and Invasiveness of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Switzerland, a Country with Low Antibiotic Selection Pressure,
from 2001 to 2004
Andreas Kronenberg,1 Phillip Zucs,2 Sara Droz,1 and Kathrin Mu
Institute for Infectious Diseases, University Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland
1; Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland
and Department for Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Received 8 February 2006/Returned for modification 17 March 2006/Accepted 27 March 2006
To describe the serotype-specific epidemiology of colonizing and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates,
which is important for vaccination strategies, we analyzed a total of 2,388 invasive and 1,540 colonizing S.
pneumoniae isolates collected between January 2001 and December 2004 within two nationwide surveillance
programs. We found that the relative rank orders of the most frequent serotypes (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6B, 7F, 14,
19F, and 23F) differed among invasive and colonizing isolates. Serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 9V, and 14 had increased
invasive potential, and serotypes/serogroups 3, 6A, 7, 10, 11, 19F, and 23F were associated with colonization.
The proportion of pediatric serotypes was higher among children <5 years old (48.5%) and persons >64 years
old (34.1%) than among other age groups (29.1%); it was also higher in West Switzerland (40.2%) than in other
geographic regions (34.7%). Likewise, serotype-specific proportions of penicillin-resistant isolates for types 6B,
9V, 14, and 19F were significantly higher in West Switzerland. The relative frequency of pediatric serotypes
corresponded with antibiotic consumption patterns. We conclude that the epidemiology of invasive and
colonizing S. pneumoniae isolates is influenced by the serotype-specific potential for invasiveness, and therefore,
surveillance programs should include colonizing and invasive S. pneumoniae isolates. Antibiotic selection
pressure determines the serotype distribution in different age groups and geographic regions and therefore the
expected direct and indirect effects of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine.
is a common cause of severe in-
pneumococcal resistance (6). This approach assumes that the
vasive disease and upper respiratory tract infections. For ex-
serotype-specific epidemiology of invasive and colonizing
ample, the annual incidence of otitis media in Switzerland is
pneumococci is largely comparable or at least correlated in a
22,500/100,000 children ⬍2 years of age and 18,000/100,000
predictable manner. Few studies have compared the serotype
children between 2 and 5 years of age (9). The virulence of S.
distribution and antibiotic resistance prevalence of invasive
is largely determined by its polysaccharide cap-
and nasopharyngeal pneumococci (20, 21, 24, 26, 27). More
sule, which is also the target of pneumococcal vaccines in
recently, several studies have estimated the invasiveness of
current use. More than 90 serotypes have been identified based
prevalent pneumococcal serotypes based on the relative sero-
on the antigenic composition of the polysaccharide capsule.
type prevalence in invasive and colonizing isolates (1, 14, 28).
Some of these serotypes exhibit a distinctive epidemiology with
Low numbers of pneumococcal isolates and/or a limited com-
regard to their potential to cause invasive disease, their occur-
parability of study groups from which invasive and noninvasive
rence in specific age groups or geographic regions, their asso-
isolates were collected hampered a detailed
ciation with antibiotic resistance, and their epidemic potential
analysis in many of these studies.
This study made use of two nationwide Swiss surveillance
The introduction of the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal
systems, one monitoring nasopharyngeal pneumococcal car-
polysaccharide vaccine (PCV-7; serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C,
riage and the other focusing on invasive pneumococcal disease.
19F, and 23F) stresses the importance of surveillance of pneu-
Invasive and colonizing S. pneumoniae
isolates collected pro-
mococcal serotype-specific epidemiology. Replacement of vac-
spectively between January 2001 and December 2004 were
cine serotypes with nonvaccine serotypes has been observed in
compared with regard to their relative serotype distribution
several vaccine studies and also shortly after the introduction
and antibiotic resistance prevalence. In addition, the relative
of universal vaccination of infants in the United States (16, 32).
invasiveness of pneumococcal serotypes was estimated as de-
A precise estimation of the prevalence of drug-resistant in-
scribed previously by Brueggemann et al. (1, 2).
vasive S. pneumoniae
isolates is hampered by the relatively low
(Part of the data was presented at the Annual Assembly of
numbers of cases in young age groups. Therefore, in 1996, the
the Swiss Society for Infectious Diseases, Basel, Switzerland,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended
June 2005, and the Meningitis Research Foundation Confer-
that nasopharyngeal isolates be used for the surveillance of
ence, London, United Kingdom, November 2005.)
MATERIALS AND METHODS
* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Institute for Infectious
Diseases, University of Bern, Friedbu
¨hlstrasse 51, 3010 Bern, Switzer-
Invasive and colonizing pneumococcal isolates.
Data on invasive S. pneu-
land. Phone: 41 31 632 32 59. Fax: 41 31 632 87 66. E-mail: kathrin
were obtained from the Swiss National Reference Center for Invasive
Pneumococci (NRCP). Reporting of invasive pneumococcal infection has been
SEROTYPE-SPECIFIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF S. PNEUMONIAE
mandatory in Switzerland since 1999 (http://www.bag.admin.ch). In March 2002,
TABLE 1. Characteristics of 2,388 invasive pneumococcal isolates
the NRCP (http://www.ifik.unibe.ch) was set up and has since been prospectively
from the Swiss National Reference Center (March 2002 to
collecting clinical pneumococcal isolates from normally sterile body sites (blood,
December 2004) and 1,540 pneumococcal nasopharyngeal
cerebrospinal fluid, and joint, pleural, and peritoneal fluid but not middle-ear
isolates from the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network
fluid) sent by Swiss clinical microbiology laboratories. The referral of invasive
(January 2001 to December 2004)
pneumococcal isolates to the NRCP is voluntary. Nevertheless, it is estimatedthat the center receives ⬎95% of all invasive isolates cultured in Switzerland. For
No. (%) of pneumococcal
instance, the number of invasive infections reported to the Swiss Federal Office
of Public Health during the years 2003 and 2004 was 924 and 1,000, respectively.
During the same time, the NRCP received 901 and 968 isolates, respectively. Inthis study, data on invasive isolates from March 2002 to December 2004 were
2,388 (100) 1,540 (100)
Data on colonizing pneumococci were obtained from the Pneumococcal Re-
sistance Study that is being conducted within the Swiss Sentinel System. This
972 (63.3) ⬍0.001
nationwide, ongoing, prospective pneumococcal surveillance study has been de-
scribed in detail previously (25). In brief, nasopharyngeal swabs are collected
from all outpatients who present with acute otitis media or pneumonia to prac-
titioners participating in the sentinel network. S. pneumoniae
is being cultured
735 (48.0) ⬍0.001
from the swabs at the Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern,
Switzerland, as previously described (25). In this study, data for nasopharyngeal
Penicillin (MIC ⬎ 0.06 mg/liter)
isolates from January 2001 to December 2004 were included.
Penicillin (MIC ⬎ 2 mg/liter)
Serotyping and resistance testing were done for all invasive and colonizing
bacterial isolates included in this study at the Institute for Infectious Diseases,
University of Bern, Switzerland, as previously described for the colonizing iso-
lates (25). In brief, capsular serotyping was done on all isolates by a Quellung
reaction using antiserum from the Statens Serum Institute (Copenhagen, Den-
mark). All isolates were tested against oxacillin (1-g disk), erythromycin, cotri-
moxazole, and levofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. For isolates with re-
duced susceptibility to any of these four antibiotics, MICs were determined by
use of the E test method (AB Biodisk) according to Clinical and Laboratory
Standards Institute (CLSI) (formerly NCCLS) guidelines (7). Data on patients'
age and gender were available for invasive and colonizing isolates, whereas
patients' canton (state) of residence was derived from the sending laboratory's or
sentinel physician's address. Also, for invasive isolates, the anatomical site of
isolation was known.
Antibiotic consumption data.
Data on outpatient antibiotic sales were pro-
vided by IMH-IMS Health Market Research and have partially been published
previously (11). Defined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants daily were
calculated using WHO standard doses and demographic information from the
last census in 2000.
Serotype distribution was analyzed for invasive and colo-
nizing isolates by age group and geographic region. For the purpose of geo-
graphic comparisons, Switzerland was divided into two regions, the French-
speaking West and the remaining parts of the country (designated "other"), as
252 (16.4) ⬍0.001
described previously (25).
Serotype/serogroup-specific penicillin resistance was calculated as the propor-
tion of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae
(PNSP) isolates in each serotype/
An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the likelihood of an individual serotype/
serogroup being isolated from a sterile site compared to merely colonizing a
NS, not significant (P
patient, as described previously (1). For the main analysis, all other serotypes/
Numbers for serogroups 6, 7, 9, and 23 do not include serotypes 6B, 7F, 9V,
serogroups served as the reference group. For comparison with the literature, the
analysis was repeated with serotype 14 as a fixed reference (2). Age and geo-graphic region were added to the model as potential confounders.
Descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis were
performed using StatView (version 5.0; SAS Institute). Proportions were com-
and geographic provenance: colonizing isolates were cultured
pared with the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. A cutoff P
more often from children ⬍5 years of age and were from the
of ⱕ0.05 (two-tailed) was used for all statistical analyses.
Western part of Switzerland (Table 1). These potentially con-founding variables were taken into account in the multivariate
Serotype/serogroup distribution among invasive and colo-
A total of 2,388 invasive S. pneumoniae
isolates collected by
Capsular serotyping of isolates yielded 41 dif-
the NRCP between March 2002 and December 2004 were
ferent serotypes/serogroups. A small percentage of isolates
analyzed. Invasive isolates were obtained mainly from blood
(3.1%) were nontypeable. With the exception of serotypes 5
cultures (90.8%) or cerebrospinal fluid (3.5%). In addition, the
and 6A, serotypes/serogroups that accounted for ⬍1% of all
study included data on 1,540 nasopharyngeal pneumococcal
isolates were combined into a group designated "other" for
isolates collected between January 2001 and December 2004
further analyses (Table 1). Serotype/serogroup distribution dif-
within the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network, designated as
fered between invasive and colonizing isolates (Table 1). In the
colonizing S. pneumoniae
isolates. Invasive and colonizing
univariate analysis, serotypes/serogroups 1, 4, 7F, 8, 9V, 14,
study isolates showed different distributions for patients' age
and 22 occurred significantly more often among invasive iso-
KRONENBERG ET AL.
J. CLIN. MICROBIOL.
However, the observed trends confirmed the findings of theoverall analysis (data not shown).
Serotype/serogroup distribution by age and geographic re-
The serotype distribution did not differ significantly be-
tween the age groups 0 to 1 and 2 to 4 years and between the
age groups 5 to 16 and 17 to 64 years (data not shown), which
were therefore pooled for further analysis. Figure 2 illustrates
the distribution of serotypes/serogroups by age group and geo-
graphic region. The following associations were confirmed by
multivariate analysis, adjusting for geographic region or age
group (as appropriate) and colonizing versus invasive isolates
(data not shown): (i) serotypes/serogroups 6 (P
⫽ 0.009), 6B
FIG. 1. ORs and 95% confidence intervals for the probability of S.
⬍ 0.001), 14 (P
⫽ 0.008), 15 (P
⫽ 0.003), 19F (P
⬍ 0.001), and
being isolated from a normally sterile site compared to
⬍ 0.001) were most common among young children ⬍5
being isolated from the nasopharynx for different serotypes/serogroups
years of age; (ii) serotypes/serogroups 1 (P
⬍ 0.001), 3 (P
adjusted for age and geographic region. The numbers in parentheses
0.001), 7 (P
⫽ 0.01), 7F (P
⫽ 0.05), 8 (P
⫽ 0.001), 9 (P
next to the serotypes/serogroups on the x
axis indicate the number of
and 22 (P
⫽ 0.001) were more frequent among older children
and adults; and (iii) serotypes/serogroups 9 (P
⫽ 0.05) and 19A(P
⫽ 0.02) prevailed in the western part of Switzerland, whileserotypes 3 (P
⫽ 0.04) and 7F (P
⫽ 0.03) were more frequent
lates. Serotypes/serogroups 6, 6B, 10, 11, 15, 18C, 19F, and 23
in other areas.
and nontypeable isolates were more frequent among coloniz-
Serotype/serogroup and antibiotic resistance.
ing isolates. Among the rare serotypes/serogroups (⬍1% of all
proportions of PNSP (MIC ⬎ 0.06 mg/liter) and high-level
isolates), serotype 5 was represented by eight (0.3%) invasive
penicillin (MIC ⱖ 2 mg/liter), erythromycin, cotrimoxazole,
isolates and one (0.1%) colonizing isolate (P
⬎ 0.05), serotype
and levofloxacin resistance were 12.1%, 1.0%, 13.2%, 18.9%,
6A was found only among colonizing isolates (0.4%, P
and 0.7%, respectively.
0.004), serotype 12F occurred only among invasive isolates
PNSP isolates were significantly more frequent among col-
⬍ 0.001), and serotype 38 was less frequent among
onizing isolates, while high-level resistance to levofloxacin and
invasive isolates (0.1%) than among colonizing isolates (0.6%)
penicillin was more frequent among invasive isolates. These
differences remained significant for high-level penicillin resis-
Association of serotypes/serogroups with invasiveness.
tance and levofloxacin resistance after adjustment for age and
were calculated for individual serotypes/serogroups in a logis-
geographic region (P
⫽ 0.04 for each antibiotic). Half (48.8%)
tic regression model adjusting for age and geographic region
of the isolates with high-level penicillin resistance belonged to
(Fig. 1). Serotypes 1 (OR, 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI],
serotype 14. Serotype distribution among levofloxacin-resistant
1.8 to 4.7), 4 (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 8.1), 7F (OR, 6.2; 95%
isolates was more diverse (data not shown).
CI, 3.4 to 11.5), 8 (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2 to 8.7), 9V (OR, 2.4;
Serotype-specific PNSP proportions (serotype-specific resis-
95% CI, 1.3 to 4.3), and 14 (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 4.0) were
tance [SSR]) differed between serotypes/serogroups (Table 2).
significantly associated with invasive isolates (Fig. 1). These six
PNSP proportions were higher in serotypes/serogroups 5, 6A,
serotypes contributed 43.1% of all invasive isolates compared
6B, 9, 9V, 14, 15, 19A, 19F, and 23F and nontypeable isolates.
to 12.9% of all colonizing isolates (P
⬍ 0.001). Serotype 14 was
In the univariate analysis, SSR differed significantly between
the most prominent invasive serotype, comprising 15.3% of
colonizing and invasive S. pneumoniae
isolates for serotypes/
invasive isolates, but it also belonged to the more prevalent
serogroups 1 (11.5 versus 0%; P
⫽ 0.004), 9 (without 9V, 28.8
colonizing serotypes (7% of all colonizing isolates). Serotypes
versus 7.5%; P
⫽ 0.001), and 23F (9.8 versus 20.4%; P
3 (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6), 7 (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to
After controlling for age and geographic region, 23F remained
0.95), 10 (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.9), 11 (OR, 0.6; 95% CI,
the only serotype for which SSR and invasiveness were signif-
0.3 to 0.95), 15 (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8), 19F (OR, 0.3;
icantly associated (adjusted OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.34 to 8.55;
95% CI, 0.2 to 0.4), and 23 (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.9) were
⫽ 0.009). Interestingly, four serotypes with high odds ratios
significantly associated with colonizing isolates (Fig. 1). To-
for the association with invasiveness (serotypes 1, 4, 7F, and 8)
gether, they contributed 42.5% of all colonizing isolates com-
belonged to the serotypes with the lowest SSR (Table 2 and
pared to 21.4% of all invasive isolates (P
Fig. 1). However, there was no significant linear correlation be-
When the logistic regression analysis of the association of
tween the OR for invasiveness and SSR. As illustrated in Fig. 1,
individual serotypes/serogroups with invasive and colonizing
serotype 3 and serogroup 7, which were more prevalent among
isolates was repeated using serotype 14 as a reference in anal-
colonizing serotypes, had low SSR, and serotypes 14 and 9V,
ogy to the study reported previously by Brueggemann et al. (2),
which belong to the "invasive" serotypes, had high SSR.
similar results were obtained. Serotypes 1, 4, 7F, 8, 9V, and
SSR did not vary significantly by age group (data not shown).
19A were at least as invasive as serotype 14, whereas all other
However, SSR proportions for serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, and 19F
serotypes tested were significantly more often associated with
and nontypeable isolates were significantly higher in the West
colonization than serotype 14.
than in other geographic regions (Table 2). Interestingly, se-
Small numbers did not allow for an in-depth analysis of
rotypes 6B, 9V, 14, and 19F belong to the five so-called pedi-
serotype-specific invasiveness among different age groups.
SEROTYPE-SPECIFIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF S. PNEUMONIAE
FIG. 2. Serotype/serogroup distribution of invasive (A and C) and colonizing (B and D) S. pneumoniae
isolates by age group and geographic
region. The numbers in parentheses next to the serotypes/serogroups on the x
axis indicate the number of isolates.
Pediatric serotypes and vaccine coverage.
The pediatric se-
rotypes 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were found more frequentlyamong children ⬍5 years of age (48.5%) and elderly patients(34.1%) than among patients between 5 and 64 years old
TABLE 2. Serotype/serogroup-specific penicillin resistance of
⬍ 0.001 for children ⬍5 years old; P
⫽ 0.007 for
invasive and colonizing S. pneumoniae
by geographic region
elderly patients ⬎64 years old) (Table 3). The proportions ofpediatric serotypes did not differ significantly between the age
groups 0 to 6 months (43.0%), 7 to 24 months (49.8%), and 25
to 48 months (46.8%). Also, pediatric serotypes did not occur
more frequently among women of childbearing age (17 to ⬍45
years old) than among men of the same age group (27.1%
versus 28.9%, respectively). There was a trend towards a
higher proportion of pediatric serotypes in the Western region
The stratified analysis for penicillin-susceptible and PNSP iso-
lates showed that the variation of the proportion of pediatric
serotypes by age group was seen only among penicillin-susceptible
isolates (Table 3). In the Western region, the predominance of
pediatric serotypes occurred only among PNSP isolates.
The proportions of invasive (46.2%) and colonizing (48.3%)
isolates covered by PCV-7 (excluding potentially cross-reacting
serotypes) were relatively low but comparable. The propor-
tions were higher among infants ⬍2 years of age (65.1% for
invasive and 56.1% for colonizing isolates) and children 2 to 4
years old (51.3% for invasive and 49.9% for colonizing iso-
lates). Similar, albeit smaller, variations were found for the
proportion of vaccine serotypes in different age groups and
geographic regions. This is not unexpected, since five of the
seven serotypes included in the vaccine belong to the pediatric
value was adjusted for age group and the proportion of colonizing and
invasive isolates. NS, not significant (P
KRONENBERG ET AL.
J. CLIN. MICROBIOL.
TABLE 3. Risk factors for pneumococcal carriage or invasive disease
have shown no significant differences in the serotype distribu-
with pediatric serotypes (6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F) among 3,928
tions between children with acute respiratory tract infection
children and adults in Switzerland from 2001 to 2004
and healthy children (1, 14, 30). Due to the design of the two
Isolate group and
surveillance programs that provided the study isolates, invasive
and colonizing isolates differed significantly in their distribu-
tion by age and geographical location. However, the large
number of strains included allowed us to control for potential
confounders by multivariate analysis. Previous studies have
analyzed the characteristics of individual clones within preva-
lent serotypes (1, 14, 28). In this study, the genetic population
structure was obtained for only a small fraction of the studyisolates (data not shown), which did not allow for a detailed
analysis. However, the serotype/serogroup can still serve as a
valid unit for analysis of the invasive potential of S. pneu-
This study found a significant association of serotypes/sero-
groups 1, 4, 7F, 8, 9V, 12F, and 14 with invasive disease and an
association of serotypes/serogroups 3, 6A, 7 (other than 7F),10, 11, 15, 19F, 23 (other than 23F), and 38 with colonization.
This corresponds with recent reports from other geographic
regions (1, 2, 14, 28). There were some exceptions. Serotype
18C was associated with a higher invasive potential in studies
from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland (1, 14, 28),
but this association could not be confirmed in this study despite
a sufficient number of serotype 18C isolates. Similar to the
Odds ratio was adjusted for age or geographic region (as appropriate) and
findings by Brueggemann et al. (1, 2), the rare serotype 38 did
anatomical site (colonization versus invasive infection).
Outpatient antibiotic consumption.
was higher in West Switzerland (12.4 to 13.0 DDD per 1,000inhabitants daily) than in the rest of Switzerland (7.9 to 8.5DDD per 1,000 inhabitants daily). In addition, cephalosporinswere used more often in West Switzerland than in the rest ofSwitzerland (10.7 to 11.6% versus 6.8 to 7.1% of total antibi-otic consumption). Total consumption rates as well as therelative distribution of different antibiotic classes were stablebetween 2002 and 2004 (Fig. 3).
The particular strength of this study was the availability of
large strain collections from two simultaneous, ongoing, pro-spective, nationwide, and representative pneumococcal sur-veillance programs for invasive and colonizing S. pneumoniae
isolates in combination with national data on antibiotic con-sumption. Previous studies, which compared invasive and col-onizing pneumococcal isolates, were based on smaller straincollections and were restricted to children or children attend-ing day care centers (1, 2, 14, 28). In Switzerland, PCV-7 waslicensed in 2000. Official recommendations were restricted tochildren at risk, and vaccine use has been low (Swiss FederalOffice of Public Health recommendations). Therefore, PCV-7had no influence on the study results.
The present study also has some limitations. Epidemiologi-
cal data related to study isolates were scarce, i.e., there was noinformation about comorbidities. Colonizing isolates were ob-tained from the nasopharynx of patients with acute respiratory
FIG. 3. Absolute (A) and relative (B) outpatient antibiotic con-
tract infection and not from healthy persons. This may have
sumption in DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day in West Switzerland
influenced the serotype distribution. However, previous studies
compared to the rest of Switzerland from 2002 to 2004.
SEROTYPE-SPECIFIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF S. PNEUMONIAE
not appear to exhibit an increased invasive potential as sug-
considerably lower than that reported in previous reports from
gested previously by Hanage et al. (14). One likely explanation
the United States (⬎44%), Scotland (58%), and Sweden
for this discrepancy could be that distinct clones of serotypes
(48%) (8, 10, 19, 23). Waning immunity with increasing age,
18C and 38 circulate in Northern Europe. The characterization
antibiotic selection pressure, and increased exposure to pedi-
of serotypes/serogroups with high invasive potential is of epi-
atric serotypes have been discussed as possible explanations for
demiological and public health importance. Pneumococcal se-
the predominance of pediatric serotypes among the elderly
rotypes/serogroups with a propensity for colonization are also
population (10). All three factors probably play a role and act
relevant since they can cause high morbidity through upper
in concert. Here, as in the United States (10), the association
respiratory tract infections such as acute otitis media. Surveil-
of pediatric serotypes with old age was also preserved when the
lance should therefore include both colonizing and invasive
analysis was restricted to penicillin-susceptible isolates. This
supports the suggested role of waning immunity in the selec-
Serotypes 1, 4, 7F, and 8, which have a high risk for inva-
tion of pediatric serotypes. However, antibiotic selection pres-
siveness, had very low proportions of serotype-specific penicil-
sure is also likely to be an important factor. In Switzerland, the
lin resistance. Low exposure to antibiotic selection pressure
rate of antibiotic consumption in outpatients is among the
and reduced probability for the acquisition of resistance genes
lowest observed in Europe, with an average of 8.97 DDD per
due to a short duration of colonization may explain this asso-
1,000 inhabitants per day (5, 11, 12). Only in The Netherlands
ciation. Serotype 3 had little resistance despite a propensity for
has antibiotic consumption been equally low. Low antibiotic
colonization. A constitutively high level of expression of the
selection pressure may explain the relatively low proportion of
polysaccharide capsule in serotype 3 may impede invasiveness
pediatric serotypes among the elderly population observed in
and the acquisition of resistance genes during colonization (13,
this study. These findings are relevant for the expected indirect
31). Serotypes 14 and 9V have been associated with both in-
effect (herd immunity) of PCV-7 on older age groups and for
vasive disease and antibiotic resistance. However, both sero-
the potential use of this vaccine in the elderly (10, 32). The
types are probably good invaders and colonizers, as described
proportion of serotypes covered by PCV-7 among infants was
in this study and previous studies (1, 14, 28).
lower in Switzerland than in other European countries (16, 17).
The relative serotype/serogroup distribution differed be-
Again, low antibiotic selection pressure seems to be an impor-
tween invasive and colonizing S. pneumoniae
tant reason for this observation. In contrast with previous stud-
tions were due mostly to different rank orders of serotypes/
ies from the United States and South Africa, no association
serogroups rather than a vastly different composition. The
was found between pediatric serotypes and women of child-
differences in rank orders reflected the invasive or colonizing
bearing age (3, 10). This suggests that sociodemographic fac-
potential of individual serotypes/serogroups as described
tors associated with low crowding may have also influenced the
above. This is in accordance with findings of previous studies
(20, 21, 26). The major discrepancies between colonizing and
A higher proportion of pediatric serotypes and significantly
invasive pneumococci were related to serotypes 14, which pre-
higher serotype-specific proportions of penicillin resistance for
dominated among invasive isolates, and 19F, which was the
the pediatric serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, and 19F were observed in
most frequent colonizing serotype. Since both serotypes were
West Switzerland. Antibiotic consumption among outpatients
associated with penicillin resistance and since both serotypesare included in the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, neither the
in this region is significantly higher than in other regions of
overall penicillin resistance nor the proportion of serotypes
Switzerland (Fig. 3) (11, 25). In addition, cephalosporins,
covered by the vaccine differed significantly between colonizing
which exert a higher selection pressure for penicillin-resistant
and invasive isolates. However, this balance could easily be
isolates than amoxicillin (4), are used more
disturbed by serotype redistribution, for instance, due to vac-
frequently in West Switzerland (Fig. 3). Also, day care atten-
cine selection pressure. Therefore, colonizing isolates should
dance has been shown to be significantly higher in West Swit-
only be used with caution to predict serotype distribution and
zerland (20.7 versus 11.9%), although it was not an indepen-
resistance among invasive isolates.
dent risk factor for the carriage of PNSP (25). The spread of
Age-specific serotype/serogroup distribution of invasive S.
penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae
isolates is probably due
isolates in this study corresponded well with find-
to the geographical spread of a small number of resistant
ings in other European countries. The pediatric serotypes 6B,
clones rather than a frequent de novo development of resis-
9V, 14, 19F, and 23F predominated among the youngest age
tance in individual isolates (22). Therefore, antibiotic selection
group, and serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, 7F, 8, and 22 were relatively
pressure as well as easier dissemination in day care centers
more prevalent after infancy (15). Serotype 3 accounted for a
were probably responsible for the selection of resistant clones
larger percentage of invasive disease among young children in
in West Switzerland, leading to higher proportions of SSR and
Switzerland (13%) than in other European countries (maxi-
resistant serotypes in this geographic region. However, there is
mum of 5 to 6%) (15). Serotype 3 has rarely been associated
some evidence that pneumococcal strains with recently ac-
with antibiotic resistance. The high prevalence of serotype 3
quired penicillin resistance may have also been selected (18).
may therefore reflect the relatively low antibiotic selection
In conclusion, the epidemiology of invasive and colonizing S.
pressure in Switzerland, as discussed below.
isolates is influenced by the serotype-specific poten-
The proportion of pediatric serotypes was higher among
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also observed this association. However, in this study, the pro-
In addition, antibiotic selection pressure deter-
portion of pediatric serotypes among the elderly (34%) was
mines the serotype distribution in different age groups and in
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The Impact of a Food For Education Program on Schooling in Cambodia Maria Perrotta† This version: May 15, 2012. First version: May 2009. This study is an evaluation of the impact of a Food for Education program implemented in primary schools (grade 1 to 6) in six Cambodian provinces between 1999 and 2003. We find that school enrollment increased to varying degree in relation to different designs of the intervention. We also investigate
eNeonatal Review VOLUME 10, ISSUE 7 TREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR GERD IN NEONATES In this Issue. Length of Activity Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, is 1.0 hour Physicians common in neonates and infants. Regurgitation with clinical y significant sequelae 1.0 contact hour Nurses