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Table of Contents
Ⅰ. Overview of Training Program -------------------------------1 1. Purpose of Training Program -------------------------------1 2. Principles of Training Program ----------------------------1 3. Session Overview ------------------------------------------2 4. Training Period -------------------------------------------2 5. Weekly Schedule for In-service Training -------------------3 6. Daily Schedule for In-service Training --------------------4 7. Policy on English Only Zone -------------------------------4 8. Evaluation Policy -----------------------------------------5 1. Course and Hours -----------------------------------------8 2. In-service Training Program Components -------------------15 Ⅲ. Essays from Writing Class ---------------------------------17 Ⅳ. Reflections On Training Program ---------------------------50 Ⅴ. Teaching Methodologies: Lesson Plans ----------------------69 Ⅵ. Memories of In-service Training Program ------------------111 Ⅶ. Trainee List for Training --------------------------------113 Ⅰ Overview of Training Program
1. Purpose of Training Program
□ To improve the English teachers' communicative competence □ To enhance the English teachers' instructional skills in order to effectively design and implement TEE (Teaching English in English) lessons in their classroom □ To improve the English teachers' ability to construct lessons and to reflect on their teaching process.
□ To analyze and develop English learning materials for effective English teaching.
2. Principles of Training Program
□ To develop various instructional strategies and teaching- learning methods appropriate for learners.
□ To maximize participation opportunities in and out of the collaborative activities □ To enhance instructional skills for TEE with a special focus on task-based teaching and whole language instruction.
□ To give an intensive focus on English language use in the context of secondary education □ To improve ability in analyzing the curriculum and the textbook and creatively adapt the textbook to motivate learners to learn.
□ To provide opportunities to design and assess materials for use in their classroom.
portfolio of appropriate learning materials for the class.
□ To participate in the overseas training program at the end of the training program.
3. Session Overview
□ Period : September 1, 2012 - January 31, 2013 □ Total Number of Training Hours: 650 hours □ Total Number of Trainees: 16 □ Class Size: 8 trainees per class 4. Training Period
Main Focus
Session Ⅰ
.Teaching methodology Session Ⅱ
.Teaching methodology .Teaching practicum .Teaching methodology .Cultural experience 5. Weekly Schedule for In-service Training
Opening Ceremony, Pre-test Chuseok (1), Gaecheonjeol (3) Election Day(19)/Post Test(21) Overseas Program(24) Closing Ceremony (31) 6. Daily Schedule for In-service Training
7. Policy on English Only Zone
□ All the classes are conducted in English to enhance English language proficiency of the trainees.
□ All the trainees are always encouraged to speak in English around the LEC.
□ All the trainees are encouraged to interact with each other in English in a variety of activities as well as regular 8. Evaluation Policy
□ Overview of Program Evaluation
assesment system will be based not only on the courses that are Individuals' grades will be calculated according to their own relative ranking of all trainees.
□ Domestic Training (300%)
1st Session
2nd Session
Writing as a process How to Teach Writing Extensive Listening 2 Extensive Listening 1 How to Teach Listening Task-Based Speaking 2 How to Teach Writing □ Overseas Training (100%)
& Journal Writing □ Class Attendance
Class attendance and participation in activities arranged at LEC are course requirements. If trainees don't take part in class or activities, grades will be deducted based on the following criteria: 2 - 3 absences = -2 points 4 - 5 absences = -5 points more than 4 absences = -10 points Demerit points may not be applied when official affairs are involved in case related documents are submitted. However, it is the trainee's responsibility to negotiate make-up assignments.
□ Normal Distribution of Assessment
All instructors can determine how they assign the proper
guidelines about evaluation will have to be provided to trainees The paper-based test can be presented to trainees based on lectures, textbooks, videos and additional assigned readings discussed in class. The format of the test can be multiple choice, matching, short answer and essay. A study guide will be given to students at least a week before the test, and at least one full week will be given for a take-home exam.
Students will participate in class activities demonstrating various techniques and ESL strategies. A written outline of a mini-lesson will be turned in along with assessment forms for Using a standardized assessment and other measures, evaluate the language proficiency of an English Language Learner. Write interpretation and recommendations.
1. Course and Hours
1.1 Domestic Program
□ The 1st Session: September 3 October 26 (8 weeks)
Writing as a Process Intensive & Extensive Task-Based Speaking1 Intensive & Extensive Practice of English Language Teaching Classroom English Intensive Listening (TOEFL, Interview) Opening Ceremony & □ The 2nd Session: October 29 December 21 (8 weeks)
How to Teach Writing Intensive & Extensive Task-Based Speaking2 Intensive & Extensive Practice of English Language Teaching Classroom English Intensive Listening


1.2 Overseas Program
□ Period:
December 24 January 22 (4 weeks)
□ Place:
University of Hawai'i, at Manoa
The primary objective is to inform teachers of English of the latest developments in the theory and practice of classroom language language skills. Teachers will also be given hands-on presentations. They will spend four weeks concentrating on the following five key components of the program: 1. English as a Foreign Language: Lectures on Theory 2. Hands-On Training Sessions 3. Professional Teacher Skills Development 4. School Visit: U.S. Classroom Observation 5. Cross-cultural Experience and Exploration: Life in Classroom Research Testing & EvaluationExtensive Reading English as
Task-Based Language Teaching a Foreign
Corpus-Based Language Teaching Language and Culture and Practice
MotivationInstruction of Spoken English Teaching Reading Skills English Through English Teaching Casual Conversations Teaching Listening & SpeakingTeaching Writing Skills Intro to HawaiiAmerican CultureEFL Resources Using Technology for EFL Developing Comprehension Questions for ReadingSkill DevelopmentMicro Teaching Classroom Observation Interaction with American Colleagues Fieldwork in Real American Settings Exploration of Various Destinations Experiencing Life in Hawaii □ Curriculum Specifics:
1. English as a Foreign Language: Lectures on Theory and Practice (20 hours) A. Bilingual Education (2 hours) B. Teaching English as an International Language: The Role of Culture in Asian Context (2 hours) C. Developing Interaction Competence for EFL Learners (2 D. Motivating Foreign Language Learners (2 hours) E. Communication Activities for EFL Learners (2 hours) F. Fluency and Appropriacy in Oral English (2 hours) G. Telling Stories: Accounts of Personal Experience and Other Forms of Extended Discourse (2 hours) H. Second Language Pedagogies: Integrating Technologies into Language Instruction and Research (2 hours) I. Bridging Psychology of Learning with Pedagogy (2 hours) J. Testing and Evaluation in EFL (2 hours) 2. Hands-on Training Sessions (10 hours) A. Teaching English Writing Skills (2 hours) B. Teaching Vocabulary Skills (2 hours) C. Teaching English to Young Learners (2 hours) D. How to Integrate Online Resources for Language Learning E. Survey of Games for Motivation in Teaching English (2 A. Introduction to Hawaii/American Culture (4 hours) B. EFL Skills Training (10 hours) C. Micro Teaching/Teaching Technique (16 hours) 4. School Visit: U.S. Classroom Observation (20 hours) Middle and High Schools B. Schools assigned for Observational Training in the past Niu Valley Middle School Washington Middle School Mid Pacific Institute 5. Cross-cultural Experience and Exploration: Life in Hawaii Hands-on Training Professional Teacher Skill 10 EFL Lectures it s-cultural Experience □ Learning Model
development program with a rich complex of several key


□ Learning Environment
crossroads between Asia and the rest of the world. Hawaii will be the participants' "living classroom" as they study horizons of possibilities for the future.
participants will have access to the University's extensive library collection and state-of-the-art computer rooms.
Workshop instructors are from the University's renowned Department of Second Language Studies, one of the premier applied linguistics programs in the world.
2. In-service Training Program Components
In-service Training Program is principally focused on the development of English Communicative skills and instruction skills.
(1) Communicative Proficiency
Writing as a Process Intensive & Extensive Listening 1 Task-Based Speaking 1 (2) English Teaching Methods
How to Teach Writing Intensive & Extensive Listening 2 How to Teach Listening Task-Based Speaking 2 How to Teach Speaking English Language Teaching (3) Others
Teaching Methodology Ceremony & Orientation Test (TOEFL, NEAT), Interview Ⅲ Essays from Writing Class
1. The Use of Symbols in Who, Sir? Me, Sir?
(Jeonbuk Science High Jumping to conclusions about children is often dangerous because they change greatly as they grow. K. M. Peyton, the writer of Who, Sir? Me, Sir?, uses a tetrathlon to symbolically show the development of children. His book shows how the children in Hawkwood School develop their responsibility, team work, and confidence in their strengths. As a main event, the tetrathlon drives the story like a pivot, around which important phases of coming of an age are arranged.
Originally, the idea of beating the Greycoats School team in the tetrathlon comes from a Hawkwood School teacher, who gives it up because the school has financial problems. However, the children are determined to go on with the competition on their own. Going through challenging situations, where they learn invaluable lessons.
In the beginning of the story, Peyton uses the relationship between the children and their horses to symbolize their development of responsibility. For example, Hoomey feels unhappy with the idea of the tetrathlon and he is scared of horses at first. Eventually he decides to join the competition to save the horse. Peyton shows realized, very strongly, that he did not want Bones to become dog food. Like Hoomey, Nails-who is considered dangerous-builds a special relationship with a mare named Firelight. The relationship is symbolic in that he chooses to save her and then changes to be a much nicer responsibility of Nails for the mare and her baby creates an image of a surrogate family in the story. Staying in the stable with her, he feels comfortable and warm like sitting by the firelight of a home. In literature, the word firelight often suggests a family home.
Not only a sense of responsibility but also team spirit plays an children's preparation for the tetrathlon symbolizes their development of team work. In the middle of training, Nails loses interest in the competition when Firelight has a baby. However, he changes his mind with Biddy's advice: But you have to care. It isn't just for you.
You're part of a team. Everyone's worked really hard, so you have to ride for them. On the day of the tetrathlon, despite unexpected trouble that makes him late for the competition, his team spirit drives him to complete the tetrathlon. In addition, the other team members also try to accept and care for one another while training for themselves. When they are found swimming secretly in the pool of Mr.
Smith and try to escape from the house, they realize that Jazz is left behind in the pool. Just then Nutty stops running and says, We can't leave Jazz! At last, the children bravely run together through the centre of town only in swimming suits with spectators laughing and shouting at them. Truly they must feel comfortable and unified from being in a group even in an embarrassing time.
symbolizes the children's development of confidence by allowing the children to find their own strengths. Peyton starts the story with a poor impression of the children in Hawkwood School, and finishes it with a scene showing the children finding out what they are interested in or good at after finishing the competition. As an example, in the beginning of the story Hoomey appears to be lazy and lacks of confidence as his name suggests: a blend of Who and Me However, after completing the tetrathlon, Hoomey gets to know what he wants in his life and dreams of being a famous rider flying over the jumps on his horse like a bird of freedom. Like Hoomey, Jazz also does not welcome the tetrathlon at first and he is not confident about his look as a Sikh. Peyton writes He felt that everyone was looking at his dark skin and his turban. However, at the end of the story, he finds he really likes swimming and he is invited by the Greycoats teacher to join beginning- develops coaching skills as a captain of the team, going through trials and errors for the competition. And she dreams to be a captain of an Olympic riding team when the tetrathlon is over.
In Who, Sir? Me, Sir?, Peyton successfully proves that children learn from experience using a symbolic tetrathlon. The relationship between the children and the horses works as a motivation for the tetrathlon symbolizing their responsibility, and the preparation for the competition enables them to develop their team work. Lastly, they gain confidence by finding out their strong points going through the tetrathlon. Regardless of the result on the competing day, the tetrathlon turns out happily with the children's maturity. Peyton truly finishes the story, writing It had been a great day for all of 2. The Use of Symbolism in "Breaking Loose"
(Seojeonju Middle School) M.G. Vassanji uses symbols to represent the relationship between characters that have their own cultures in "Breaking Loose".
He creates a new type of hybrid culture through the relationship of the two main characters, an African girl who has Indian ancestors and an African man who comes from Ghana. They meet at a university dance in an African country, Tanzania. They develop their relationship and learn to understand and accept different cultures through significant events. After admitting and overcoming cultural differences, they decide to launch a new life together. In this story, multicultural noteworthy symbols for relationships based on cultural differences appear throughout the story. The dance with the two main characters that have different racial backgrounds signifies contact between cultures in a cross-cultural society. On the other hand, Yasmin's strong Indian family indicates how tradition can be a potential barrier to relationship-building with people from other communities. A foreigner, Akoto, who comes from Ghana and works at the university in Tanzania, represents xenophobia that is prevalent in homogeneous This story begins when two characters from different cultural backgrounds meet and dance. The dance symbolizes the meeting of two cultures. It plays a role as a medium which connects them, and a new relationship between the two cultures begins. While dancing, they reveal cultural conflict. Akoto says to Yasmin, "You're too westernized, you Asians." It inspires her to search for her roots in India. Akoto, a professor of sociology and writer, also encourages her to read African literature written by new local writers. He says that they go back to their beginnings; digging deep to find what is real.
Receiving impetus from him, Yasmin, who studies literature in the university, reads the recent books written by African writers. She also discovers her Indian roots through endless reading and discussion with her father about India. After finding her ethnic identity, she says the world looks "smaller but interesting." She realizes the change in the world and she decides to be a part of that change. She thinks "People who were locked into their own histories and customs were like prisoners." Akoto alludes to her change, saying "It's brave, what you've done. Trying to break away from family, friends, the old customs, the old days… trying to find your own path in life." Finally, Yasmin breaks free from her own history and customs and seeks her identity. She is ready to go into a fresh world. Akoto inspires her to start a new life with him, saying "We'll have to do the best we can, won't we?" The new relationship of the two main characters creates relationships with people from different societies. Yasmin belongs to an Indian culture as well as an African culture. She is receptive enough to dance with a stranger, unlike her family members, especially her mother. However, Yasmin's mother clings to old customs of a homogeneous community. She yells at Yasmin who brings Akoto home, "How can you bring him here like this? What will the neighbors think? I'm so ashamed!" She adds more severe words after listening to Yasmin's reply that he is a professor. She says "I don't care if he's a professor's father!" She does not want Yasmin to be friends with a man who is not Asian as she says, "What do you know of him? With an Asian man, even if he's very bad, you know what to expect.
But with him?" Yasmin confronts an invisible obstacle to overcome for eventually conquers it. She confesses "It's not going to be easy… with my father dead, this will be the most terrible news for my mothe will kill her." She takes a step forward towards a new community. Otherwise, she would be confined in the tradition of her ethnic group.
however, Akoto is rejected strongly by Yasmin's mother because he is a foreigner. This rejection stands for xenophobia that is prevalent in homogeneous cultures. Yasmin's mother is bound by old patterns and does not make terms with strangers. In contrast, Akoto is ready to embrace different cultures. He attends the funeral of Yasmin's father without constraint. However, as soon as Yasmin's mother sees him, she loses control and screams "What are you doing here? What kind of man are you? Who asked you to come? Go away!" It seems that there is no room for compromise. She is stuck with common social conventions of a closed group, and does not break away from it. She never dreams of accepting a foreigner, Akoto as a member of her family, whoever he is.
In their relationship, there is no hope for a cultural exchange.
Three symbols attract readers' attention in this story.
The dance represents the beginning of an interaction between two different cultural groups, and the family symbolizes the tradition of an ethnic group with its own culture. The people from a strong racial group have difficulty in breaking out of it, and exchanging cultural ideas with other group members. The foreigner stands for xenophobia exclusive society" never try to be friends with people from a relationships between different groups of people. As you can guess by the title of the story "Breaking Loose", he urges people to get out of their own communities and move forward for a new changing society as global citizens.
3. Freedom and Humanity in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn
(Iksan Eoyang Middle School) Mark Twain's hero, Huck Finn, is regarded as a juvenile vagrant at first sight, but observing him closely, lots of positive features are found. Twain describes with sharp insight the nature of human beings and the society of his age in his novel, The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. He intends to demonstrate hypocritical inhumanity discrimination, and slavery system. He describes a white boy, Huck, to present the escape from civilized society; a black slave, Jim, to present the escape from slavery and racism; and the Mississippi River to present freedom and change. The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn is a story about the adventure of Huck, a white boy who grows up traveling with Jim, the escaped slave, in the Mississippi River basin. In The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn, a reader observes Twain severely criticizing the deep-rooted inhumanity of hypocritical institutions and customs of American civilized society.
Twain describes the fight for a young boy's individual freedom from the civilized society. In The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn, he treats Huck as a symbol of a boy who comes from the lowest rung of white society and who is escaping to freedom from that society: "I had to wear new clothes and be good all the time," and "I didn't like living in a house and sleeping in a bed." Twain uses "new clothes," "be good all the time," "a house," and "a bed" as symbols of civilized society. When the Widow Douglas attempts to reform Huck in civilized society, he resists her attempts and maintains his ways. Twain strongly criticizes the absurdity or unreasonableness of her society by Sally Phelps who looks kind for Huck, but who is a slave owner. And when Sally plans to adopt and "civilize" him, Huck intends to run away to the wild country: I think I'm going to have to run away before the others, because Aunt Sally wants me to live with her. He escapes the attempts of the hypocritical society to civilize him.
The author criticizes the hypocrisy and cruelty hidden behind the social system. He writes about Jim, a black slave with humanity who is escaping to freedom from slavery and racism. When Jim is caught and locked up, Huck and Tom make a plan to free Jim. Even though Tom knows Jim is free already, he does not say the truth. Huck does his best to free Jim, but Tom enjoys that just for fun, while Jim is suffering hardships in a hut. But after Jim is set free, Jim says: "I am a free man now, But old Jim is not going to run away and leave one of his friends with a bullet in his leg! So I'm staying right here until a doctor comes." Jim wants to stay with his friend, Tom, to take care for him, rather than completing his escape and risks recapture.
The author describes Jim as a good-hearted and moral character to demonstrate the humanity of black slaves compared to the white people surrounding them. Through Tom's action, the author shows how ideas of racial superiority brings about cruelty and hypocrisy and condemns Twain describes the Mississippi River as a symbol of freedom and change. Huck and Jim travel with the water, never staying long in one place. They experience various accidents and enjoy their freedom and their friendship in a raft or a canoe. Compared to the civilized towns along the banks, the river gives a peaceful space to them. The river means not only a 'free' place itself but also a key which leads to a 'free' place to Huck and Jim who are facing in the same difficulty: abuse and the threat of lost freedom. So Huck makes a plan involving the river to escape from Pop and to set Jim free with Tom. He says, I didn't want to go back there. So I decided to escape and go down the river and † and I began to make plans to get Jim back.
down the river in the canoe. For Jim the river takes him to freedom, and for Huck, the river carries him away from his frustrating life.
Twain criticized inhumanity and hypocrisy of civilized society, and he demonstrated the freedom from the racial discrimination and slavery system in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. He did not accept irrationality of so-called civilized society. The author showed his moral humanity and freedom through the heroes who lived in the lowest rungs of society. The readers of The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn should try to find some humanity from juveniles who look adverse or vagrant outwardly.
4. Justice
(Gijeon Grils' High School) Terrorists don't care who they kill or hurt: they're not interested in justice for other people, only in bombs and guns and in escaping from the law. But there is another older kind of Justice, before there were police and laws and prisons. It‘s called "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life".
Tim Vicary wants the readers to perceive the concepts of justice. He uses three symbols "laws, police, and punishments" in order to present justice. Vicary's short story "Justice" is a story about the terrorists and the victims. Two Irish Terrorists explodes a bomb to kill the Queen of U.K, but kills five innocent victims, hurts thirty-nine victims and a coachman of Queen's coach loses his leg instead of killing the Queen of U.K. After exploding a bomb, two terrorists even kidnap the daughter of a coachman of Queen's coach to threaten and to escape from the law. At last his daughter escapes and after violent fighting she kills two terrorists and criminals are The first symbol of justice, the primary criteria in modern society, is the laws. As times have changed, the definition of justice has also changed. In the past, justice means revenge or personal vendetta. After realizing the value of human rights, nowadays a criminal is sentenced and is legally punished only through the laws.
In Vicary's writing "Justice", a coachman who lost his leg says that "What harm had my innocent colleague coachmen ever done to the Irish, or to anyone? Why did the Irish have to kill them with their bloody bomb? There is no Justice in this life."Vicary wants the readers to perceive that the justice is realized through laws, not by Further on in the story, Vicary uses the words ‘the police' to describe the second symbol of justice. The second symbol of justice, the police enforces the laws and proves to be fair in "Justice".
Police is an instrument for execution of the laws that are actually applied in the front line on the spot of crime. In Vicary's writing "Justice" the police tries to catch a criminal through searching, telephone tapping, blocking and rescues victims even though the police sometimes makes a mistake . The Police is to the laws what hands and The third symbol of justice is punishments or prisons. In catching two innocent Irish people to avoid being imprisoned but daughter of a coachman who lost his leg in bombing punished two terrorists by killing them after violent fighting instead of being imprisoned. Vicary wants to say that in the end terrorists or criminals who commit a crime are punished by all means. Punishments include many various types such as death penalty, imprisonment, fine and so on. Punishments are a realization of justice.
descriptions about ‘laws, police, and punishments'. A victim of bloody terror says that in Vicary's writing ‘Justice', "You said there was no justice in this life, but two terrorists who murdered five people and took away father's a leg… and now they're dead! So there is some justice, Dad, isn't there?" Vicary wants the readers to know the true meaning of justice that bad people are punished and good people are saved and that justice is realized not through revenge or vendetta but through only the law. There is an old saying "As you sow, so shall you reap".
5. The Use of Symbolism in "Moondial"
(Gunsan Seoheung Middle School) Helen Cresswell, a television script writer and author of children's books, is renowned for supernatural fiction. She uses symbolism in Moondial to focus on duality between reality and fantasy.
Minty feels powerless in dealing with the reality of her mother being in a coma, so she creates a fantasy, a symbolic world in which she has power to affect change. Finally, her mother is returned to her in reality. In her fantasy, Minty finds Tom and Sarah who need her help, and also the evil Miss Vole whose role is similar to Miss Raven in her real world. The moondial guides her from her present reality to the fiction world. In Moondial, a curious and adventurous reader can enjoy the travel into the times of two young children.
Tom and Sarah in her fantasy are identical to Minty's mother in reality. All of the three suffer from their own hardships. Tom is a poor kitchen boy who nobody talks to and Sarah is a girl bullied by other children and Miss Vole. The writer equates them with Minty's mother who is lying unconscious, when she writes, "Loneliness and fear, and with them came a picture of her mother's white, still face, and a voice singing in a black night, ‘Poor Mary sits a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping ." Tom and Sarah are fated to live a solitary life just like her mother's present condition. After Minty helps Tom by becoming his friend, both of them work together to help Sarah realize her identity as a beautiful girl, not a devil's child. By liberating Tom and Sarah from isolation and Miss Vole respectively, Minty gets her mother back in reality.
Miss Vole in fantasy symbolizes an obstacle to Minty's task, just like Miss Raven in reality. When Minty decides to tell her mom a story of fiction through her cassette player, Miss Raven shows up to disturb her mission. Likewise, Miss Vole torments Sarah by calling her a devil's child and trapping her in darkness and loneliness. The writer relates Miss Vole with Miss Raven directly when she writes: "The face that she saw in the mirror was the face of Miss Raven." In Minty's eyes, Miss Raven in her reality and Miss Vole in Sarah's world are equally villain. When the evil Miss Vole disappears through Minty's mirror, the children achieve freedom. At the same time, Miss Raven leaves Minty's place without notice. Disappearances of those two evil characters show that Minty's mission is completed. The moondial takes Minty to the world of the fantasy no more.
The moondial plays a role as the medium that connects reality and fantasy. On hearing her mother's accident at first, Minty falls in such despair that she refuses to face the fact. The moondial, which works as sundial in the daytime, empowers her to change the situation as she desires and shuttles her between two worlds. The statue of the moondial with Chronos and Eros represents Minty's desperate attempt to get her mother back from the darkness. The writer implies her confidence in her mother's recovery when she writes about the moondial: "And Love will win its fight with Time in the battle to make Tom and Sarah free." Love implies Minty, while Time signifies reality. Her mother's recovery means Love defeats Time through her journey. When Minty finishes her task, the moondial loses its magic After finishing the story, the readers can draw a parallel line between the reality world and the fantasy world throughout the story.
Minty crossed the boundary to release Tom, Sarah, her mother and emphasized the split between fact and fiction so Minty could deal with the serious situation her mother is in. Helen Cresswell described a young girl's desperate attempt to deal with her irresistible problem through her time journey.
6. The Use of Symbolism in Guillian Cross's "On the Edge"
(Buan Middle School) world-kidnapping, abuse, terrorism, isolated humans, etc. increasingly become threatening matters to people. When these incidents occur, people are often forced to realize how precious people they live with are. To Gillian Cross, 'family' means not just a social unit but the cornerstone of a child's development. In On the Edge, Gillian Cross uses the family as a symbol to show how communication in a family communication, the negative influence of wrong communication and the potentially fatal influence of no communication. Gillian Cross's short story, On the Edge is a story about a modern-day London teen. Tug, a teen age boy, is kidnapped by terrorists who want to abolish the family unit. Tug suffers from the loss of identity by the terrorists because his appearance is different from before and the abductors call him their son. Jinny, a girl living near Tug's cottage, suspects Tug's family and decides on a dangerous course to set Tug free.
positive influence of good communication on a child's growth. In On the Edge, Jinny often complains to her mother, Bella that her family does not have any TV or newspaper in the house and works all day on farm. She also grumbles that she cannot spend her vacation hanging out with friends. Even though Jinny swears at her father for giving her too much work, her mother tries to convince Jinny to accept her family by telling her the reasons why they decided to leave London rather than scolding or punishing Jinny. Through conversation with her mother, Jinny eventually realizes that family life is communicating needs and desires, and working together. Jinny's appreciation of her father and her family life pushes her to help Tug who Jinny thinks is having a problem with his family. Associated with Jinny's courage to put herself into a dangerous place to save Tug, good communication in family life plays a role in building a child's self-confidence.
Unlike Jinny's family, Tug's relationship with his family symbolizes the negative influence of poor communication on a child's growth. Tug's mother is a TV reporter that is so busy that she and Tug do not have enough time to talk. As a successful career woman, she is not content with her son's immaturity. So she asks or orders Tug to do something unilaterally saying,"Why do you always feel sorry for yourself?"or "Do I have to decide everything?"and "Get up and do something." Tug just listens to his mother glumly instead of replying to her. This way of communicating diminishes his self-confidence, leading to Tug's distrust of his mother. Indeed, Tug thinks his mother is lying after watching his mother's report about the terrorists on TV. At the end of this story, Tug chooses to run away from his mother who is waiting for him to approach to her. His choice implies that he is not sure if he can meet his mother's expectation of him.
Alarming the parents in the world, Doyle's relationship with his family symbolizes the potentially fatal affects of no development, making him/her go wrong in the end. Mr. Doyle, one of two kidnappers, does not know how to communicate properly in family life.
He has a bad memory of his father as a child. Mr. Doyle says, "I was hit by my father when I cried in the dark." and "Because my father hit me, I'll hit you." Now he is a terrorist who kidnapped a boy and intended to kill him. With allusion like "Every child and adult should escape from the prison of the family.", he is obsessed with the idea that most murders happen in the family. Judging from that, Tug's near death incident is closely connected with Mr. Doyle's trauma from physical abuse by his father without any warm conversation in his For a child to develop desirably, communicating properly in family life cannot be stressed too much. Jinny forms a sound point of view of family and life through the conversations with her mother.
Compared to this, the unilateral communication in Tug's family takes away his self-confidence and alienates him from his mother. Worst of all, the absence of open-minded conversation between family members drives a person to have distorted points of view of life and the world, as in the case of the kidnapper, Mr. Doyle. Most dark aspects of society are a result of a lack of proper communication. Proper communication at an early age within a family develops a child socially and prepares him/her for adult life and independence.
7. Rabbit-Proof Fence in Tragic Australian History
(Muju High School) In 1998, the Australian government made a formal apology for the Aboriginal population. The Australian government's apology for their wrong doing was influenced by the momentum of Rabbit-Proof Fence written by Doris Pilkington Garimara. The book is based on a real story of that period, describing three girls' long journey to return to Jigalong, where their family live. The government sends the half-cast children to Moore River Native Settlement to let them forget their culture, family security, their country, and their identity. The government's oppression and walk for sixteen hundred kilometers to Jigalong along the rabbit-proof fence, overcoming all the difficulties on the way home. The rabbit-proof fence is a fence in Western Australia mostly to prevent rabbits spreading to the local pastures and transmitting the plague. The rabbit-proof fence in the story represents paradoxical symbols – invasion, division, and hope – to depict not only the tragic history of aboriginal society in Australia but also the three half-cast girls' arduous journey to freedom.
To begin with, rabbit-proof fence symbolizes invasion. The invasion in this story has two meanings: the white settlers' invasion of aboriginal society in history and the policeman's violation of Australia, they bring invasive species – rabbits, which trespass over Western Australia, where white settlers want to keep rabbits away to protect arable lands from being spoiled by invasive species. Just like rabbits, in the story, the policeman named Riggs breaks into three girls' house to take them to the camp where they will be trained as white settlers' servants. This invasion sets off the three girls' grueling trip to Jigalong. Thus, the invasions are the impetus of the tragic Australian history and the three girls' long walk in the Another reading of the rabbit-proof fence is division. This split-up stands for not only the liminal states of half-casts in the colonial period, but also the three girls' separation from their family in the book. In regard to half-casts in Australia, they do not belong to white society nor to aborinigal. They are in-between. Like their liminal position in the society, the rabbit-proof fence is placed between white settlers' residential area and that of the native. In this context, rabbit-proof fence represents the lives of segregated by that society because the white settlers treat half-casts like servants. Moreover, the three girls in the story symbolize their separation from their family and hometown. After the policeman's invasion, they are taken "a long, long way away" from Jigalong with "full of fear for the future." These two different kinds of division stands out through the whole story.
The most prominent understanding of the rabbit-proof fence in the story is as a symbol of ‘hope'. When the three girls meet rabbit-proof fence after their hard walking over a month, one of the girls asks "what's so special about this fence?" Then, another girl answers "Because it's straight to see, and they've cut down the bushes on both sides. And it's gonna take us all the way home to Jigalong." This quote lets readers assume that rabbit-proof fence plays a role as a beacon to Jigalong for their pursuit of freedom. The trimmed surroundings of the rabbit-proof fence help them to walk easier. In addition, they keep on walking with the firm belief that it would lead to their hometown as in the excerpt from the book "the fence gave the girls hope; it was like meeting a long-lost friend – a friend that would show them the way home." In the end, two of the three girls seizes their hope – coming back to Jigalong, while the other fails to achieve it due to losing her ‘beacon' on the way rabbit-proof fence in the story.
As readers have examined above, invasion, division, and hope signify three symbols of Rabbit-Proof Fence. The rabbit-proof fence in the story itself represents the tragic history of aboriginal society in Australia as well as the three girls' toilsome adventure to freedom. Although it works as a signpost for three half casts to arrive at their destination, both Australian aborigines and the three girls in the story had to tide over difficulties which originated from the rabbit-proof fence. Despite the intricate nature of symbols in it, the rabbit-proof fence creates quality aspects that make three girls' journey more meaningful.
8. The Use of Symbolism in Stevenson's Kidnapped
(Gunsan Napo Middle School) Robert Louis Stevenson creates three characters as symbols of male role models in his novel Kidnapped; David, Uncle Ebenezer and Alan. David, who is a seventeen-year-old boy, has a lot of adventures with his friend Alan Breck and then he takes back his property from his Uncle Ebenezer. Alan is a friend who goes through various difficulties with David when Uncle Ebenezer tries to kill David because he wants to get David's property. Alan and Uncle Ebenezer represent the influence role models have in a young man's development and David realizes how to live in the world by himself. The writer treats the main character, David, as a hero in a bildungsroman and his adventures are symbolic of his development.
Uncle Ebenezer Balfour is a greedy, cheating and conniving person. David learns greed from his uncle Ebenezer who deprives his brother of property and becomes more and more interested in money.
David sees how Ebenezer betrays him in the following scene: Ebenezer Balfour tells him that blood is thicker than water, and then he tries to sell him as a slave. Also, he learns how to connive when "Balfour accepts that Shaws belongs to David, but Balfour would stay there during his lifetime. He agreed to pay David money every year, and Mr.
Rankeillor would check that he did." Therefore Uncle Ebenezer Balfour symbolizes a negative influence on David in various ways.
Alan Breck Stewart is an independent, merciful and friendly person. He represents a positive influence on David in many ways. From him David learns independence. Alan tells David that he "is one of those honest Highlanders who were proud of fighting for our homes, our clan and our country in 1745, against the English King." He sees how Alan is a merciful person because Alan does not kill Cambell, but allows himself to be accused instead of James Stewart. Also, David learns friendship from Alan in this scene where Alan stands up for David: "Alan makes Ebenezer tell what he does .
sell David as a slave, and keep that money." Therefore Alan Breck Stewart represents a positive influence on David.
bildungsroman. The reader learns about justice when captain Hoseason tries to kill Alan Breck, but he tells Alan and he saves him. The reader sees how courageous David is by his willingness to sacrifice himself in this scene where David says, "Accuse me, Mr. Stewart, if you like, accuse Alan, accuse King George! I am Alan's friend, and if I can help my friends in any way, I don't mind the danger." Also, he shows he is tolerant when Ebenezer accepts that David's ancestral home belongs to David, but David allows Ebenezer to stay there during his lifetime. David is a role model for the reader in many ways.
This is a bildungsroman and an adventure novel. There are a lot of characters who are related to the main character in this novel. Two characters in this novel represent the influence of role models on a young man's development. The main character realizes how to live in the world by himself with both positive and negative influences.
Therefore these two characters help David grow into a good man in this adventure novel. In conclusion, Robert Louis Stevenson gives three characters as symbols of male role models in Kidnapped 9. The Use of Symbolism in The Secret Garden
(Jeongil Girls' Middle School) Francis Hodgson Burnett shows the healing process of Mary, Colin and Mr. Craven- three flawed people- by the secret garden, a symbol of healing and love from The Secret Garden. The secret garden is the place that Colin's mom loves and is full of happiness. But it has been locked for ten years since Colin's mom died there. After that, when spring has come again and little green shoots come up in the secret garden, three flawed people happen to find the secret garden.
Therefore, Burnett, the writer of A little Princess and Little Lord Fauntleroy, lets the readers know the process of the healing and love by the following three steps. First, lonely people with no friends get together in the secret garden. Next, they become good friends with another by the secret garden. Finally, they are healed to be strong and healthy people by the secret garden not only physically but also One flawed person, Mary, is a lonely girl who never thinks of other people: "she is a very selfish, disagreeable, bad-tempered little girl" when she is just sent to her uncle's house. She has to play outside alone because she has no friends. While she is playing outside, she finds the key for the secret garden. She is curious about the secret garden and finally enjoys gardening there. Burnett says, "She worked away, clearing the ground, for two or three hours, and had to take her coat off ." The selfish girl lets Colin join her gardening and helps him heal his mental fear. She says to Colin, "There is nothing wrong with your back! Nothing at all! It's as straight as mine!" As a result, they become closer and begin to overcome their flaws because of the secret garden, a symbol of Not only Mary but also Colin is a flawed person. He is afraid of having a crooked back like his dad and he thinks he will die soon.
Therefore, his fear causes his sickness over ten years. He also acts like a dictator because he does not consider others. He says to Mary, "You will have to, if I say so. I'll make the servants bring you here." His dad even avoids seeing his son because Colin reminds his dad of his dead wife. But when Colin finds the secret garden with Mary, he feels better and hopes to live longer. He says, "I'm going to get better, I'm going to live forever and ever and ever." He dreams of walking up to his dad with a straight back and strong legs like a healthy person. He tries to exercise hard so that his dad can see his strong and healthy son soon. Burnett describes, "Slowly he Eventually, the magic comes true: "A boy ran out, a tall, healthy, handsome boy, straight into the man's arm." He meets his dad happily in the secret garden, symbol of healing.
The last flawed person, Mr. Craven, is a lonely person with a crooked back. He is described as being "so bad-tempered" and "he's horrid!" After his wife dies, he locks the secret garden for ten years. He also closes his mind and wanders the world here and there while he leaves his son to the servants' care. Burnett says, "a man with high, crooked shoulder was wandering round the most beautiful places in Europe. For ten years he had lived this lonely life, his heart full of sadness and his head full of dark dreams." After ten years, when Colin finds the secret garden, Mr. Craven, at the same time, meets his wife, another symbol of love. She reminds him of his son. His wife guides him to the secret garden through the dream: "He fell asleep, and had a dream that seemed very real. He heard a voice calling him. It was sweet and clear and happy, the voice of his young wife. ‘Who are you?' ‘In the garden'. " Finally, he decides to come back home to live happily with his son. In the end, he recovers his spirit and meets his healthy son and his niece in the secret garden, a symbol of healing and love. Burnett writes, "Mr. Craven, looking happier than they had ever seen him. And by his side, with his shoulders straight, his head held high and a smile on his lips, walked Burnett uses symbolism to revive the flawed people and grasp reader's interest. She focuses on healing process of three flawed people; Mary, Colin and Colin's dad in the secret garden, a symbol of healing and love. Finally, they all recover their love by the secret garden. The selfish people who do not know true love, are changed into newly healthy people by the healing process of the secret garden.
10. The Use of Symbolism in "After the Earthquake"
(Jeonju High School) As natural disasters strike human life, many facilities are helplessly demolished or many people in the area are tragically killed. After everything is cracked, it naturally leads to the recovery. James Courage applies such characteristics into his short story "After the Earthquake" to symbolize the decline of New Zealand's old British identity after the earthquake and the advent of new generation. In the story, a sudden earthquake attacks the British colony of New Zealand. The earthquake changes the situation in the community. Mrs. Duncaster, an old lady, dies of a heart attack and leaves her daughter alone. The day after the earthquake, a little boy named Walter Blakiston observes the consequences around and the death with his parents. All the characters in the story feel the force of the waves of change.
The earthquake drives the old identity to collapse, and it is represented by Mrs. Duncaster, who dies of fear in the earthquake. Her belongings indicate the old British colonial identity of New Zealand. The author introduces the golden family crest on her Bible with her daughter's explanation: "that meant a lot to her. … She came from a very old, important English family.
symbolizes the fact that the old colonials like Mrs. Duncaster came from Britain to New Zealand and still strongly identify with their roots. Mr. Blakiston, Walter's father, also adds to this explanation by showing the broken china vase. After bringing some broken pieces of the vase, he explains "English china" to his boy. The scene reveals his identity of his former life in England. These scenes identify the colonials as immigrants from Britain. The old identity, however, breaks down and disappears in this novel. The death of Mrs. Duncaster, generation. Not only literally but also figuratively, the state of death cannot be recovered from the state of living and means the end of the old identity. The end is naturally accompanied by a new era. In this sense, as the old British originality is destroyed, the identity of colonials in New Zealand enters a new phase as a result of the The word ‘earthquake' itself conveys striking power and represents sweeping destruction. The earthquake unconsciously brings not only cracks in the old identity but also the rise of the new identity of New Zealand in this story. It is symbolized by the result of the earthquake. The earthquake breaks the wash house roof in Walter's farm where all the brick work is damaged and needs to be repaired. The broken roof characterizes the decline of the old British colonials and the necessity of a unique New Zealander identity. In addition, the china vase broken by the quake intensifies the image of break-down. The fine English vase is already crumbled and cannot be restored to its original state even though Mrs. Blakiston tries to glue the pieces of the vase back together. The unrecoverable situation reaches the zenith in the symbol of Mrs. Duncaster's death. It connotes crossing the line. Allocating the death as a symbol, the author indicates that such a natural change of identity cannot be rewound to the original point. But, as the bricks and vase will be replaced with new ones, Mrs. Duncaster is also survived by her daughter, Miss Duncaster.
The new identity is exemplified by the characters of Miss Duncaster and Walter. Above all, the freedom of new identity is denoted in Mr. Blakiston's words about Miss Duncaster. "For ten years … she's been shut in that house taking care of that old woman.
She'll have a chance to marry now," he says. It explicitly presents the freedom out of the old identity. In the previous scene, the horse tied up in the front yard of Duncaster house is untied and disappears after Walter and his mother see the dead Mrs. Duncaster. The freed horse implicitly demonstrates the free state of the new generation.
Walter's experience of the earthquake implies that the new identity earthquake, Walter, the youngest character in this story, does not wake up and feel the qauke while his parents and Mrs. and Miss Duncaster are awakened by the disaster. Furthermore, the attitude of Miss Duncaster adds to the expectation of new identity. In the eyes of Walter, Miss Duncaster looks the same as usual because of "her light blue eyes and pink face" despite her mother's sudden death. She also jumps up to reach to the branches of tree. Walter responses to her jump by his saying "I only jump up like that when I'm really happy." According to the quotation of the boy, the new identity is anticipated as bright and happy future.
As the prior identity is naturally diminished in New Zealand, the new one is generated at the same time. It is symbolized by the death of Mrs. Duncaster and the circumstances around Walter and Miss Duncaster. The writer arranges the specific devices for English identity of the colonials in New Zealand such as a china vase or crest. Otherwise, the devices imply the image of deterioration since they are broken and related to the death of Mrs. Duncaster. As the result of the old lady's death, her daughter is free to pursue her own life while the young boy, Walter, observes it without any connection to the old generation and any fear for the earthquake. All the suggested symbols proceed in nature as the sudden disaster does to the wash house roof and the china vase. In this story, everything above happens after the earthquake 11. The Use of Symbolism in The Year of Sharing
(Gunsan Jeil Middle School) The Year of sharing by Harry Gilbert takes the form of a Bildungsroman, in which the protagonist Richard gains insight through his experience and is able to move from childhood to maturity. He learns to respect and sacrifice for others through sharing with the wild animals in the forest. The Year of Sharing is a story about a young man who is 12 years old, enters the forest after a goodbye party with human beings, and lives in the forest with the wild animals. He learns how to share with the animals in the forest. In this sense this novel emphasizes that the process of the growth develops coexistence, humility, affection and sacrifice through sharing with the nature. To describe the process in which Richard grows, Harry Gilbert uses lots of symbolic expressions in the story.
Richard endures a lot of troubles in the life with a new deer family in the forest after a goodbye party with human beings. In the wild animal world "there are no cars, no roads, no factories, no big towns" unlike human society, but he learns how to adapt in the natural world. He learns how to live and coexist with his new surrogate family. Richard as a member of the deer family also obeys the deer parents. He realizes that even human beings live in a trifling existence in the natural world. As a result, he learns coexistence and humility in nature through these processes. In this point, Richard's experiences are learning steps which form of Bildungsroman.
Further on in the story, Harry Gilbert tries to take the deep affection out of the conflict with wolves in the animal world.
Whenever the deer family is attacked by the wolves, the deer family moves away, goes deeper into the forest. Richard sometimes fights against the wolves to save not only his life, but also the live of his deer family. One day his little brother hurts his leg, so he can not walk any more. But the deer family must move on again to avoid the wolves. However, Richard has to take care of his brother for a long time. Even though the parents abandon their children, Richard does not give up his brother and he takes care of him from end to end. This is the developing step of the protagonist in the bildungsroman. In this part, the readers will be impressed about sharing of the deep affection with his brother.
The writer symbolically describes the maturity of the protagonist in the last part of the story. After a couple of days, Richard and a little brother meet the family again. However, the moment of the delight is very short. The wolves chase the deer family after smelling a drop of blood on the ground. At that time, Richard conceives of his own sacrifice to save the family. Richard cuts his leg to attract the attention of the wolves. And he begins running in the opposite direction of the deer family. Finally, the wolves follow Richard. And he dies. The writer Gilbert uses Richard symbolically as an object of sacrifice. Gilbert writes: "Listen to wolves! They're hungry too, of course. I'm an animal just like them." He makes an coexist with nature and he sacrifices Richard's body so that the hungry wolves can eat. This is the ultimate step in the process of Richard's maturation.
Harry Gilbert used symbolic techniques like "sharing", result, the sharing in The Year of Sharing symbolized that the earth belongs to humans as well as all animals including the wolves. Also, Harry Gilbert tried to describe "the Year of Sharing" as the form of Bildungsroman and deal with the process of the protagonist Richard's growth and development leading from immature step to maturity step.
Ⅳ. Reflections on Training Program 1. The Blessed Choice in My Life
(Sunching High School) I really wanted to rid myself the bondage of school life. I was wilting under the pressure of students, stereotypical teaching methods and a repetitive daily life. New changes were urgently needed. In an instant, I made a breakthrough. I applied in this In-Service Teaching Training Course.
I plucked up the courage and confidence from inside. Even though I was fagged out and tired by the burdens of relationships with my students, colleagues and acquaintances, I found that I could derive comfort from people eventually. My classmates, my instructors and one special friend are the most valuable treasures which I found in this training course.
Taking classes with strangers gave me the jitters at first. But my tension proved to be unfounded. I have had unforgettable memories with my wonderful classmates during this program. Different strokes for different folks or so, they saying goes. All my classmates have their own colors, but they also have one thing in common: intense ardor for learning English. I am so impressed that they have tried to do their best to achieve their goals. Sometimes we carried heavy burdens of responsibility under pressure to finish assignments and presentations. We grumbled about having too many assignments but encouraged each other to step forward. It was tough to stay in a small classroom for the whole day. But we werelike family before we knew it. I am very happy to talk together sipping coffee and to laugh aloud clapping hands. How much we enjoyed walking on the way to have lunch! Under the hot sun, on the street with fallen leaves and on the snow-covered ground did we chatter away happily and take pictures. Two lovely younger teachers gave off fresh charm and showed new skills for teaching and sparkling ideas. All of us have one theme and are intimately connected to one another. There is unity in diversity.
Variety is amplified through my instructors. They are all from different counties and their characters, figures, teaching styles and reactions are totally different. I have taken effectively organized classes in different ways from my instructors. Moreover they showed great enthusiasm and were all smiles in their classes. They prepared variety of teaching materials such as worksheets, You Tube materials, PPT materials, CDs and useful websites. That's why I was enamored with their classes. The first microteaching, presentations for listening and speaking were all beyond my comfort level. It was so stressful and it discouraged me. But you know what they say, "Praise breeds willingness." All my instructors were unsparing with praise of me. I felt grateful for everything they did for me. Their classes led me to a new, inexperienced and wonderful teaching world of which I had never imagined.
People can meet the unsuspected in life. They could be people, situations and difficulties. During this program I met someone who I least expected. For a month I commuted from Kwangju to Jeonju. It made me utterly exhausted. It was not helpful to me financially or physically. Just at that moment I was introduced to my landlady by an acquaintance. Her husband passed away in spring this year and she lives in a big apartment alone. I rented a room and we lived together. At first, I felt a little awkward and it was so difficult to live together. As time passed I became accustomed to such a living. I began to call her ‘mother' and she treated me like her daughter. One day, I was really sick because of stress and cold. When I got up, she prepared breakfast and consoled me like a real ‘mom'. Since then she have had breakfast ready. Sometimes we chattered away happily while watching TV. She told me to drive safely and prepared healthy juice made of yam and apples every day. I have no words to thank her enough. The memory with her will linger in my mind after we say good bye. Time doesn't influence the depth of the relation.
How time flies! We met in T-shirts, enjoyed fallen leaves and gave exclamations on large snowflakes through this in-service training course.
This course is quite a long-term training course compared to other ones and we have spent most of the time on studying together. As friends, mentors, sisters and brothers, all of them have touched and directed me how to live and what to do in future. People learn a great deal from others. Everyone who does the best at one's position is my teacher. I can learn knowledge and wisdom regardless of nationality, age and gender. Even though I chose this program as an escape from reality, it was my best blessing.
2. My Experiences in the Chonbuk University In-service Training Program
(Gunsan Jeil Middle School) Before I started the Chonbuk University In-service Training Program, I hesitated to apply for the training program first, because I didn't have a strong confidence in the spoken English. However, I applied for it to improve the English skills. After that, I got lots of never-to-be forgotten precious experiences through this training program. The Chonbuk University In-service Training Program provided the best opportunities to learn new teaching methods, make new relationships with colleagues, and do many interesting activities and assignments. The teaching method of the best instructors who I have ever met before gave me a lot of confidence. And the close relationships that I made with my classmates over a long four months became a tonic for my life. Especially, a lot of assignments and activities made me concentrate on studying instead of drinking soju at night.
First of all, I think the best fruit of my training was the teaching methods learned by the best instructors. Of course, I had lots of opportunity to learn English teaching methodsthrough the internet and other training. However, I think four instructors who I have met in the Chonbuk University In-service Training Programhad the best ability as a native-speaking instructors in Korea. At first, the speaking and listening teaching methods improved my confidence for applying to English lessons in school. Besides, a lot of the information taught by all instructors probably will be useful not only in my class, but also in my life. Especially, the instructor of ESL who is from the Philipines gave me a tremendous moral lesson and a living lesson. Even though she is young yet, I was surprised to have lots of various knowledge and experiences. Also, the assignments and journals in writing course gave me the method to teach English with confidence. I had chance to consider many school activities like English school newspaper and diary through the writing program. As a result, I think this training program provided a good opportunity to approach new English teaching Next, the good relationship with my colleagues will never to be forgotten for a long time. I think one of the most important things in our life is human relationships. Although my colleagues in this training are all from various age groups and work in different schools, we exchanged various opinions and helped each other regardless of age. To be honest, we didn't discussions broke down the barriers between our colleagues. Moreover, because most of us had experience lots of works, we had a fabulous time sharing the troves of information. I think this training was much more interesting than our ordinary school lives because we had the same purpose and the same interests. We promoted our team spirit through many activities like field trips, a couple of get-togethers and group discussions. So, I will never forget the relationships with my colleagues.
Finally, lots of assignments and activities provided the opportunity to concentrate on learning. I felt burdensome because of the number of assignments sometimes. When I finished the class and arrived at home, I sometimes received a call to go drinking with my friends. But I refused resolutely many times. I always think the following day's assignments.
Actually, I didn't expectabout good grades, but I always gave a careful thought about the assignments and presentations I had to do. Looking back, thanks to these assignments and presentations, I spent time and energy on studying instead of drinking soju. From the beginning of the training, I put my mind to concentrating on this training program to improve the English skills. So I don't have any regrets, in fact, I appreciate having done lots of assignments and activities.
distributed and I prepared for activities and assignments. I will apply many kinds of teaching methods in class after I finished the training program. I think this training will be last retraining opportunity in my life. I will never forget my colleagues who gave me pleasure and helped me. I felt sometimes stressed because of a lot of activities and assignments. But, thanks to assignments and activities, I had opportunity to concentrate on studying for improving English skills. After all, learning a lot of new teaching methods, making the new relationships with colleagues and many In-service Training Program will be a treasured experience up in my heart in my future life.
3. How to Nourish My English Proficiency
(Jeonju High School) "Difficulties are opportunities to better things." Whenever I confront hardship, I chew over this saying. During the 2012 in-service program for English teachers, I have chewed, swallowed, and digested it by overcoming my difficulties in studying English. Sometimes, I have nearly had an upset stomach from the pressure of this course. But, I finally absorbed the learning contents, and broke it down to its essential nutrients to nourish my progress. The obstacles of speaking, writing and vocabulary have fed my English proficiency.
My speaking ability is steadily developing since I took effective measures to deal with my inhibition. When I started this course, I was consumed by the fear of speaking. I sometimes clammed up and my brain even blacked out. My co-teachers' eyes paralyzed my tongue as well. I considered the cause of the fear that deprived me of the confidence. I realized that the possibility that ruined my language ego had become an obstacle in speaking in English in front of people. To overcome my inner problem, I decided to speak in English no matter how many errors I made.
Whenever the anxiety visited me, I told to myself. "I am not an English teacher but a learner." From these efforts, now I can speak in English with little inhibition and have a better command of English than the beginning of this course.
As soon as I had recovered my confidence, writing crashed my gate and shattered my confidence. As most of my knowledge about writing disappeared from my brain, the tedious usage of words and repeated patterns of sentences left me frustrated. I found that not only was I using "be" verbs repeatedly, but I was also using several repetitive words such as ‘abundant', ‘make' or ‘help'. My writing looked boring even to me. To step forward in writing, I tried to arrange stronger main verbs in the sentences instead of ‘be' verbs. I also googled expressions or asked my instructors to bring out the subtle nuances of them. As a result of these efforts, I have gotten accustomed to writing in English as well as expressing my thoughts with stronger words.
All the skills of learning English above are based on vocabulary, which has tortured me during the whole course. I was prone to forget the meanings of words I had already studied. I have taken notes on the new words in a notebook to memorize them. It stimulates me to check the previous words while I write today's new words. The repetitive memorization expands the vocabulary in my brain. Even after memorizing them, I could not adapt them into my daily speaking or writing. I established one principle to tear down the barrier: one new word in one day. For example, I memorized the word ‘nil' which means zero in the score of sports game, but I always hesitated to use it. I intentionally practiced this word in my speaking several times so that I can use it spontaneously.
Looking back on this course, I have risen after a hundred falls throughout the 2012 In-service program. As difficulties came over my learning continually, I broke them down to transform them into stepping stones. I did it by analyzing the problems and making specific efforts to be proficient in speaking and writing based on vocabulary. The process of overcoming the problems certainly ends up as a source of nourishment in my progress in English. These nutrients will sustain my life as an English learner and teacher providing knowledge and strategies for teaching and learning English.
4. Three Elements to Teaching Students
(Gunsan Napo Middle School) I am a very lucky guy because I'm attending a very good training course to teach students like me English. In the past I had always taken on-line training courses and didn't take any pleasure in them. This course is different. My colleague asked me to take part in this program but I hesitated to participate in it at first. Over time she persuaded me and I made up my mind to take part in this program. I am happy now because I have attended a nice university, met good lecturers and generous classmates. I believe there are three elements to teaching students well: good lecturers, a supportive university and interested students. This program has all three elements, and that is why I consider myself lucky.
All the lecturers are very kind and teach us well. Melissa, who teaches me speaking, is a very warm-hearted lecturer. She is bright and always smiles. Her culture, Mexican, is similar to Korean culture. When I make some mistakes, she understands me very well. Alexandra, who teaches me listening, is a very strict lecturer. I am strict to students, so I like her attitude. She always prepares a lot of materials and gives us various web sites to study English phonetics. Teresita, who teaches me ESL, is a very smart lecturer. She is very knowledgeable in many different fields. I am sometimes surprised by her knowledge of Korean culture. Even if she has only lived in Korea for seven years, she knows Korea better than me.
Alistair, who teaches me writing, is a very generous lecturer. He speaks in a monotonous voice, so his class can be boring but his writing methods help me a lot. I have confidence to write in English now. What I learned from these four lecturers will help me to teach students English in the future.
Not only the lecturers but also the university is excellent. It supports the in-service training program for teachers. Seo Hongwon, who is this training program administrator, provides comfort. He gives a lot of snacks and facilities; for example coffee, candy, paper cups, heaters, coffee pot, printer toner and so on. And he checks everything in classroom.
Outside of the classroom the campus is very beautiful. I have gone to university from September 1st. Then the autumn leaves were very beautiful like flowers. When we had snow there seemed to have been snow flowers on the trees. It was really beautiful. I feel younger than I did when I went to university. These were wonderful days. If I could go to university again, I would have more meaningful school days.
Along with excellent instructors and a supportive staff, I have met some wonderful classmates. They are more generous and better than I those I have met at school. We help each other and do most things by ourselves. All of my classmates do their best to take part in this program. Hwisang is the best driver. He commutes every day from Gunsan to Jeonju with me. He always drives safely. Dongwon is always shy like a young girl. When she talks in front of us she is always obedient and quiet. Myungim is a storyteller.
When she says something, she plays various roles by herself. So when she talks I always listen carefully. Yeonok is generous. She has taken a lot of training courses so she gives me many materials and she lets me know how to do the assignments. Inhaeng is very funny and smart when he says something, I always laugh out loud. Myongsook is very smart. When we discuss something, she expresses herself easily but her ideas are always brilliant.
Kyungju is the youngest classmates in my class. She always works hard, even at odd jobs, like washing the dishes, copying papers, doing small errands and so on. They are good classmates. If I can, I want to keep in contact with them until I retire.
On the first day, when I went to university to take this course, everything looked unfamiliar to me. So I regretted that I joined this program. I had a hard time during the first month. However one month later I had adjusted to all the classes: speaking, listening, ESL, writing. The lecturers have taught us diligently and their teaching methods are very good, so I can use them to teach the students at school. The university has supported all the things which we need to participate in the course comfortably. I think I have learned good teaching methods and have made good friends. I am very pleased to have participated in this program, so I think I am a very lucky guy.
5. My Experience in the In-service Teacher Training Program
(Jeongil Girls' Middle School) At first, I hesitated to attend this program because studying with young teachers was a burden on me. But as time goes on, I have enjoyed being a student not a teacher and I have been comfortable with my classmates or instructors. After 5 months, the In-service Teacher Training Course was a positive experience for me because it improved my English assignments and good relationships with classmates. The four instructors assignments and presentations improved my ability as an English teacher. My classmates also made me enjoy the course by their different talent. They are the reasons why I hesitate to go back to school.
Above all, the four instructors from Canada, USA, Britain and the Philippines had good effects on me by helping me keep studying. Since the instructors were each from different countries, I could also experience their cultures and different accents or slangs. Melissa from California introduced their parties for special events like the slumber party or the wedding party. She also introduced me Mexican cultures such as cooking or the Mexican Thanksgiving Day because her parents come from Mexico. Alex from England showed the Britain English accent and I could feel Britain culture by her pronunciation and her behavior. Thesa from the Philippines helped me open my mind to the world comparing her culture with our culture. I also understood the difference of the Canadian culture and American culture through Alistair from Canada. All the instructors were kind to the learners, professional at their work and patient with slow learners. Therefore, I could follow the process without dropping out.
Not only four instructors but also the different types of assignments improved my English ability. Especially, the four courses were full of practical skills and effective activities for English teacher not just theories, and their teaching methods were useful to me because of effective materials. At first, I was afraid of studying with young teachers because of memory capacity and learning speed. But each instructor helped me accomplish the assignments easily. I studied various teaching skills and the assignments included giving an opinion, debating battle, dictating scripts, describing a painting, writing a five-paragraph essay, and making a presentation. Among them, the debating and writing essay were especially hard works but effective for me. I was fully satisfied with them because I had never studied such courses before.
I also had good relationship with the classmates. Although these courses were not easy for me, I enjoyed this training course because my classmates made relationship with others smooth with consideration. I and my classmates shared many good materials like PPTs or information about school work and helped each other complete the assignments. I also shared not only materials but also lots of experience related to raising children and my classmates' interests. For example, my classmates were experts who had financial affairs and documentary, which were helpful for me. So I want to keep in touch with them.
In conclusion, this training course had a good effect on me. I opened my mind to other cultures because the four instructors came from Canada, USA, Britain and the Philippines and experienced various cultures in class. The appropriate activities for teaching at school made me think creatively. And, especially, my classmates gave me the courage to keep studying although I was a slow learner. Therefore, this course is a must for English teachers.
6. The 2012 In-service Program
(Muju High School) The 2012 In-service program provides abundant opportunities to broaden my experiences. I believe that this course has benefitted me intellectually, physically, and emotionally.
To start off with, the 2012 In-Service program enables me to develop intellectual aspects of my life. With the help of four great instructors in this program, I have improved listening, speaking, writing, and lesson planning skills equally. First, I have developed English listening and speaking skills at the same time with a variety of fun activities. I used not to speak in English because of my introverted personality and small instructors in listening and speaking, I have begun to get involved in class actively because preparation is one of the drives for me to get interested and participate. In addition to listening and speaking, I cherish the writing class the most. I prefer writing to speaking due to my reserved characteristic. I do not know well about what makes a good essay and how to write logical essays, though. I can write better than four months ago with continuous practice by writing journals and four high-stakes assignments given by Alistair. As for lesson planning, I was not accustomed to preparing lessons with a pre-written format before this course. After learning about it in this program, I realized that how well-organized the pre-planned class was. Thanks to four great instructors, I have improved a lot in overall listening, speaking, writing, and lesson planning skills since I began participating in this program.
Another advantage of the 2012 In-service Program lies in physical aspects. Compared with my health condition in Muju, my current physical condition is better. First, I have gotten help from a lunch box. I had eaten out for a month at the beginning of this program but I had frequent stomachaches. For this reason, Sunna and I decided to take a lunch box for our health and I get better health. Second, taking a walk around the campus during break time helps me to stay in shape. When I worked at Muju high school, I did not think about working out at all, owing to too much work.
However, while taking part in this program, I can enjoy my free time without any worries. Moreover, two field trips in this program relieve my stress from too much homework and the monotony of routine. If I had worked in Muju high school this semester, I could not have experienced the exciting trips which satisfied me physically and mentally. While strolling down a path in the field trip, I felt my brain and heart healed. In addition to these, my trip to Hawai'i for a month helped me to refresh my life and reflect on my career as an English teacher.
Lastly, I greatly benefit emotionally from the 2012 In-service Program. Personally, I highly regard relationships for emotional stability.
Whether I have a reliable one or not decides the amount of happiness. At first, I was quite satisfied with the fact that I joined this program with Sunna, who I have known for 4 years. What makes this course more enjoyable than I expected is all the teachers I met in this program. Building up and maintaining good relationships with co-workers became one of my motives to work harder. Besides the emotional stability I receive from my co-teachers, I also keep close ties with my family as I did when I was a student. After landing a job in Muju, I felt sorry that my relationship with family was falling apart because of the distance. Moving to Jeonju for this program, I can share much more time with my parents with stronger bonds among us. A good family relationship is essential for me to live happily because I cannot manage things well without its emotional comfort. I gained emotional stability which stimulates me to do my best whatever I do with the help of this course.
Now, nobody doubts that I have developed my intellectual, physical, and emotional aspects throughout 2012 In-service course at Jeon-buk national university. I confidentially speak English more fluently than before as well as write English essays in more organized ways than the past. Aside from this, I stay physically fit with regular exercise and learn how to enjoy life to the fullest with emotional stability. The 2012 In-service program offers me a lot of chances to develop myself as an English teacher and as an individual. I cannot wait to go back to my workplace refreshed and recharged to continue maintaining good relationships with my co-workers and to teach students with better skills learned in this 7. The Return to Innocence
(Buan Middle School) Who said people get old with the passing of time? Rather, I'd like to say people ripen with age. When I hit forty, I asked myself this question, "How can I ripen more elegantly with age?". Now I have the answer. At the beginning of the In-Service Teacher Training Program at Chonbuk National University, I didn't expect it, but listening to the radio, artwork and nature's beauty gave me a chance to enrich my mind during this program. What they all have in common is that they purified my mind and soul, but they came to me in different aspects. Music came to me while Actually, before I started to commute from my apartment to Chonbuk University for this program, I had hardly enjoyed listening to the radio. I hadn't have much patience to listen to over-the-top advertising or the long-winded rants by the host of the radio leisurely. But for this program, I had to spend thirty minutes or sometimes more driving to Chonbuk University. Searching for the right tunes several times, I finally found a good channel, FM Morning Show that I really liked. Driving alone, I laughed a lot or almost wept sometimes by the stories many listeners sent to the program. For me, I'm not a person to publicize my own story, but I thought many people were very frank and courageous to share their sad or shameful story with other unknown people. And another channel,'You're Always With Me' stimulated every sympathetic nerve, that I had ignored for a long time inside myself. I had hardly listened to my favorite old songs since I got married. The hostess's voice and old songs sounded sentimental to me, especially looking at the fallen leaves in the street on gloomy and rainy day. The radio freed me from the stress of repetitive traffic jams and sweetened my mind with real-life story and sweet songs.
While listening to the radio was like lubricant to boring driving to Chonbuk University, visiting Moak Art Gallery was like a vitamin to my culturally barren daily life. Picasso's artworks in vivid colors and abtruse distortion, crossing the normal boundary, startled my unprepared eyes. As if mocking my stunned eyes, Chagall's phantasmic composition with faint tones soaked me in the memory of my mother and childhood. But my dreamlike appreciation halted with Morris Utrilo's delicate stroke in The Alley in Paris. Its exuberant color and striking distance evoked my exclamation. With modern technique, Marilyn Monroe's colorful smile woke up my aging and fading sense of color. At the end of the visit, my soul felt satiated with abundant appreciation.
Other than the short invitation to artwork, nature's beauty was another present to please my soul. This program started in early September. Thinking back to my school life, my mind was so desolate with hard work that I hadn't enjoyed the blue sky and beautiful trees for several years. Unlike at school, I spent break-time between classes and lunch time during this program for only myself. Looking outside through the window in early fall, I enjoyed fully the clear blue sky. Especially, the gorgeous red and yellow leaves beat my heart, like a child looking at a rainbow. My joy of nature peaked in the big fluffy snowflakes falling from the sky in early December.
If I had not applied for this program, I would have kept emptying out my soul with a busy schedule and much stress from school work.
By chance, the In-Service Teacher Training Program at Cheonbuk University gave me time to relax my mind with music and people's real stories, putting aside stressful school work. Without this program, I would not have visited any art gallery this year as well. As I grow older, I feel like filling my soul with something not material but mental or emotional. With red and yellow leaves, thirty minute walk in white snow made me forget distress from the many assignments at the end of this program. During this program, I realized people should keep a balance between cultural life and daily life. Owing to music, artwork and nature, I finished this program with the feeling of mental maturity.
Ⅴ. Teaching Methodologies: Lesson Plans 1. Truth or Lies
(Sunchang High School) Topic: Lesson 4. Truth or Lies (p.62-63) Level: General Intermediate Age and Number of students: 17years old/ 16 students Time and Period: 3rdclass/2ndperiod Language Skills: Reading (vocabulary, gist) Language Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be Give the definitions of the following vocabulary words: a. neighbor b. arrest c. sentence d. judge h. character i. innocent j. whole Methodology: Eclectic (Lexical, Direct, TBA) Resource Materials: ppt, worksheet Anticipated Problems and Solutions: a. Students are noisy while they are in group works.
- Giving bonus points to quiet groups b. Some students can't write the spelling of vocabulary - Giving hints (giving first and/or last syllables) B. In-Class Activities
Greet using a ball. (A greets to B, throwing a ball. And B throws a ball to C, 5times) Teacher shows ppt (some riddles about last lesson) and Ss answer the e.g. T: Why is six afraid of seven? (http://youtu.be/59puWedoc0c) and Ss guess what the topic is. The video is about "uncomfortable truth".
A. 1.T shows ppt (word recognition) 3times.
2. Ss write down words as many as they can.
3. T asks Ss to speak out the words which they found.
4. T asks the meaning of the words and adds more information about the words.
B. 1. T makes groups of 3, distributes handout-1(word search), and give 3minutes.
2. T checks the handouts.
A. Fly Swatter Game (10') 1. Make groups of 4 members and comes forward one by one from 2. T prepares the ppt which the words are written and two fly 3. T reads the words which are described in English-English - Synonym, antonym, etc.
4. Ss hit the right words by the fly swatters.
5. T gives points to the student who swats first.
-Teacher's material- police take charge of you and take you to a police station to hear that you have to stay in prison for the rest of your life the person in a court of law who decides how the law should be judge a person who is qualified to advise people about the law and represent lawyer feeling unhappy because you think that you have done something wrong guilty to do something which you should have done you did not commit a crime which they have been accused of very serious or very unpleasant in a short distance from a place, thing, or person All the qualities people have that make them distinct from other people B. Find the proverb.(10') – From listening comes wisdom, and from 1. Make groups of 4 members.
2. T gives each group the handout-2.
3. Unscramble the words, fill out the letters which is corresponded with the number, and find the proverb.
T shows ppt(word recognition) and lets Ss speak out.
Make 5 true-false questions about themselves. T shows an example: I have two daughters. Is it true or false? C. Post Teaching Activity
Reflection: Teacher reviews the class's objective again.
2. Make Life Easier
(Seojeonju Middle School) A. Pre-Planning Activities
Topic: Unit 8 Make Life Easier (P.137) Level: Low Intermediate Age and Number of Students: 15 years old/25 students Time and Period: 45 minutes/5th period (of 9th) Language Skills: Speaking & Writing for Grammar Language Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be Describe two pictures using the correct comparative forms of b. Make comparative sentences using the given adjectives.
Methodology: Eclectic (Grammar Translation Method and Direct Method) Resource Materials: Pictures, PPT, Realia, Work sheets, Stopwatch Anticipated Problems and Solutions Lower-level students may not know the meaning of some words.
The teacher should help students understand them by giving There can be students who will not fully participate in the The teacher gives them individual tasks to answer the appointed questions after finishing their group work.
B. In-Class Activities
The teacher greets the students and checks the attendance.
The teacher asks students to do stretching and clap their hands to attract their attention.
T: Good morning.
T: How are you feeling today? T: Is everyone here? T: I hope you are happy today.
T: Stretch your arms and legs for 10 seconds. Clap your hands for three times.
The teacher asks some questions about what students studied in the last class and students answer them. Teacher calls student's name T: It's time for review. Everyone! Put away everything on your desk.
You don't need anything now. Let me see if you can remember what you studied in the last class.
◯ what can you remember from the last lesson? ◯ who will be a good inventor? Why? what's the difference between a good inventor and an T: Great. Good inventors are curious about everything. Do you agree? T: Are there any questions? The teacher shows some realia and celebrities' photos, and then asks students to describe the things and people using adjectives. Students describe them by using proper adjectives.
◯ what is this? ◯ could you give me an adjective to describe this? T: Excellent.
◯ would you like to say any other word to describe this? The same thing follows.
T: Could you give me an adjective to describe him /her? ◯ give me any other word to describe this, please.
The same thing follows.
The teacher writes the words that students say on the board. Students read them all together later.
T: Can you guess today's topic? T: That's right. Here are today's learning objectives.
(To present the learning objectives on the screen) Let's read them all together.
T: Excellent! Do you have any questions? T: All right, everybody. Let's move on to the next.
The teacher explains the rules for forming the comparatives of adjectives and asks students to change the forms of adjectives.
T: Today we are going to study how to change adjectives into their comparative forms. After studying the rules, we will practice how to change adjectives into their comparative forms. Look at the screen.
[Rules for Comparative Adjectives] 1. How to count the syllables of words 2. Rules for forming comparatives of adjectives a. One syllable words : form the comparative by adding -er Two syllable words that ends with in -y: form the comparative by changing y into i and adding -er c. Words with more than two syllables form the comparative with more [Let's Practice Comparatives of Adjectives] The teacher asks students to practice the comparative forms of adjectives. They will write down the correct comparative forms of the given adjectives. The teacher checks the answers by asking questions.
◯ could you tell me the comparative form of the word, The same thing follows.
T: Have you all understood? T: Now we shall do some group work.
[Activity 1] Comparing Pictures (10') The teacher explains the directions for the activity.
Procedure of the task: 1. T puts Ss into pair groups of 4.
2. T gives each group two worksheets.
3. Ss do the work according to the instructions in the worksheet.
4. T tells that they will have 10 minutes. (Stopwatch) 5. T explains the scoring system to the students.
The fastest group gets 500 points, the second 300 points, and the third 6. T asks students to check the answers with their group members.
7. Each group leader posts one worksheet of their group's work on T: For this activity, I'd like you to work in pairs in a group. Here are your Work in pairs according to the instructions in your worksheet. Now, I will explain the scoring system. The fastest group will get 500 points, the second 300 points, and the third 200 points. You'll have 10 minutes for this activity.
T: Is that clear? T: OK. Let's start.
T: Is there anybody having difficulty? Put your hand up if you need T: One minute left. Everyone, are you done? T: Everyone, have you finished? T: Check your answers with your group members. After checking your answers, each group leader puts one worksheet of your group's work on the board. The fastest group will be the winner.
T: Great. The winner is group . Let's give them big hands. I'll group 500 points. Group will get 300 points, and group T: Any questions? T: Let's move on to something different. Now it's time for activity in Crime." I'll show you the directions of the [Activity 2] Partners in Crime (7') Teacher explains the directions of the activity and puts students in pair groups.
1. T puts Ss into pair groups.
2. T distributes the worksheet to each group.
3. T asks Ss to write as many comparative sentences as they can using the given adjectives in the worksheet.
4. T tells that the activity will be done within 5 min.
5. T asks Ss to change their worksheets with next group and count the number of correct comparative sentences.
6. T tells that the winner group gets 300 points.
T: For this activity, I'd like you to work in pair. Here are your instructions in it.
You'll have 10 minutes for this activity.
T: Are there any questions? Put your hand up if you need help.
T: Is that clear? T: OK. Let's start.
T: Is there anybody having difficulty? Put your hand up if you need T: One minute left. Everyone, are you done? T: Everyone, have you finished? T: Change your worksheet with your next group and count the correct comparative sentences in the worksheet. Are you done? T: How many sentences did group A write? Group B, and group C? T: Congratulations! The winner is .You'll get 300 points Everyone, let's give them big hands.



T: Any questions? The teacher checks students' understanding of the lesson by asking questions about the comparative forms of adjectives and by asking students to make comparative sentences using the pictures.
T: I will check your comprehension by asking some questions about comparative forms of adjectives. Look at the screen.
▶ Complete the sentences with the most appropriate comparative words.
1. Mt. Everest is _ than Mt. Halla.
2. Hiking is than studying.
◯ could you answer the question number one, please? The same thing follows.
could you give me a comparative sentence using the given The same thing follows.
T: Everyone, have you all understood? Excellent! Now, I'll give you homework. Don't worry. It's simple.
The teacher gives students assignment to practice the comparatives of T: Your homework for today is to draw two things of your own choice and write three sentences using comparative forms.
The teacher wraps up the class and says good-bye to the students.
T: It's time to stop. That's all for today. Bye-bye! 3. Giving Some Advice
(Iksan Eoyang Middle School) A. Pre-Planning Activities
Topic: Lesson 4 / Giving Some Advice/ Page 62-63 Level: General Intermediate Age and Number students: 15 years old / 20 students Time and Period: 45 minutes, 2nd period out of 8 Language Skills: Speaking(for interacting with others) Language Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be a. understand the sentences using modal 'should' b. speak the sentences asking and giving some advice c. interact with one another using the sentences for asking and giving advice Methodology: Eclectic(Task-based Approach & Communicative Language Resource Materials: Text book, PPT, CDs, Worksheets Anticipated Problems and Solutions: a. Students may not be able to understand the given expressions clearly. If so, teacher can explain the sentences of advice more, and give some examples of the sentences using 'should.' b. Students may not be able to finish the given worksheets in the given time. Teacher should give more time(2-3 minutes) to finish them.
Warm up(2 minutes): Teacher greets, checks the rolls, and has small Greetings: Teacher greets the students.
Roll-Calls: Teacher checks students' attendance.
Small Talks: Teacher has a small talk about the holidays to motivate students.
T: Hi, everybody. How's it going? . I'm glad to hear that.
I'll check who's here. Everybody's here. How was your holiday? Did you enjoy your holiday? T: All right. It's time to start our English lesson. Did you do your homework? Take your homework please.
Review(5 minutes): Students review the previous lesson. Teacher calls students' names randomly and ask questions about the last T: Before we go on to the lesson let's go over the last class.
Last time you studied about 'Listen and Talk 1.' Who can tell me what we covered in the last lesson? Pre-Task(4 minutes): Teacher introduces a situation by using PPT and gives students a chance to guess what they are going to do today. And then teacher explains today's objectives.
T: Now look at this picture. You can see two persons. One is a teacher and the other is a student. Can you find something wrong in this picture? Sts : Answer.
T: The student gives a book to his teacher with one hand.
Seeing this, the teacher is surprised. Maybe this student is a foreigner. He doesn't know our culture. In our culture students should hand things to their teachers with two hands. In this case what advice can you give to the student? Sts: You should use both hands when you give something to an older person.
T: Brilliant. You're going to study the sentences using modal 'should,' and practice speaking the sentences for asking and giving advice.
Teaching(10 minutes): Teacher explains the sentences using modal 'should' and A : You look upset. What's the problem? B : I can't lose weight. What should I do? A : You should exercise more. / You shouldn't eat much snacks.
B : Thanks for the advice.
T: When you have a problem and ask some advice to somebody, you can say the sentences using 'should.' Ex) What should I do? If somebody asks you some advice, then you can give them in a exercise more. / You shouldn't eat much snack. Modal, 'should' is followed by an original verb form, and in a negative sentence 'should' is followed by 'not.' In the sentences teacher can explain the grammatical structures, if necessary.
Teacher lets students listen to a simple dialogue and guesses what the appropriate advice is.
T: This time, look at the pictures, and listen to the simple dialogue including some advice.
M: Emily, will you come over for dinner tomorrow? W: I'd love to, thanks. It'll be my first visit to a Korean M: Really? You'll like it.
W: What should I do to be polite? M: You should take off your shoes at the door.
W: OK. And what shouldn't I do? M: You shouldn't start to eat before the older people do.
W: I got it. Things here are very different.
T: What did Emily say to ask advice? Sts: What should I do to be polite? / What shouldn't I do? T: What can you say to Emily to give advice? Sts: You should take off your shoes at the door. / You shouldn't start to eat before the older people do.
T: Exactly right.
If students don't understand the grammatical structures, teacher should explain more.
Task (18 minutes): Teacher lets students do Activity 1 and then Activity 1.(10 min) Procedure of the task: a. Teacher distributes the worksheets.
b. Teacher gives problems and advice and lets students match each problem with the right advice.
c. Teacher asks if students have any questions. And then teacher gives the time limit.(3 minutes) T: I'll distribute worksheet 1. On your worksheet 1, there are problems and advice. Match each problem with the right advice.
I'll give you 2 minutes.
♤ I forget important dates and events ♤ I can't lose my weight. --- not have much snack ♤ I'm visiting a Thai family. --- eat with your right hand ♤ I have to give a talk in front of the class.
♤ I got up late in the morning. --- not go to bed late ♤ I can't to make new friends.
--- talk to other people ♤ My neck hurts. --- roll your head in a circle d. After the time limit, teacher lets students check the T: Did you match all? S1, What's the advice for problem1? S1: Answers.
e. Teacher gives a basic dialogue and lets students make pairs and do substitution drills. Teacher gives time limit.(4 T: This time, make pairs. And practice asking and giving advice using the problems and the advice on your worksheet. When you speak, you can use the sample dialogue I gave you a little earlier. I'll give you 3 minutes.
f. After practicing the dialogue, students present one of the dialogues with emotion in front of the classmates, and all the classmates share the sentences.
T: Did you practice speaking enough? Who will say one of your dialogues? Any volunteers? Excellent.
Activity 2.(8 min) Procedure of the task: a. Teacher distributes the worksheets.
b. Teacher explains what students should do and asks if they have any questions. Teacher gives the time limit.(5 min) T: This time on your worksheet write two of your own problems, and then stand up, mingle each other, find the reasonable advice from your friends. You should get more than two pieces of advice. When you ask or get advice, remember the sentences you've learned today. You may use the sample dialogue. I'll give you five minutes. Ready? Go.
c. After the time limit, teacher lets students say their problems and the advice they got from the friends and share with classmates.
T: I'm sorry to interrupt your activity, please go back to your seat and sit down. Who can say the problems and the advice? S2, can you say one of your problems and your friends' advice? Did you get enough advice for your problem? S2: Say their answers.
Follow up (5 minutes): a. Students have a formative test and give some feedback: Students close the books. Teacher calls the students' names randomly, and ask questions about the sentences using modal 'should' and advice to check how students understand today's T: So far we've studied about the sentences asking & giving advice. The important point to remember is 'should.' Could somebody say an example asking and giving advice? Excellent.
b. Teacher lets students summarize today's lesson briefly and check them.
T: Let 's summarize what we've studied till now.
Homework (1 minute):(optional) a. Teacher gives today's homework about the dialogue.
b. Teacher gives information about next lesson and close.
T: I'll give you homework. Today's homework is to write your family's problems and advice using 'should' and practice to speak them. It's time to finish now. Let's wrap up now.
Post Teaching Activity
I completed this teaching plan according to the procedure of the eighth grade in my middle school text book. Usually the textbook gave me lots of idea. So I use the content of the textbook with The main objectives were to speak and interact using the sentences for advice, but I added a simple dialogue for listening which was concerned with the main objectives. I thought about how to present the today's topic naturally and how to make the activities interesting to help the students take the class with In the 1st activity, I gave students a task which was not difficult. I gave some pictures as clues to help students guess the difficulty, I'll give more explanations about the pictures in English. It will help the low level students do the activity better. After they fill their worksheets, I'll let my students practice speaking using the phrases on the worksheets.
In the 2nd activity, I gave a little more difficult but more interesting activity. I made my students stand and move a little bit to activate the class. In the real classes, students can practice speaking for questions and answers. And they have to think about the problems and solutions continuously. I have to give the trivial rules, for example, the rule for throwing the doll. If not, strongly, and hurt them.
After consolidation I gave homework to students. In the real classes, most of my students do their homework very well, because I always check their homework and then reflect it for the final 4. This is My Pet
(Seoheung Middle School) A. Pre-Planning Activities
Topic: Lesson 3/ This is My Pet/Page 49-50) Level: Low Intermediate Age and Number of students: 14 years old, 30 Time and Period: 45 minutes, 7th period out of 8 Language Skills: Reading & Speaking(for interacting with others, Language Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be 1. Know the usage of the given grammar structure.
negatives next to 3rd person singular subjects.
2. Complete the given worksheet in pairs.
3. Make Yes/No questions and answers about the given clues in Language Teaching Approach) Resource Materials: textbook, PPT, 2 worksheets Anticipated Problems and Solutions: Solution : Give them 1-2 minutes more or assign them to finish Solution : Give them 3-4 minutes more.
Solution : After the activity, choose students randomly to ask what others said.
B. In-class Activities Warm-up(1 min) : The teacher greets the students and calls the roll T : Good afternoon, everyone.
How are you all today? T : I'm happy to hear that. / I hope you're all feeling well.
T : Let's see if everyone's here. Is anyone absent? T : Nice to see you all here. Is everyone ready to start? Review(3 min) : The teacher calls out students' names randomly to check students' memory of last class.
T : Clear your desk, please. Quick! OK, review time! Let's go over the last class.
, can you tell me what we learned in the last lesson? T : _, how about you? What did we learn last time? (Encouraging) Good try! /Close./ Nearly/ You're almost there.
(Saying yes) You've got it. / That's just what I was looking for.
/ That's it. / Awesome/ Fabulous! Brilliant! /That's exactly the point./ T : Do you have any question before we move on to today's T : OK. Let's move on.
Pre-Task(2min) : The teacher shows a photo of a celebrity and ask students questions. Students guess the objectives of the class.
T : I have something to show you today. Look at the screen.
What can you see in the picture? Who is he? T : That's right. This is the information on Shi-hoo. But, I don't know if it's true or not. What do I have to do? T : Yes, I have to ask questions about him like this.
In today's class, first, we'll study making questions and negative sentences next to ‘she', ‘he' or ‘it'.
Next, you'll complete the given worksheets in pairs.
Last I want you to make yes/no questions and answers about the given picture in groups.
These are what we're going to do today.
sentences into interrogatives and negatives next to 3rd person singular T : We will start from the grammar point. Look at the ppt slide on the monitor.
(The teacher explains how to change affirmative sentences into interrogative and negative ones.) T : Do you have any question? _, tell me how to make interrogative sentence next to the third singular subject.
 Procedure of the task ① The teacher distributes worksheet#1 and tells the students to work in pairs.
② The teacher explains how to complete the given worksheets and gives them the time limit(7 min).
③ During the task, the teacher visits each group and helps some students in need.
④ After finishing worksheet #1, the teacher chooses students randomly to check the answers.(3min) T : This time, I will check if you understand the grammar point.
Get into pairs, please. Work with the person sitting next to Here are today's worksheets. At the end of each sentence, you can see ‘negative', ‘positive', or ‘question'. You should change the given sentences into the given form. Are you clear? T : Please take one and pass it along. You have 7 minutes to work on (During the activity) Any problems? Put your hand up if you need (Stopping an activity) Are you done/through? Time's (almost) Put your pens down.
Let's check the answers together.
_, write the answer of number 4 on the blackboard.
Is there anything wrong? Come here and correct it.
 Procedure of the activity ① The teacher divides the class into groups of four.
② The group leaders draw lots to decide their opponents.
③ The teacher shows a picture of a celebrity to each group.
④ Students take notes of yes/no questions they will ask about the given celebrity.(1 minute) ⑤ Groups take turns to ask and answer questions to the other groups quickly.(2 minute) ⑥ Students cannot ask the same question the other group already said. The last group who has a remaining is the winner.
T : This time, we'll do Yes/No ping pong game.
Make groups of four. Please turn your desk around so that you're facing the other members.
Each group leader comes here and draws lots to decide your opponent I'll explain how to play the ping pong game.
First, I'll show a picture of a celebrity for every round.
Two groups should take notes of yes/no questions using ‘Does he/she ?' about the given celebrity in one minute. Use your Those two groups take turns to ask and answer questions quickly in two minutes.
You should not ask the same question the other group already asked.
The last group who has any other question left is the winner.
Students from other groups should listen to what questions the group asked each time. After the activity, I'll choose some students randomly to ask what others said. Taking notes will help you to This time, I'll do it with one of you, so that you know what I Who wants to help me? Do you want to be a volunteer or a victim? I'll demonstrate with _.
_, at first, listen to what I say and then reply ‘Yes' or ‘No'. Next, you ask me a question ‘Does he/she ?' and I answer ‘Yes' or ‘No'. We will ask each other new questions and answer repeatedly in one minute.
(After the demonstration) Now, it's your turn. Look at the screen. For one minute, write down as many questions as possible.(After one minute) The first two groups, please come to the front and play ping pong.
Time's up. Whose turn is it now? Please listen to what the other groups say. I'll ask you later.
Did you have fun? students randomly to tell what the other students asked during the Yes/No ping pong game.
T : Now, clear your desk. When I call a student out, she or he should say one sentence from what other groups said.
, what did the group ask about (a celebrity)? Homework(1min) : The teacher assigns the students to complete the given worksheet if they haven't finished it yet.
T : Do you have any question about today's class? T : OK. Then, let's wrap it up. For your homework, please finish the first worksheet. If you have done already, you have no homework.
That's all for today. Have a lovely day from now! C. Post-teaching Activity
When I show a demonstration class, I feel extremely nervous. I even see my hands shaking. This microteaching was also not an exception.
Transitions were not natural. For example, I just skipped to the next step without wrapping up each step. Also, I didn't say lots of encouragements or compliments to the students. During Yes/No ping pong game, I should have made students answer with full sentences like ‘Yes, he does.' or ‘No, he doesn't.', instead of ‘Yes' or ‘No'. As I raced against time, I skipped follow-up and homework steps. Nervousness is a big obstacle to me. I need more confidence in front of others. I felt more comfortable, compared to the first 5. Being an Inventor
(Buan Middle School) A. Pre-Planning Activities
-Topic: Being an Inventor(Unit 8.Make Life Easier) -Level: Low-intermediate level -Age and Number of students: Age of 15 / 16 students -Time and Period: 45min(3rd period) -Language Skills: Speaking & Writing( for Grammar ) -Language Objectives : By the end of the lesson, the students will be a. know the usage of the given grammar structure "To + Basic b. complete the given practice worksheet in pairs.
c. memorize the given dialogue through pattern drill and record it within 10 mins.
-Methodology: Eclectic (Grammar-Translation Method & Audio Lingual - Resource Materials: video clip, worksheets, recorder -Anticipated Problems and Solutions: a. Ss may feel bored of repetitive pattern drills. >> Teacher asks Ss in pairs to memorize a dialogue and record their voices within the limited time in a place where they want to go around the school b. Ss make a lot of noise in the middle of recording activity. >> Teacher should go around and foster their concentration by noticing the limited time and bonus point for doing a good job.
B. In-Class Activities
-Warm up(3mins): Teacher shows a video clip about a sculpture. Teacher asks Ss to guess what she created her artwork with, before they watch -Review(3mins): Teacher asks Ss to come up to the front and write as many words or grammar points as they remember what they learned in the last lesson.
-Pre-Task (3mins): Teacher shows a picture on the screen and asks Ss to guess what the object would be used for.
1)To say the purpose of an action, we can use "To+Basic Verb" 2)To modify a noun through an action, we can use "To+Basic Verb" after a noun. To+Basic Verb modifies the noun before To+Basic Verb.
3)Ss needs to choose the right verb that makes sense in the sentence and write a sentence using the given prompts.
-Procedure of the task - Teacher distributes a worksheet for completing and memorizing - Teacher asks Ss to do this activity in pairs.
- After filling out the blanks the dialogue, Ss have to memorize it by practicing with partner.(5mins) - Teacher asks Ss to memorize and record their voices through cell phone within 10 mins. They can do that in the place where they want to go at school. (10mins) - The length of voice-recording should be done within 2mins.
- The students who have done well the activity would get a plus point.
-Follow -up (2mins) -Teacher shows word clips on screen and asks to put them in order to make a sentence.
- Ss have to make 5 sentences using to+infinitive grammar point they learned through today's lesson.
C. Post Teaching Activity
1. Complete the sentences using the infinitive of the verbs from the 1) We use a camera photographs.
2) We looked at the map 3) I turned on the radio to some music.
4) They went to the airport _ Ben's sister.
5) You are the man 6) We need a tutor 7 ) He was the first Korean across the Pacific.
8) I don't have any friends 2. Write sentences using the prompts.
e.g. this/a button/turn on the computer. You use this button to turn on the computer. Or I need a button to turn on the computer. 1. A camera / take photographs.
2. a house / live in.
3. A microwave / heat up food.
4. A knife / cut this apple.
5. An alarm clock / wake up in the morning.
Complete the conversation using the infinitive of the verbs in You can use the words from the box.
Memorize the dialogue with your partner and record it.
PEDRO: Hi Sally! What are you doing? SALLY : I'm trying to use the computer, but I can't turn it on! PEDRO: Here you are. You use this button the computer.
SALLY : Ah! Great! PEDRO: Are you going to use it SALLY :Yes, but I also want to use it information about Wallace and Gromit.
PEDRO: Do you like Wallace and Gromit? SALLY: Yes, I love the way they use models _ the films.
SALLY: No, I didn't. That's really interesting.
PEDRO: I know. I want to find a movie director _ about filmmaking.
6. Yuri's New Hobby
(Jeongil Girls' Middle School) A. Pre-Planning Activities
Topic: Lesson 7/ Yuri's New Hobby/ Page 112-113 Level: General Intermediate Age and Number of students: 14years old, 32students Time and Period: 45minutes, 6th period out of 8 Language Skills: Listening for detailed comprehension & Speaking for interacting with others/vocabulary.
Language Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be a. Understand the content of the listening material in groups.
b. Talk about the topic about hobbies in pairs.
c. Make a graphic organizer about hobbies.
Methodology: Eclectic(Comprehension-based Approach & Task-based Resource Materials: Worksheets, Listening file (CD) Anticipated Problems and Solutions: a. The students may be worried about not knowing the words about hobbies. If so, teacher gives the hints by using synonyms or b. The students may have a problem making a graphic organizer.
If so, teacher gives some different categories of hobbies.
B. In-Class Activities
a. Teacher calls the students' name randomly and asks them what their hobbies are.
- Good afternoon, everyone? - How are you all today? I hope everybody is doing just fine.
- Is everybody here? - I'm glad to see you all here today.
- I'd like everybody to please put your things away.
- Quick! All right, are you all ready to start? - 000, what is your hobby? Great! - 000, how about you? Lovely.
a. Teacher asks the students about the present tense that they studied last lesson.
- Great! Review time! - Who can tell me what you studied in the last lesson? - 000, what did you study? - Exactly! Last time, we studied about the present tense.
- 000, can you tell me one example? ( I get up early in the morning ) Terrific.
- How about 000 ? ( I take a walk for one hour after dinner ) a. Teacher shows two pictures related to hobbies for a minute and talks about it.
b. Teacher helps the students guess what today's topic is and tells the learning objectives clearly.
- I'll give you two pictures and guess what today's topic is.
- That's it.
- Today, we will study more examples of the present tense about a. Before listening to the file, teacher divides the students into 6 groups and lets the students talk about their hobbies in groups for 5 minutes.
teaches the words related to the hobbies for 5 minutes by using pictures.
- Before listening to the file, I'll divide the students into 6 - Please, ask and answer your hobbies in groups for 5 minutes. ( talk about hobbies) - Then, please look at the slides and tell me what the person look at the slide. What does she do? (She plays what does she do? (She collects things.) Perfect! Altogether repeat after me.
a. While listening to the file for two times, students fill in the blanks by using the given worksheets for 4 minutes.
- Now, let's move on next. You will listen to the video clip about hobbies.
- Here are today's worksheets. Please, take one and pass it along. Who doesn't have a copy? Could you bring the spare worksheets to the front, please? listening for two times, fill in the blanks on the b. Teacher calls the students' name randomly and checks up their worksheets in pairs for 5 minutes.
000, write your answers on the board. (write answers on the board.) - You're partially correct.
- Who can correct some answers? - 000, come to the front. All the answers are perfect.
- Please, check up your answers.
Any problems? All right.
c. After listening, students make a graphic organizer about hobbies by using the given worksheets in groups for 10 - Let's move on to something different. Turn to the next page on the worksheet.
- You will see a graphic organizer. There are four parts on the - Please, read it first and then make a graphic organizer in - Make groups of five and I'll give you 10 minutes to work.
- Are you ready to start? Stop talking loudly.
- There are still two minutes to go.
d. After finishing their works in 10 minutes, students post their works on the wall around the classroom.
- Are you done? If you finish it, please bring your worksheet and post it on the wall around the classroom.
e. The groups move clockwise to see the other group's works and choose who made the best organizer.
- And move clockwise to see the other group's works and choose who made the best organizer.
f. Finally, teacher shows the box of different kinds of hobbies on the screen gives feedback to the group's work.
- I'll show you the box of different kinds of hobbies on the screen. Please check up something different.
group is the best? a. Teacher checks up the students' understanding of the lesson by asking questions to students randomly.
- Who can tell me hobbies you like over 10 things? - Bingo! How about 000? C. Post-teaching activity
Worksheet #1
Listening script: Interests and Hobbies Link: http://youtu.be/T4Ehrd9eg50 length: 1:57 Direction: Fill in the blank while listening for two times.
It is very rewarding to have different interests and hobbies.
Some people like to play computer games.
Other people spend a lot of time _.
There are people who would rather watch movies.
Some people prefer more physical things.
They would rather play a sport like baseball, hockey or _.
Some people do exercises at a gym, or they just go for walks.
There are many ways to exercise.
You can ride a bicycle or .
There are people who like to collect things.
They can collect all kinds of different things.
You can collect stamps, coins, dolls, postcards, movies, rocks or Some people even or leaves.
Some people are lucky enough to be able to travel.
You can travel to a nearby place, or you can travel far away to a different country.
There are people who like to listen to music.
People have different tastes in music.
Some people like , rap, classical music, or folk music.
There are many different types of music.
Some people would rather play music than listen to it.
You can play an instrument, or you can sing.
Many people learn to play the guitar or the piano.
Some people or orchestras.
There are people who like to read books.
There are a lot of different hobbies.
It depends on what you consider to be _.
You can have more than one hobby or interest.
It is good to be interested in a lot of different things.
Listening script : Interests and Hobbies Length: 1min 57sec It is very rewarding to have different interests and hobbies.
Some people like to play computer games.
Other people spend a lot of time watching television.
There are people who would rather watch movies.
Some people prefer more physical things.
They would rather play a sport like baseball, hockey or basketball.
Some people do exercises at a gym, or they just go for walks.
There are many ways to exercise.
You can ride a bicycle or lift weights.
There are people who like to collect things.
They can collect all kinds of different things.
You can collect stamps, coins, dolls, postcards, movies, rocks or Some people even collect bugs or leaves.
Some people are lucky enough to be able to travel.
You can travel to a nearby place, or you can travel far away to a different country.
There are people who like to listen to music.
People have different tastes in music.
Some people like rock music, rap, classical music, or folk music.
There are many different types of music.
Some people would rather play music than listen to it.
You can play an instrument, or you can sing.
Many people learn to play the guitar or the piano.
Some people join bands or orchestras.
There are people who like to read books.
There are a lot of different hobbies.
It depends on what you consider to be fun.
You can have more than one hobby or interest.
It is good to be interested in a lot of different things.
Ⅵ. Memories of In-service Training Program Nu'uanu Pali Lookout Behold Rainbow in the Sky Experience Real Polynesia At the Top of Diamond Head Ⅶ English Teachers' List This book was published on February 25, 2013 by Jeollabuk-do Office of Education Yun, Deok Im,
Head of Dept. of Educational Innovation, as an editorial supervisor, Kim, Hak San,
Senior Supervisor of Dept. of Educational Innovation, as a manager, Lee, Young Suk,
Supervisor of Dept. of Educational Innovation, as a projector English teacher of Gunsan Jeil Middle School, as an editor.

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