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Nml pcr individual guidance notes 4pp a5_layout

Results are reported according to the level ofbacterial DNA detected in preserved milk. Bacterialgrowth in transit does not occur in preserved samplesbut multiple pathogens can still be detected.
Mastitis pathogen testresult interpretationIndividual cowThis test by qPCR is designed to detect the presence of: • 11 key mastitis pathogens (responsible for >95% of cases) • Penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus species Results are available through Micro Monitor on the Herd Companion website
(via - www.nmr.co.uk). Please contact customer services for login details by
calling 03330 043 043.

Result Interpretation - Mastitis Pathogens
Negative/not detected Present in low numbers Present in moderate numbers Present in high numbers Where >90% or >99% of the bacterial load is attributed to one pathogen, this will appear in the report. Pathogens can be split roughly into two groups (though some can fit into both groups)
Contagious mastitis pathogens
Environmental mastitis pathogens
Staphylococcus aureus, other Staphylococcus species, Corynebacterium bovis, Streptococcus Enterococcus species, Serratia marcescens, agalactiae & Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and Klebsiella spp. Contagious pathogens are well adapted to The primary source of environmental pathogens is survival and growth in the mammary gland and the surroundings in which a cow lives. Sources of frequently cause infections lasting weeks, months environmental pathogens include manure, or years. The infected gland is the main source of bedding, feedstuffs, dust, mud and water.
these organisms in a dairy herd and transmissionof contagious pathogens to uninfected quarters Low levels of some bacteria (e.g. Coagulase - and cows occurs mainly during milking time via negative staphylococcus, CNS) can be treated cloths, gloves and teat liners.
with less urgency. However, different pathogenscan have different infective doses. It is therefore Abbreviated hereafter as C.
important to discuss result interpretation withyour vet. Presence of Strepagalactiae should be looked
at as a matter of priority. Please remember
that contamination with environmental
bacteria could occur if poor sampling
technique is used.

Abbreviated hereafter as E.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO DISCUSS TREATMENT OPTIONS WITH YOUR VET
Staphylococcus aureus - C Bacteria are shed from infected quarters in variable numbers. Damage to the
udder tissue reduces milk yield significantly. It can be resistant to treatment with common antibiotics
and so it is important to use the correct antibiotics for treatment. Culling may be necessary for chronically
infected cows.
Staphylococcus species (Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS)) - C Sub-clinical mastitis caused by
intramammary infections (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) is common in dairy cows and
may cause herd problems. Control of CNS mastitis is complicated by the fact that the CNS group contains
a large number of different species and so veterinary advice should be sought. CNS is of low
pathogenicity
and is unlikely to be the sole cause of infection. The most likely mastitis-causing
bacteria should be ruled out before CNS is considered significant in suspected mastitis cases.

Streptococcus agalactiae - C Very high numbers of bacteria are shed and the cell counts can be as high
as 10 million without any clinical signs. Bulk milk cell counts also increase considerably with this form of
mastitis. Careful attention to pre-milking teat preparation (teat dipping) is essential to minimise
transmission of this organism. Treatment success rates are usually good. If this pathogen is present
veterinary advice should be sought immediately.

Streptococcus dysgalactiae - C Usually associated with teat injury, either hyper keratosis or
physical damage
that may be caused by poor milking machine function. Essential to assess teat
condition
and consider having the parlour tested. Infections tend to be subclinical.
Corynebacterium bovis - C Sources of C. bovis are infected udders and teat canal. Spread of C. bovis
is from cow-to-cow at milking. Correct pre and post-milking teat disinfection may control the
spread from cow-to-cow. Most cases are not clinical. Dry cow therapy may be effective in eliminating
C. bovis intramammary infection.
Streptococcus uberis - E/C A common cause of new infection in the dry period. It can produce mild
to severe mastitis that may be difficult to treat. It can be shed in very high numbers by infected quarters.
Sub-clinical infections may occur resulting in high cell count cows. Cow to cow transmission is also
possible so good teat preparation and disinfection can be useful to minimise transmission.
Escherichia coli (E.coli) - E Effective control includes general cow and bedding hygiene to prevent cow
teat end exposure. Also pre-dipping and drying teats prior to milking may reduce infection during
lactation. E.coli can be found as a contaminant if samples are not taken carefully.
Enterococcus faecalis and/or faecium - E These bacteria are found in the gut and are an indicator of
faecal contamination
. Recommended control procedures include effective milking time hygiene and
pre- and post-milking teat disinfection. Also consider dry cow and cubicle bedding hygiene.
Klebsiella spp - E This is a member of the coliform family and are found in faeces, in bedding and on
wet dirty udders. Can cause transient, peracute or acute mastitis. They often increase in numbers in
warm, wet weather.
Serratia marcescens - E Infection can be sub-clinical or clinical. Cure rates using antibiotic treatment can
be variable. Transmission can be minimised by ensuring bedding and teat hygiene.
Arcanobacterium pyogenes - E Sources include wound infections, teat injuries, udder infections,
abscesses, and genital tracts. Spread may be due to contact of teats with a contaminated environment.
A. pyogenes may be transmitted by flies. Control measures include fly control programs, maintaining
cows in clean and dry calving areas, drying off affected quarters to reduce the risk of spreading the
infection to other cows, and removing the affected cow from the herd. A. pyogenes often causes an acute
mastitis. Infections occur most frequently in dry cows or heifers before calving.
Penicillin Resistance: Staphylococcal beta-lactamase gene
If a positive Staph result is detected (this applies to both Staph aureus and Staph spp. results). A beta-lactamase gene may be present. This indicates a resistance of the staph bacteria to penicillin treatment.
This is reported as follows:
Susceptible to penicillin; suitable for use in treatment Resistant to penicillin; do not use in treatment Resistant to penicillin; do not use in treatment Resistant to penicillin; do not use in treatment Presence of the Staphylococcal beta-lactamase gene in the sample indicates there is a degree of
penicillin resistance in the herd. You should discuss mastitis treatment options with your vet.

Somatic Cell Count
Green < 150,000 Review of mastitis Amber 150,000 - 250,000 management to prevent spread of infection NEXT STEPS
ALWAYS discuss treatment of individual cows and the points below with your vet.
If Bacillus or fungi are suspected (in rare cases), consider the use of culture testing (available through your vet).
In the case of environmental pathogens, consider reviewing milking hygiene with advice from your vet.
Monitor teat condition and discuss treatment with your vet.
Ensure milking machine function is optimal.
If you have any questions aboutthe testing, please contact: National Milk Laboratories
Tel: 01902 749920
Fax: 01902 749938
www.nationalmilklabs.co.uk

Source: https://www.nmr.co.uk/uploads/files/files/individualcowbook.pdf

7th kelantan health conference 15 –16th june 201

Volume 11(Suppl 3) 2011 Official Journal of Malaysian P ublic Health Physicians'Association EDITORIAL BOARD Chief Editor Prof. Dato' Dr. Syed Mohamed Aljunid (Unit ed Nations University – International Institute for Global Health) Deputy Chief Editor Assc. Prof. Dr. Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh

Introduction

European Psychomotricity Journal, 2014; 6; 1, 37-51 SciPsyMot-Hellas EPJ ORIGINAL ARTICLE Abstract Self-esteem is a widely examined Self-esteem and physical self- concept in the area of psychiatric disorders, less attention was given to the concept in adolescents on an physical self-concept, till now. The