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A Drug Abuse Prevention Guide For Teens
Table of Contents
Substance Abuse Guide For Teens 1
Today's Drug Problem 2
Extent of Problem 2
Drugs of Abuse 3
• Cannabis • Heroin • Cocaine 4
• Methamphetamine • Prescription Drugs 5
• GHB • Ecstasy 6
• LSD • PCP • Ketamine 7
• Anabolic Steroids • Inhalants • Over the Counter (OTCs) 8
Costs to Society 10
Why Do Young People Use Drugs? 11
Attitudes About Drugs 13
What Is Addiction? 15
Drug Treatment 15
What About Drug Legalization? 16
Drug Prevention and Awareness 17
Principles of Prevention 18
Drug Prevention Programs 20
Prevention Resources 20
What You Can Do 23
How Teens Can Assist With
Drug Awareness Programs 23
Drug Prevention Projects 25
Substance Abuse Guide For Teens
Learning for Life has partnered with the Drug Enforcement Admin-
istration (DEA), the federal agency best known for dismantling
international and domestic drug trafficking organizations. DEA is also a leader in the prevention community and works with schools, parents, communities, and the public to provide accurate informa-tion on the harm drugs cause. Learning for Life groups, posts, and participants embrace these efforts in our communities and, with DEA Special Agents across the nation, hope to have an impact on teen drug use in our country.
Learning for Life and the Drug Enforcement Administration con-
sider young people to be a valuable resource in preventing sub-stance abuse. Whether you make a personal decision not to use drugs, help educate your peers about the dangers of drugs, or inform members of the community about the damages caused by drug use and trafficking, you are making a difference in combating this problem.
Jointly, we are pleased to present this program guide to supple-
ment Learning for Life programs.
Part One: Today's Drug Problem
Extent of Problem
Drug use in the United use is risky, and good drug marijuana, LSD, steroids,
States is a serious
prevention programs help
problem, but much progress
teens understand how and
alcohol and tobacco. They are
has been made through
why drugs are harmful.
also tel ing researchers that
effective drug prevention and
Most kids don't take
they know more about the
enforcement programs during drugs. According to a recent
dangers of drugs—and that
the past decade. Teen drug
government survey drug
helps them say no to drugs.
use decreases when young
use rates have decreased
people perceive that drug
since 2001. Kids are rejecting
You can find detailed information on drug use in America from the fol owing sources: Monitoring the Future www.monitoringthefuture.org • National Survey on Drug Use and Health http://oas.samhsa.gov • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration www.samhsa.gov • National Institute on Drug Abuse www.drugabuse.gov • Office of National Drug Control Policy www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov • Drug Enforcement Administration www.dea.gov • www.justthinktwice.com
Drugs of Abuse
There are many ilegal substances abused today. There are other
substances, such as over-the-counter medications, household
products, and legitimate pharmaceuticals (medicines) that are also abused.
This brief guide provides information on the most commonly abused drugs. Here
are some facts which will help you understand the facts about il egal drugs.
The Control ed Substances Act (CSA) categorizes drugs into five categories
(Schedules I-V) according to their medical use, potential for abuse, and safety. The most addictive drugs, and drugs which have no medical use, are in Schedule I.
Federal penalties for manufacturing and/or distributing il egal drugs are based
on the danger each drug poses to individuals and to the public.
There are several classes of drugs; each class has different properties and
effects on the user.
Narcotics: Narcotics (such as heroin, morphine, OxyContin, etc.) are used to
dull the senses and reduce pain. Narcotics can be made from opium (from the opium poppy) or created in a laboratory (synthetic and semi-synthetic narcotics).
Stimulants: Stimulants reverse the effects of fatigue on the body and brain.
Sometimes they are referred to as "uppers." Cocaine, amphetamines,
methamphetamine and Ritalin™ are stimulant drugs. Cocaine is derived
from the coca plant grown in South America. Nicotine (found in
tobacco) is also a stimulant.
Depressants: Substances included in this category are
tranquilizers, sedatives, hypnotics, anti-anxiety medications and alcohol.
Cannabis: Marijuana and hashish are substances referred to
as cannabis and THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol) is the ingredient
in cannabis which makes the user feel "high."
Effects: Euphoria, relaxed
Hal ucinogens: These substances alter the perceptions and moods
inhibitions, increased appetite,
of users. LSD, Ecstasy, PCP and Ketamine are made in laboratories, some
disorientation, impaired motor skills and
of which are clandestine; non-manufactured hal ucinogens include peyote and
concentration. • Overdose Effects: Fa-
tigue, paranoia, and possible psychosis. •
CSA Schedule: Schedule I: Marijuana has
Inhalants: Many common items such as glue, lighter fluid, paint products,
no medical use. Schedule II: Marinol™ is a synthetic form of THC which can be pre-
cleaning fluids, gasoline, and propel ants in aerosol cans contain chemicals that
scribed for patients with particular medical
produce intoxicating effects similar to alcohol. Inhalant abuse is the deliberate
conditions. • Street Names: Pot, Grass,
inhaling or sniffing of these products to get high.
Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa, Aunt Mary, Boom, Chronic (marijuana alone or
Steroids: Anabolic steroids are defined as any drug or hormonal substance
marijuana with crack), Dope Ganja, Gang-
that is chemical y and pharmacological y related to testosterone and promotes muscle growth. Some steroids are used for legitimate medical reasons, but many are il egal y manufactured and distributed.
Afghanistan are the main sources of
Hash oil is produced by extracting
the cannabinoids from plant material
Cannabis Sativa L.
with a solvent. The color and odor of
Marijuana is grown in the United
the resulting extract will vary, depend-
States, Mexico, Canada, South Amer-
ing on the type of solvent used. Current
ica, Asia, and other parts of the world.
samples of hash oil, a viscous liquid
It can be cultivated outdoors and in
ranging from amber to dark brown in
indoor settings. Marijuana is usual y
color, average about 15
smoked and the effects are felt within
minutes. Depending on the dosage and other variables, users can feel relaxed and have altered senses of smell, sight,
taste and hearing, distorted senses of
time, shifting sensory imagery, rap-
narcotic which can
idly fluctuating emotions, fragmentary
be injected, smoked
thoughts, impaired memory and dul ing
or snorted. It comes
pupils, and nausea.
from the opium poppy
• Overdose Effects: Slow and
shallow breathing, clammy skin,
grown in Southeast Asia
convulsions, coma, and possible
is the psychoactive ingredient found in
(Thailand, Laos and Myanmar—
death. • CSA Schedule: Heroin has no
the marijuana plant. In the 1970's, the
Burma); Southwest Asia (Afghanistan
legitimate medical use: Schedule I. • Street
Names: Horse, Smack, Black Tar, Chiva,
average THC content of il icit marijuana
and Pakistan), Mexico and Colombia. It
and Negra (black tar).
was less than one percent. Today
comes in several forms, the main ones
most commercial grade marijuana
being "black tar" from Mexico (found
from Mexico/Colombia and domestic
primarily in the western United States)
outdoor cultivated marijuana has an
and white heroin from Colombia (pri-
average THC content of 4 to 6 percent,
marily sold on the East Coast).
although some samples have tested as
In the past, heroin was mainly
high as 25 percent THC.
injected. Because of the high purity
High doses of marijuana can result
of the Colombian heroin,
in hal ucinations. Marijuana smokers
many users now snort or
experience the same health prob-
smoke heroin. All of
lems as tobacco smokers: bronchitis,
the methods of use
emphysema, and bronchial asthma.
can lead to addic-
Extended use is associated with anti-
tion, and the use of
motivational syndrome, lung damage,
and risk to reproductive systems.
can result in the
transmission of HIV.
Effects: Increased alertness,
Hashish and Hashish Oil
excitation, euphoria (sometimes
followed by a "crash"), increased
pulse rate and blood pressure, insomnia
Hashish consists of the THC-rich
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant de-
and loss of appetite. • Overdose Effects:
Agitation, increased body temperature,
resinous material of the cannabis plant
rived from coca leaves grown in Bolivia,
hallucinations, convulsions, possible
which is col ected, dried, and then
Peru and Colombia. The most common
death. • CSA Schedule: Approved for use
as an anesthetic for ear, eye and throat
compressed into a variety of forms,
method of use is snorting the cocaine
surgeries: Schedule II. • Street Names:
such as bal s, cakes, or cookie-like
powder (Cocaine Hcl). Its crack form is
Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, and
sheets. Pieces are then broken off,
smoked (freebased). Cocaine is usu-
placed in pipes, and smoked. The
al y distributed as white powder, often
Middle East, North Africa, Pakistan, and diluted ("cut") with a variety of sub-
stances, the most com-
one's thoughts, and auditory and visual
mon being sugars and
hal ucinations. These effects can last
local anesthetics. This
for months and even years after using
is done to stretch the
methamphetamine, and violent and
amount of the product
erratic behavior is often seen among
and increase profits for
Crack is sold in small,
inexpensive doses that are
smoked. Its effects are felt imme-
Pain Kil ers
Effects: Increased alertness, excitation,
diately and are very intense and short-
Vicodin™ is hydrocodone mixed
euphoria, increased pulse rate and blood pressure, insomnia and loss of appetite.
lived. The intensity of the psychological
with acetaminophen. Hydrocodone is a
• Overdose Effects: Agitation, increased
effects of cocaine depends on the dose
semi-synthetic opioid similar in effects
body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death.
and rate of entry to the brain. Cocaine
to morphine. Hydrocodone products,
• CSA Schedule: Methamphetamine
reaches the brain through the snorting
when abused, can lead to dependence,
hydrochloride is prescribed for appetite
method in three to five minutes. Intra-
tolerance, and addiction. Vicodin™ is
suppression: Schedule II. • Street Names:
Crank, Ice, Crystal, Krystal, Meth, Speed,
venous injection of cocaine produces
one of the most frequently prescribed
a rush in 15-30 seconds, and smoking
medications for pain. Other products
produces an almost immediate intense
include Vicoprophen™, Tussionex™,
experience. These intense effects can
be fol owed by a "crash."
Oxycodone is used as an analge-
The cocaine manufacturing process
sic and is formulated into numerous
takes place in remote jungle labs where
pharmaceuticals including OxyContin™
the raw product undergoes a series of
(a control ed-release product) and with
aspirin (Percodan™) or with acet-aminophen (Percoset™). These drugs are prescribed for pain relief. They all
require a doctor's prescription and are
Methamphetamine is a stimulant
prescribed for moderate to severe pain.
which is general y produced in large
Fentynal is extensively used for
laboratories in Mexico, the United
anesthesia and analgesia. Duragesic™
States and Asia, or in "small
is a fentanyl transdermal (through the
toxic labs" in the United
skin) patch used in chronic pain man-
States. It can be injected
agement, and Actiq™ is a solid formu-
or smoked. "Ice" is
lation of fentanyl citrate on a stick that
the crystal ized form
dissolves slowly in the mouth for ab-
sorption through mucous membranes.
and it is general y
Il icit use of pharmaceutical fentanyl
smoked. In all its forms,
first appeared in the mid-1970's in the
Effects: Euphoria, drowsi-
methamphetamine is highly
medical community. To date, over 12
ness, respiratory depression,
addictive and toxic.
different analogues of fentanyl have
constricted pupils, and nausea.
• Overdose Effects: Slow and shallow
The onset of meth effects is
been produced clandestinely and iden-
breathing, clammy skin, convulsions,
about the same as cocaine, but they
tified in the U.S. drug traffic.
coma, and possible death. • CSA
Schedule: Pure hydrocodone and oxy-
last longer. Meth remains in the central
The biological effects are indistin-
codone are in Schedule II. Hydrocodone
nervous system longer than cocaine,
guishable from those of heroin, with the
products fall into schedules III and V.
and chronic abuse produces a psycho-
exception that the fentanyl may be hun-
sis that resembles schizophrenia. Other
dreds of times more potent. Fentanyl
signs of meth use include paranoia,
is most commonly used by intravenous
picking at the skin, preoccupation with
administration, but like heroin, it may
also be smoked or snorted.
to stimulant medica-
Ultram™ (tramadol hydrochloride)
tions when taken in
and Ultracet™ (tramadol with acet-
the form and dosage
aminophen) are prescription medica-
prescribed by doc-
tions indicated for the management of
tors. In fact, it has
Effects: Xanax™ and
moderate to moderately severe pain.
been reported that
Valium™ misuse is associ-
stimulant therapy in
ated with amnesia, hostility,
childhood is associ-
irritability, and vivid or dis-
turbing dreams, as well as toler-
ated with a reduction in
ance and physical dependence.
Xanax™ (alprazolam) is from the
the risk for subsequent drug
• Overdose Effects: Concurrent use of
alcohol or other depressants with Valium™
benzodiazepine family of depressants.
and alcohol use disorders.
or Xanax™ can be life-threatening. • CSA
It is used to treat anxiety and panic
Adderal ™ is an amphetamine which
Schedule: Xanax™ and Valium™ are in
is used to treat attention deficit hyper-
Valium™ (diazepam) is also from the
activity disorder (ADHD) in children 6
benzodiazepine family of depressants.
years of age and older and in
It is usual y used to treat anxiety, alco-
hol withdrawal, muscle spasms, and
seizures. Valium™ is among the most
widely prescribed medications in the
Effects: Misuse of Ritalin™
United States. Concurrent use of alco-
and Adderall™ may cause
hol or other depressants with Valium™
kinds of GHB abus-
short, intense periods of high
can be life-threatening.
ers: those who take
• Overdose Effects: High
Alprazolam and diazepam are
the drug to get high,
doses of Ritalin™ or Adderall™
can produce agitation, tremors,
the two most frequently encountered
those who use it in
euphoria, palpitations, and high
benzodiazepines on the il icit market.
bodybuilding, and those
blood pressure. Psychotic episodes,
Abuse is frequently associated with
who commit sexual assault
paranoid delusions, hallucinations, and
bizarre behavior have been associated with
adolescents and young adults who take
after drugging their victims. GHB is also
the drug to get high. Abuse of benzo-
frequently used in combination with
• CSA Schedule: Ritalin™ and Adderall™ are in
diazepines is particularly high among
MDMA (Ecstasy) to counter over-stimu-
heroin and cocaine abusers.
lation. It is frequently taken with alcohol and is often found at bars, parties, nightclubs, raves and gyms.
GHB is often cal ed the "date-rape"
Methylphenidate (Ritalin™, Concer-
drug. Because of its effect on memory,
Drug Effects: GHB
ta™) is a stimulant which is prescribed
GHB may cause users to forget details
Effects: Slurred speech, disorientation,
for attention deficit/hyperactivity dis-
surrounding a sexual assault.
drunken behavior without the odor
of alcohol, impaired memory of
order. It has a high potential for abuse
GHB is quickly eliminated
events, and interaction with
and produces many of the same effects
from the body, and it
• Overdose Effects:
as cocaine and amphetamines. Binge
is sometimes hard to
use, psychotic episodes, cardiovascular confirm its presence
complications, and severe psychologi-
during rape investiga-
lated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma and
cal addiction have all been associated
with methylphenidate abuse. Accord-
• CSA Schedule:
GHB in its illegal form is
ing to the National Institute on Drug
schedule I; a prescription
Abuse, methylphenidate is a valuable
drug, Xyrem™, formulated
medicine for adults as well as children
Ecstasy is a synthetic drug
from components of GHB,
is Schedule III. • Street Names:
with attention deficit and hyperactivity
that produces both stimulation and
GHB, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily
disorder. Research shows that individu-
hal ucinatory effects and is associated
Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, and Xyrem™.
als with ADHD do not become addicted
with increased energy, sensual arousal
and enhanced tactile sensations. The
The ability to make sound judg-
effects of MDMA are felt within
ments and see common dangers is im-
30-45 minutes, peaking
paired, making the user susceptible to
at 60-90 minutes, and
personal injury. It is possible for users
lasting 4-6 hours.
to suffer acute anxiety and depression
after an LSD "trip" and flashbacks have
nerve cell damage
been reported days, even months, after
senses, teeth grinding
that can result in
taking the last dose.
and dehydration. • Over-
dose Effects: Increased
body temperature, elec-
bances, muscle ten-
trolyte imbalance, cardiac
arrest, possible death. • CSA
sion, tremors, blurred
Schedule: Schedule I. • Street
vision, and increased
PCP is general y produced in
Names: Ecstasy, XTC, Adam, Love
body temperature which can clandestine laboratories in the United
Drug, Eve, Hug, and Beans.
result in organ failure and death.
States. It was original y used as a
The majority of MDMA is pro-
veterinary anesthetic and is il egal y
duced in laboratories in Europe and
produced for human consumption in
then smuggled into the United States.
powder, capsule and liquid form, and
MDMA is usual y distributed in tablet
is frequently sprinkled on parsley, mint,
form and many of these tablets are
oregano or marijuana and smoked.
imprinted with pop culture designs or
PCP use often causes a user to
feel detached from his surroundings. Numbness, slurred speech, and loss of coordination can be accompanied by
a sense of strength and invulnerability.
Auditory hal ucinations and severe
has been produced
mood disorders can occur. In some
Effects: Illusions and
in laboratories in the
users, acute anxiety, paranoia, hostility,
hallucinations, altered perception of time
United States. It is
and psychosis can occur.
and distance, impaired
general y sold in the
judgment leading to pos-sible personal injury.
form of impregnated paper
Schedule: No recognized medi-
typical y imprinted with colorful
cal use: Schedule I. • Street Names:
graphic designs. It has also been found
Ketamine is a fast-acting anesthetic
Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, and Boomers.
in tablets (microdots), thin squares of
and can be used on both humans and
gelatin (window panes), in sugar cubes,
and (rarely) in liquid form.
As a drug of abuse, it can be taken
During the first hour
oral y, snorted, or injected, and can be
after ingestion, us-
sprinkled on marijuana or tobacco and
ers may experience
smoked. If used intravenously, effects
Effects: Illusions and
visual changes with
can be felt immediately, and if snorted
or taken oral y, effects are evident in
perceptions of space
and time. • Overdose
in mood. While hal-
Effects: Suicidal and
lucinating, the user
Ketamine can act as a depressant
hostile behavior, coma,
may suffer impaired
or a psychedelic and low doses can
convulsions, and possible death from respiratory
depth and time per-
produce vertigo, slurred speech, slow
arrest. • CSA Schedule: Was
reaction time and euphoria. In higher
used in 1950's as intravenous anesthetic and discontinued for
by distorted perception of
doses, Ketamine produces amnesia
human use in 1965: Schedule I. • Street
the shape and size of objects,
Names: PCP, Angel Dust, Killer Weed, and
movements, colors, sound, touch and
the user's own body image.
nail polish remover,
Anabolic steroids are synthetical y
cleaning fluid, gaso-
produced variants of the natural y oc-
line, and spray paint.
Effects: Illusions and
hallucinations, altered per-
curring male hormone testosterone.
ceptions of space and time.
The two main effects of these drugs are
• Overdose Effects: Unable
androgenic (developing male character-
to direct movement, feel pain, or
Over The Counter
remember. • CSA Schedule: Used as
istics) and anabolic (building muscles).
veterinary anesthetic: Schedule III.
The three main patterns of abuse
Names: Special K.
include: cycling (alternating periods of
DXM (dextromethorphan) is a
use); stacking (using two or more at the
cough suppressant available
same time); and pyramiding (progres-
in a variety of over-the-
sively increasing and then decreasing
counter cough and
doses and types of steroids).
Besides the short-term effects on
both men and women, long-term use
can lead to adverse cardiovascular
taken in doses that
edema, testicular atrophy,
effects, liver dysfunction, liver tumors,
dramatical y exceed
aggressive behavior, and
liver cancer, and cancer of the pros-
tate in men. Among the most prevalent
by physicians and
• CSA Schedule: Anabolic
steroids are used medically to
side-effects of steroids is the develop-
pharmacists, it produces
treat hormonal imbalances and
ment of female characteristics in males
hal ucinations and a sense
other medical conditions.
(developing breasts) and the masculin-
of dissociation. As an over-the-counter
• Street Names: Depo Testosterone, Juice,
ization of women.
medication, DXM is available in various forms includ-ing liquids, lozenges,
tablets, capsules, and
Inhalants are a diverse group of
substances that are sniffed, snorted,
huffed, or placed in bags and inhaled
to produce intoxication. Common
sume much higher
household products such as aerosol
doses (typical y more
hypotension, and headache.
• Overdose Effect: Can
propel ants, glue, lighter fluid, cleaning
than 360 mil igrams),
include damage to the heart,
fluids, and paint are the most abused
which produce hal u-
liver, kidneys, lungs, and brain;
death can occur from a single use
inhalants. Inhalant users experience
cinations and dissociative
or after prolonged use. • CSA Schedule:
headache, nausea, slurred speech and
effects similar to those experienced
Inhalants are not scheduled under CSA.
loss of motor coordination. They sniff or with PCP (phencyclidine) or ketamine.
• Street Names: Poppers, Rush, Snappers,
Whippets, Kick, Bang and Amys.
"huff" ordinary household products like
While under the influence of the drug,
which can last for as
ment or while physical y exerting
long as 6 hours, DXM
themselves—such as at a rave or dance
abusers risk injuring
club. Other risks associated with DXM
themselves and oth-
abuse include nausea, abdominal pain,
ers because of the
vomiting, irregular heartbeat, high
drug's effects on vi-
blood pressure, headache, numbness
sual perception and
of fingers and toes, loss of conscious-
ness, seizures, brain damage, and
In addition, indi-
death. Over-the-counter medications
Effects: Dissociation and hal-
viduals who ingest high
containing DXM frequently contain
lucinations. • Overdose Effects:
Loss of consciousness, seizures, brain
doses of DXM risk hyperthermia
other ingredients that can cause ad-
damage, death. • CSA Schedule: OTCs
(exceptional y high fever), particularly
ditional health problems.
are not scheduled under the CSA. • Street
Names: Dex, DM, Drex, Robo, Rojo,
if they use the drug in a hot environ-
Skittles, Triple C, and Velvet.
Costs to Society
The consequences of drug use are not limited to the individuals who take drugs.
Even non-users are at risk; drug use costs our society over $180 bil ion a year.
Drug production harms the global environment; methamphetamine production uses toxic chemicals which seep into the ground and contaminate water sources. The Amazon region is being depleted by coca production. Drugged drivers injure and kill innocent people every year. Terrorist activities are connected to drugs; many organizations raise money for their violent attacks through drug produc-tion and trafficking. Children are adversely affected by drugs their parents use or manufacture in their homes.
Did you know that:
According to government surveys which ask young people about their drug use patterns, about 600,000 high school seniors drive after smoking mari-juana. More than 38,000 seniors told surveyors that they had been involved in accidents while driving under the influence of marijuana. Other surveys conducted by MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) and the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company revealed that many teenagers (41 percent) were not con-cerned about driving after taking drugs. Medical data indicates a connection between drugged driving and accidents. A study of patients in a shock-trauma unit who had been in col isions revealed that 15 percent of those who had been driving a car or motorcycle had been smoking marijuana and another 17 percent had both THC and alcohol in their blood.
From the clear-cutting of rain forests in Central and South America for the planting of coca fields, to the destruction of national forests in
the United States for the growing of marijuana, to the dumping of
What costs are you
hazardous waste byproducts into the water table after the manu-
and your family paying
facture of methamphetamine, il egal drugs have a far-reaching
for others' drug use? What
impact on the environment. These activities have consequences
evidence have you seen that
for the health of the groundwater, streams, rivers, wildlife, pets and
drugs damage our society
the people living in those areas. Il egal drug production contributes
and other societies
to deforestation, reduced biodiversity, increased erosion, air pol u-tion and global climate change.
around the world?
Drug exposed children cost society mil ions of dol ars. The total lifetime costs associated with caring for babies who were exposed to drugs or alcohol range from $750,000 to $1.4 mil ion. These figures take into account the hospital and medical costs for drug exposed babies, housing costs, and other care costs. The long-term health damage to meth-exposed children has not yet been calculated.
Drug money helps to support terrorists operating in countries around the world.
Why Do Young
People Use Drugs?
When asked, young people offer a number of reasons for using drugs; most
often they cite a desire to change the way they feel, or to "get high."
Other reasons include:
Escape school and family pressures
To be accepted by their peers
To feel adult-like or sophisticated
Perception of low risk associated with drugs
Availability of drugs
Prevention experts have identified "risk factors" and "protective factors" to
help determine how drug abuse begins and how it progresses. Risk factors can increase a person's chances for drug abuse, and protective factors can reduce the risks. It's important to remember that not everyone at risk for drug abuse actual y becomes a drug user.
Here are some early signs of risk that may predict later drug use:
Association with drug abusing peers
A lack of attachment and nurturing by parents or caregivers
A caregiver who abuses drugs
Lack of self-control
Poor classroom behavior or social skil s
Young people are most vulnerable to drug use during times of transition; for
instance, when teens make the switch from elementary to middle school or
when they enter high school, new social and emotional chal enges affect them
association with drug
on many levels.
abusing peers is often
Scientists have also studied the adolescent brain, and have determined
the most immediate risk
that the teen brain is not ful y formed until young adulthood. Using drugs
for exposing adolescents
during the time that the brain is developing increases the potential for drug
to drug abuse and
addiction. According to the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health,
adults who had first used substances at a younger age were more likely to
be classified with dependence or abuse than adults who initiated use at a later
age. This pattern of higher rates of dependence or abuse among persons start-
ing their use of marijuana at younger ages was observed among all demographic subgroups analyzed.
What other factors contribute
to drug abuse among youth?
because something comes from a drug store doesn't make it safe to
We are a pil -taking society. Many
of us believe there's a pill for
Our society frequently portrays
anything and everything that ails
drug-taking in a positive light,
us; for improving our appearance;
and there is not enough realistic
for better performance and mood.
depiction of the consequences of
There are thousands of good medi-
cations which are safe and effec-
Leading figures in sports,
tive, and new drugs come on the
market often. We are bombarded
public life openly
What are some of the most
with advertisements about the ben-
discuss their drug
efits of these drugs. But don't be
obvious signs of drug addiction?
fooled: legal prescription drugs are
Are there other signs that may not be
not something to play around with.
obvious to family and friends? What are
Neither are some over-the-counter
the physical manifestations of drug addic-
medications, like cough syrup. Just
tion? What has technology taught us about
because a doctor prescribed them
the impact of drugs on the brain? You may
to a relative or a friend doesn't
want to ask your friends and classmates
make them safe for you. Just
to discuss these questions. What
other causes can they suggest
Attitudes About Drugs
Adult Behavior and Attitudes May
Contribute to the Problem
Many adults are uninformed—or in denial—about drug use, and their attitudes
contribute to or enable young people to engage in drug-using behavior.
According to the Partnership for a Drug Free America, many parents need to get better educated about the drug situation.
Today's parents see less risk in drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even inhal-ants, when compared to parents just a few years ago.
The number of parents who report never talking with their child about drugs has doubled in the past six years, from 6 percent in 1998 to 12 percent in 2004.
Just 51 percent of today's parents said they would be upset if their child ex-perimented with marijuana.
While parents believe it's important to discuss drugs with their children, fewer than one in three teens (roughly 30 percent) say they've learned a lot about the risks of drugs at home.
Just one in five parents (21 percent) believes their teenager has friends who use marijuana, yet 62 percent of teens report having friends who use the drug.
Fewer than one in five parents (18 percent) believe their teen has smoked mari-juana, yet many more (39 percent) already are experimenting with the drug.
What can adults do to
Denial Can Make the Problem Worse
educate themselves about
Some parents may be afraid to confront the realities of drug use, so they may
drugs? How should adults
deny the truth, even to themselves. You may have heard some adults say: "My kid
discuss drugs with their
doesn't use drugs." "It's not a problem for our family." "I used drugs and survived."
children? How can children
"Drug use is a normal part of growing up." "We'll never solve the drug problem."
talk to their parents
"Alcohol is more dangerous than marijuana."
Community Indifference Al ows the Drug Problem to Escalate
In some communities, drug abuse goes hand-in-hand with community apathy.
If drug dealing and use are al owed to flourish within a community, there is little chance that progress can or will be made.
Sociologists who have studied the phenomenon of urban crime understand the
links between community neglect and escalating crime rates. James Q. Wilson, a noted sociologist, put forth the "broken window theory" which claims that little things—like a single broken window—convey a message to criminals that it is okay to break other windows, leading to a succession of actions which further degrade a community. Problems accumulate when the broken window is not fixed quickly. When communities recognize problems quickly, and take positive steps to ad-
dress these problems, criminal activity
element in successful strategies is the
like drug trafficking has less chance to
inclusion of all sectors of a community:
damage that community.
law enforcement, businesses, educa-
Many communities have opted to
tors, elected officials, the clergy, com-
develop and implement comprehensive
munity leaders, medical and treatment
strategies to address issues related
to crime and drug abuse. One critical
For examples of how communities success-
community dealt with
fully addressed problems and reduced drug traf-
the problems of crime and
ficking and abuse visit the following web sites:
drugs? If you were mayor for
a day, what strategies would
you employ to address
the drug problem?
What Is Addiction?
According to the experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), addic-
tion is a chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking
and abuse, and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. Some drugs are more addictive than others; however, depending on an individual user's propensity
for addiction, someone can become addicted to drugs very quickly.
Experts say that there are several ways to determine if you have a
drug problem. A user should ask questions about drinking or drug use
and assess how he/she feels when using. "Am I losing control of my
is a chronic, relaps-
life? Am I giving up things I used to love because of drugs? Have fam-
ing disease character-
ily and friends become less important?
ized by compulsive drug-
seeking and abuse and
Obtain more information on drug addiction from the National
by long-lasting chemical
Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at www.nida.gov. Information on the
changes in the brain."
signs of drug addiction is also available at www.checkyourself.com.
NIDA scientists tell us that "There is no cure for drug addiction, but it is a treat-
able disease; drug addicts can recover. Drug addiction therapy is a program
of behavior change or modification that slowly retrains the brain. Like people with diabetes or heart disease, people in treatment for drug addiction learn behavioral changes and often take medications as part of their treatment regimen."
Did you know that over 60 percent of the young people currently in treatment
are there for dependence on marijuana? When using il egal drugs, or abusing
other substances such as inhalants, prescription drugs, or over the counter
medications, there is a tremendous potential for addiction, and treatment
What strategies do treat-
may be the only option.
ment programs employ to help
Drug treatment is available to those who need help, including
users remain drug free? What are
in-patient and out-patient centers, therapeutic communities and 12-
the different outcomes that can be
step programs. In addition to medical treatment programs, some are faith-based. Additional y, community programs such as Drug Courts
expected from the various forms of
give non-violent drug users in the criminal justice system opportuni-
drug treatment? How can you help
ties for treatment—with conditions—instead of jail time. For more
a friend or family member who is
information on drug treatment, go to the Center for Substance Abuse
abusing drugs get into drug
Treatment (CSAT) at www.samhsa/csat.gov. Drug Court information is
available at www.nadcp.org. There are also many stories on the internet
about teens seeking drug treatment. For information on how to help some-
one who needs treatment, go to the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
What About Drug Legalization?
Some people are of the opinion that drug use is a personal choice and that
the U.S. Government should legalize drug use. They support their claims
with opinions that marijuana is a medicine and is not harmful, that legalization will remove the violence and profit from the drug trade, and that adults will be able to take drugs safely and responsibly. The vast majority of Americans do not want drugs legalized. They believe legalization will lead to further disintegration of families, increase health and social costs, and jeopardize the safety of inno-cent people. Given the enormous toll that legal substances such as tobacco and alcohol have taken on our society, why would we want to compound our problems by adding legal drugs to the mix? Marijuana is not harmless, nor is it a medicine. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether or not marijuana should be approved as a medicine. There are many rigorous and complex elements to the U.S. government's approval of any drug that is used as medicine in this country. If scientists conclude that marijuana should someday be considered a medicine, these same rigorous steps would need to be fol owed before doctors are permitted to prescribe it to patients.
Furthermore, there are no smoked medicines. Have you ever heard
of anyone who smoked medicine? After all we know about the dangers of cigarette smoking, why would the scientific com-munity approve smoked marijuana? Those who smoke
marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers do,
Imagine a scenario
such as daily cough and phlegm production, more
where drugs were legal in
frequent acute chest il nesses, a heightened risk
your community. What would be
of lung infections, and a greater tendency toward
affected by the increased drug use
obstructed airways. Marijuana has the poten-
that occurred? How would the impact
tial to promote cancer of the lungs and other
of this policy affect young people? What
parts of the respiratory tract because marijuana smoke contains 50 percent to 70 percent more
would the consequences of increased
carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco
availability and use be on non-users?
smoke. Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse,
How would this compare to
Research Report Series - Marijuana, October 2001.
the problems caused by
Drug Prevention and Awareness
Drug prevention is a criti- field, and evaluating whether
cal component in our
prevention programs actual y
nation's effort to reduce drug
work has been critical to their
use, particularly among young success. While drug preven-people. When it is part of a
tion efforts continual y evolve
comprehensive strategy which based on actual situations and includes law enforcement and needs, there are some guid-drug treatment, prevention is
ing principles which are basic
a very powerful tool to reduce to successful drug prevention drug use. Over the decades,
various types of drug preven-
The ultimate aim of drug
tion approaches have been
prevention programs is to
implemented to help people
change behaviors which
reject drugs and choose
encourage drug abuse and to
healthy alternatives. Over the
reinforce positive behaviors
years, many lessons have
which lead to the rejection of
been learned in the prevention drugs.
Principles of Prevention
Know What The Problem Is
and Who You Are Trying To Reach
Address Appropriate Risk and
Protective Factors for Substance Abuse in a Defined Population
• Define a population. A population can be defined by age, gender, race, geog-
raphy (neighborhood, town, or region), and institution (school or workplace).
• Assess levels of risk, protection, and substance abuse for that
population. The risk factors increase the risk of substance abuse, and
protective factors inhibit the risk of substance abuse in the presence of risk.
Risk and protective factors can be grouped in domains for research purposes
(genetic, biological, social, psychological, contextual, economic, and cultural)
and characterized as to their relevance to individuals, the family, peers, school,
workplace, and community.
• Focus on all levels of risk, with special attention to those exposed to high
risk and low protection. Prevention programs and policies should focus on
all levels of risk, but special attention must be given to the most important risk
factors, protective factors, psychoactive substances, individuals, and groups
exposed to high risk and low protection in a defined population. Population
assessment can help sharpen the focus of prevention.
Find Out What Works—and Use It
Use Approaches that Have Been Shown to be Effective
• Reduce the availability of il icit drugs, and of alcohol and tobacco for the
under-aged. Community-wide laws, policies, and programs can reduce the
availability and marketing of il icit drugs. They can also reduce the availability
and appeal of alcohol and tobacco to the underaged.
• Strengthen anti-drug-use attitudes and norms. Strengthen environmental
support for anti-drug-use attitudes by sharing accurate information about substance abuse, encouraging drug-free activities, and enforcing laws, and policies related to il icit substances.
• Strengthen life skil s and drug refusal techniques. Teach life skil s
and drug refusal skil s using interactive techniques that focus on
critical thinking, communication, and social competency.
• Reduce risk and enhance protection in families. Families
thinking" and "social
strengthen these skil s by setting rules, clarifying expectations,
competency" and put
monitoring behavior, communicating regularly, providing social support, and modeling positive behaviors.
them into the drug
• Strengthen social bonding. Strengthen social bonding and caring
relationships with people holding strong standards against sub-
stance abuse in families, schools, peer groups, mentoring programs, religious and spiritual contexts, and structured recreational activities.
• Ensure that interventions are
abuse, including homes, social
appropriate for the populations
services, schools, peer groups,
being addressed. Make sure that
workplaces, recreational settings,
prevention interventions, includ-
religious and spiritual settings, and
ing programs and policies, are
acceptable to and appropriate for the needs and motivations of the
Stay On Top of
populations and cultures being
Manage Programs Effectively
Understand When And
• Ensure consistency and
Where Drug Use Begins
coverage of programs and
policies. Implementation of
Think of three age
prevention programs, policies, and
• Intervene early and at develop-
messages for different parts of the
and activities for
mental stages and life transi-
community should be consistent,
tions that predict later substance
compatible, and appropriate.
abuse. Such developmental stages • Train staff and volunteers. To
and life transitions can involve
ensure that prevention programs
biological, psychological, or social
and messages are continual y
circumstances that can increase
delivered as intended, training
the risk of substance abuse.
should be provided regularly to
Whether the stages or transitions
staff and volunteers.
are expected (such as puberty,
• Monitor and evaluate programs.
adolescence, or gradu-
To verify that goals and objectives
ation from school) or
are being achieved, program
unexpected (such as
monitoring and evaluation should
the sudden death
be a regular part of program
of a loved one),
implementation. When goals are
depend on the contributions
not reached, adjustments should
and expertise of many segments
be made to increase effectiveness.
of our society: for example, the
media, educators, parents, peers,
the clergy, law enforcement,
ventions as soon
the medical community and
Successful drug prevention pro-
before each stage or
grams depend on the contributions
and expertise of many segments of our
society: for example, the media, educa-
• Reinforce interven-
tors, parents, peers, the clergy, law
tions over time. Repeated
enforcement, the medical community
exposure to scientifical y accurate
and community leaders. The success of
and age-appropriate anti-drug-use
prevention efforts increases when vari-
messages and other interventions
ous segments col aborate and provide
can ensure that skil s, norms, ex-
clear anti-drug messages to targeted
pectations, and behaviors learned
earlier are reinforced over time.
• Intervene in appropriate settings
and domains. Intervene in settings
and domains that most affect
risk and protection for substance
Drug Prevention Programs
Drug prevention programs are designed and implemented on many levels. The
federal government has instituted a number of national drug prevention pro-
grams which reach targeted populations through public service announcements, grant programs, educational programs and the sharing of expertise. State and local governments also have a significant number of prevention programs which are tailored to address particular problems and needs. Law enforcement and the military have brought drug prevention expertise into classrooms and communities; businesses have also contributed significantly to drug prevention through spon-sored programs, drug-free policies and corporate support for community initia-tives. Other segments of society, including faith-based institutions, civic organiza-tions and private foundations are also active forces in drug prevention.
Below is a partial list of drug prevention agencies and programs. There are
many other outstanding efforts which are ongoing across the nation; it is
impossible to include them all. Some programs are aimed at particular populations or specific drugs. Within a given agency, there may be many prevention programs which are aimed at different audiences.
Federal Drug Prevention Agencies and Programs:
Office of National Drug Control Abuse Treatment (CSAT) are part of
This office reports to the President of
the United States. ONDCP administers
the Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.
of Education (DOE):
Substance Abuse and
DOE has many anti-drug programs.
Mental Health Services
This organization is responsible for
overseeing and administering mental
In addition to dismantling the major
health, drug prevention and drug treat-
drug trafficking organizations, DEA is
ment programs around the nation. The
committed to reducing the demand
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
for drugs in America. DEA's Demand
(CSAP) and the Center for Substance
Reduction Program is carried out by
Special Agents across the United
enforcement agencies and prosecutors
States who work in communities to
cooperate in "weeding out" criminals
share expertise and information on drug and "seeding" to bring in human trends, emerging problems and the
services, prevention intervention,
dangers of drugs.
treatment, and neighborhood
National Institute on Drug
NIDA conducts and disseminates the
results of research about the effects of
National Association of State Alcohol
drugs on the body and the brain. NIDA
and Drug Abuse Directors
is an excel ent source of information on
Community Anti-Drug Coalitions Of
The National Guard provides drug edu-
cation to communities in all 50 states.
National Crime Prevention Council
Weed and Seed:
Operation Weed and Seed is a strategy to prevent and reduce violent crime,
National Families in Action (NFIA)
drug abuse, and gang activity in
targeted high-crime neighborhood. Law
You can obtain free anti-drug
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)
Learning For Life
The National Center on Addiction
PRIDE Youth Programs
and Substance Abuse at Columbia
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE America) (DARE)
Elks Drug Awareness Program
Students Against Destructive Decisions
Partnership for a Drug-Free America
Teens In Prevention
Scott Newman Center
Law Enforcement Exploring
American Council for Drug Education
Youth Crime Watch of America
Part Three: What You Can Do
How Teens Can Assist With
Drug Awareness Programs
There are many avenues for teens to work in reinforcement of attitudes against drug use. Good prevention
drug prevention. You can work with estab-
programs include interactive methods, such as peer discus-
lished programs, create your own anti-drug
sion groups, rather than just lecture methods alone.
programs, or work individual y as role models
You can play an important role in drug awareness and
or mentors. Working within the community,
prevention by informing the public about the perils of sub-stance abuse. A prerequisite for youth involvement in this
schools, faith organizations, or in conjunction
area would be a comprehensive training program covering
with businesses, young people can make a
the identification, use, misuse, and effects of drugs. Teens
tremendous difference in reducing the demand should also be familiar with the dangers and effects of al-for drugs.
cohol and tobacco abuse. A vital component of this training would be public speaking skil s and methods of presenting
Working With Schools:
substance abuse information to various types of audiences.
Young people who are aware of the risks and conse-
quences of drug use can make sound life decisions. Pre-vention programs help to improve skil s to resist drugs,
Early Elementary School
strengthen personal commitments against drug use, and
Prevention programs for youth in this age category should
increase social competency (communications, peer relation-
be based on the concept that only sick people need drugs.
ships, self-efficacy, and assertiveness), in conjunction with
Children should be taught that while drugs can be beneficial
if medical y prescribed and used, all
drugs are dangerous if they are mis-
School organizations, community
used. Acquaint this age group with the
service groups, etc
techniques used to lure young people
There are many avenues for teens
into experimenting with drugs. Be-
to engage adults in drug prevention
cause students in this age bracket are
efforts, and it's important for young
more responsive to visual than audio
people to know what perspectives
stimulus, audiovisual aids should be an
and attitudes adults have about drugs.
integral part of any such presentation.
Many parents don't know the extent of the drug problem facing teens, and may not be familiar with current drugs of
abuse. Some parents are also skeptical
Use a factual approach with junior
about how successful communities and
high school students. They should
families can be in reducing drug use.
be told about the legal, physiological,
You can provide insight and information
and psychological consequences of
to adults in many sectors of your com-
substance abuse. The adverse results
of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use
In dealing with adults, be straight-
should receive considerable atten-
forward about the realities you are fac-
tion at this level. The importance of
ing in school, with peers, on weekends
positive decision making as it relates
and in our culture. They need to know
to the sometimes negative effect of
these things. Share your ideas on what
peer pressure should be examined and
they can do to help teens be drug free.
discussed. Peer pressure can be used
For example, members of the busi-
to support either type of decision. Role-
ness community can join with you to
playing scenarios would be helpful in
tighten up restrictions on cigarette and
reinforcing this information.
alcohol sales to minors. Civic leaders can help make communities and living areas safer for kids and teens. Adults
can help get the word out to the media,
Research shows that teens rely on
political leaders and others about your
peers for accurate information on all
needs and prevention plans.
important issues, including drugs. You
Encourage adults to read as much
have lots to say, and are both question-
as they can about drug use trends, and
ing and skeptical. So, it's important to
familiarize themselves with informa-
tell the real truth, without exaggerating,
tion about what teens are up against.
because if teens sense that one bit of
They can be real al ies in your efforts
information is untruthful or exaggerated, to reduce drug use in your schools and you will tend not to believe any of it. Be
prepared to be chal enged and ready
Key elements in the success of any
to back up your information with good
prevention program are training and
sources. Don't forget to respect differ-
preparation. Teens can be of vital as-
ing opinions, cultures, and experience
sistance to our communities and fel ow
levels. It would also be a good idea to
citizens in combating substance abuse.
get pointers from a trusted teacher or counselor about persuasive ways to deliver information to your peers.
Drug Prevention Projects
Red Ribbon Week
Red Ribbon Week is an important tradition for the drug preven-
tion community, and especial y for the DEA. The event that has
become a national symbol of drug prevention began as a grassroots
tribute to a fal en DEA hero, Special Agent Enrique Camarena. The
National Red Ribbon Campaign was sparked by the murder of DEA
Special Agent Camarena by drug traffickers. In March of 1985, Camare-
na's Congressman, Duncan Hunter, and high school friend Henry Lozano,
launched Camarena Clubs in Imperial Val ey, California, Camarena's home.
Hundreds of club members pledged to lead drug-free lives to honor the sacri-
fices made by Camarena and others on behalf of all Americans. From these clubs emerged the Red Ribbon Week Campaign.
Today, Red Ribbon Week is national y recognized and celebrated, helping to
preserve Special Agent Camarena's memory and further the cause for which he gave his life. The Red Ribbon Campaign is a symbol of support for DEA's and America's efforts to reduce demand for drugs through prevention and education programs. By wearing a red ribbon during the last week in October, Americans demonstrate their ardent opposition to drugs, and pledge to live drug free lives.
Ideas For Other Substance Abuse Prevention Projects
Forums or discussions:
Hold assemblies that help your peers think about, understand, and
make constructive contributions to problems that affect their lives.
Subject ideas include: drunk or drugged driving, underage use,
drug testing in the schools, impact of drug use on individual
• A "wear red" day or week • Poster
Contest • Door Decoration Contest • Essay/
Fairs and displays:
Letter Writing Contest • A "plant red tulips" day
Hold a drug abuse prevention fair in the school park-
ing lot or hal way. Design educational displays for
• Drug-Free pledge banner • Anti-drug/ anti-alcohol
mal s, school, hospitals, businesses, and commu-
nity centers to get more people outside your school
Projects for Businesses:
or program involved in drug prevention projects.
• Employees wear Red Ribbons • Display Red Ribbon posters • Support local schools' Red Ribbon activities
Community and Religious Group Projects:
Design and distribute pamphlets on different sub-
• Host Red Ribbon speakers • Pass out Red
stance abuse prevention topics. If inhalant abuse or
marijuana is the problem in your community, research
Ribbon handouts at events • Support local
the issue and make that the subject of your publica-
schools' Red Ribbon activities
tion. You may find assistance from the Elks Club, a local
• Include Red Ribbon information
printer, or other community group in printing your pamphlet.
in group publications
Write, tape and edit a script for a video as part of an education pro-
gram. You might find assistance at a local public interest television station,
and they might even broadcast your
You could write your own script, design your own puppets, and give
performances for younger children after
Write and perform skits and shows for
other students, younger children, the neighborhood, or community dealing
with some aspect of drug abuse.
You could sponsor a drug-free day at school, or organize a drug and alcohol-
Writing, music, or art contests:
free prom or dance, or perhaps a 5K run.
Organize these for your school or your whole community to have fun, educate,
and build interest. You might have an
You could organize a conference on
essay, song, or poster contest. You
drug-free youth and give presentations
could print the essays in the school
on various drugs and how to say no and
newspaper or literary magazine, have
live a drug-free life as well as teaching
a talent show with the songs or skits,
leadership skil s.
and display the posters in the hal ways or other venue. Sponsor positive graffiti
Get training to be peer counselors to help other young people with problems.
You could produce public service
announcements (PSAs) for radio or
Set up a student teaching service to
television and urge your local stations
help educate your peers or younger
to carry them. You could write letters to
children about substance abuse. Being
the editor of your local newspaper. You
a big brother or big sister for younger
could write an article for your school
children can make a big impact on their
newspaper on drug abuse.
Drugs are less likely to flourish in areas
South Carolina Teens
that are clean. With appropriate adult
In the Jesse Jackson Housing
supervision clean up trashy, run-down,
Project in Greenvil e, South Carolina, a
or overgrown public areas. Spruce up
group of teens decided they would like
schools, neighborhood parks, and the
to make a difference, and they wanted
yards of those unable to do the work.
to focus on drug prevention in their
Wipe out or paint over graffiti.
community. You have probably heard about McGruff the Crime Dog and The
National Crime Prevention Council
Plan and staff recreation programs
(NCPC). With the help of this national
for young children; build playgrounds,
crime prevention organization and
help provide outings for disadvantaged
some local pharmacists, these teens re-
searched drugs and their interactions to put together a presentation for parents and grandparents on ways to help keep
Real Life Examples
their kids drug free. They started small by visiting local churches and speaking
Learning for Life (LFL)
to the seniors. Within a year, though,
Learning for Life is a youth-serving
they were out there in their community
organization which aims to help youth
and in the schools doing drug preven-
meet the chal enge of growing up by
tion. You can learn a lot about how
teaching character and good decision-
teens can contribute to community
making skil s and then linking those
efforts at www.ncpc.org.
skil s to the real world.
As part of the Elementary Learning
for Life program, LFL has developed
Teens In Prevention
a set of lesson plans for kindergarten
Teens in Prevention (TiP) is a youth-
through grade six. Each set of plans
driven network sponsored by the Drug
contains age appropriate and grade
Enforcement Administration which
specific lessons and activity sheets.
aims to empower America's youth to
For more information call your lo-
become part of the solution to their
cal Learning for Life office, or visit
drug problem and provide a community
solution to a community problem. Every
Real Life Example Highlight
Learning for Life
Meet Reginald "Renel " McCul ough, former National Youth Representative for
Law Enforcement Exploring, a program of Learning for Life. Renell is a former
member of Post 219 sponsored by the Franklin, TN, Police Department. He
volunteered hundreds of hours to work events with his post and with the Police Department. He has taken part in a number of leadership trainings and experi-
ences, including a four-month program cal ed Youth Leadership Franklin. In
May 2008 Renell graduated from the University of Tennessee in Knoxvil e and is
preparing for a career in public service. He believes that knowing that you have
made a difference in somebody's life is the greatest feeling in the world.
October, teens from El Paso, Texas;
in high school. PRIDE team members
Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Cuidad
reach out to their peers and community
Juarez, Mexico meet at the International with an assertive, drug-free message. Bridge of the Americas and exchange
They also organize drug-free, fun activi-
red ribbons as part of the Annual Bi-
National Red Ribbon Ral y. The ribbon
A PRIDE team from Newaygo
exchange is fol owed by a parade and
County, Michigan, performs at Cham-
entertainment as well as exhibits where
pion Cheerleading, a summer camp.
anti-drug material is distributed.
The PRIDE team goes to the camp for
The TiP chapter at LaCueva High
four days during the months of July and
School in New Mexico set up a booth
August every year to do an hour-long
for Homecoming and had "drunk
presentation of high energy drug pre-
goggles" that students could put on.
vention and awareness to the cheer-
The students could throw a cream pie
leaders attending the camp. The object
at a teacher if they answered a drug
is for the cheerleaders to go back to
question correctly, but they had to put
their schools in the fall and spread the
on the goggles before they took the
enthusiasm of drug free youth and the
shot. The goggles showed what 1.0,
1.5, and 2.0 blood alcohol look like. These same students went to the Zia Native American Pueblo and presented
Oregon Teens Create
a drug-free program to the students at
the Zia Elementary School.
Students at Newberg High School
in Oregon created two anti-meth public service announcements (PSAs) as part
PRIDE Youth Programs
of the Oregon Partnership's Yamhill
America's PRIDE is a drug and
County's Meth Awareness Project
violence prevention program for youth
(MAP). The 30 second ads point out
Real Life Example Highlight
Many people know DARE as an elementary school program where police
officers teach children about drugs. Did you know that DARE also has a
Youth Advisory Board made up of high school representatives from each state? Their role is to provide feedback to the DARE organization and assist DARE programs in the local schools. Working with DARE is a good way to gain leadership experience and help the community at the same time.
Meet Haida Boyd from South Dakota. She has just finished her 2-year
term as her state's representative. Among the projects she helped estab-lish was an after-school program in Aberdeen, South Dakota, a community without a DARE program. She worked with the school superintendent and the police department on projects for several schools in that community. Her first project, cal ed PEER PLUS, was a program focused on homework help and outdoor recreation. She says she has learned a lot from the experience and has pledged to never drink alcohol or abuse drugs. "Seeing other teens around me doing drugs only makes me stronger," she said. "To me, life is priceless and drugs always come with a consequence. Learn more at: www.dare.com.
the dangers of methamphetamine to
address and telephone number of your
other teens. The PSAs were created
state office by contacting your state
in conjunction with the Northwest
government, the Center for Substance
Film Center. They are currently be-
Abuse Prevention, or the National Asso-
ing broadcast by several television
ciation of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse
stations at a time when methamphet-
amine use by teens in Oregon is a
Films, videos, PSAs and news clips
growing problem. See their PSAs at:
can help make your programs interest-
ing. Your local library may have some for loan, or check with your state pre-vention coordinator for other possibili-
ties. The National Clearinghouse for
There are lots of resources to help
Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)
put a program together, including
has audiovisual materials available for
publications, audiovisual material,
a very minimal cost. Videos are also
financial support, and local experts. available from many commercial firms.
Speakers are available, often free
There are also a number of web sites
Are you aware of other
of charge. Contact local police
which host satel ite broadcasts on top-
organizations which have
departments, the Chamber of
ics of interest.
sponsored events or activities?
Commerce, hospitals, parent
Talk to people involved in those
groups, and other local groups
efforts to learn what worked.
to obtain speakers for your
It's important to be up to date on
Can you join forces with
drug trends and anti-drug programs.
existing programs to ac-
On the federal level, the Drug
Get some training from local contacts
Enforcement Administration (DEA)
and programs to help you in these ar-
and the National Clearinghouse on
eas. Some potential trainers for you and
Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)
your groups include:
have limited quantities of free publica-
Your police department's narcotics
or community relations unit;
Each state has a drug and alcohol
The local DEA office has personnel
abuse prevention division. These offices
in each Field Division around the
are responsible for putting together a
prevention plan for the state each year,
The National Guard in each state
and they are aware of resources located
has a Drug Demand Reduction
around the state. You can obtain the
Substance Abuse Counselors at
activities. Adjust the timetable if
drug rehabilitation centers;
Your local pharmacist or doctor;
• Get training from experts in the
Local teachers and col ege
areas you will need help with.
• Keep notes on the progress of
your project. Record informa-
Planning And Implementing A
tion on obstacles you faced
Successful Drug Prevention
during your project, and
how you overcame
Successful prevention programs do
• Keep track of
Do some research in your
not need to be elaborate—sometimes
own community. Your local
the most successful programs are
library or mental health or drug
simple. But planning and carrying out a
treatment center should have lots of
good program requires some thought,
information that you can use in your
planning and oversight. Here are
• Report back
program. There are many experts in
some things to help with a successful
your community who may be wil ing to
• Decide what type of effort you
assist your group. These include the
want to undertake. Do you want to
you have made,
police, doctors, pharmacists,
influence peers? Help children stay
and what you
away from drugs? Improve your
community? Get the attention of adults and organizations?
• Identify an advisor/sponsor
for your program. This person
Implementing a community drug
can be an adult involved in drug
awareness program need not involve
prevention, a teacher, coach,
large sums of money. The important
guidance counselor, clergy
thing to remember is that there are
member, etc. It could be another
organizations wil ing and able to help
teen who is already involved in a
young people make a difference in
program or a business person or
fighting drugs. Potential sources of sup-
civic leader who is interested in
port may include service or civic clubs,
neighborhood watch groups, local cor-
• Form a team of interested people porations, etc. The Elks are one service
and pick a team leader. If you
group which has selected drug abuse
choose to work by yourself, identify prevention as a major project. In addi-who is there to help you if you need tion, groups can earn money by holding assistance.
events such as dances, bowling, car
• Do research on the drug problem washes, bake sales, etc.
in your area. Find out as much as
you can about the problem and
community resources to address
• Have a plan. Identify your ob-
jectives and set realistic goals. Remember that small steps some-times lead to great successes.
• Establish a timetable for your
Sample Drug Abuse Prevention Program Planning Worksheet
Nature of Drug Problem: _
Selected Target: _
Brief Statement of Program:
Group Resources: _
Community Resources Available:
Materials Needed: _
Goals: These are the goals and objectives the group hopes to accomplish in the next year.
6-Month Objectives: _
1-Year Objectives: _
2008 United States Department of JusticeDrug Enforcement AdministrationDemand Reduction Programswww.dea.govwww.justthinktwice.comwww.GetSmartAboutDrugs.comwww.learning-for-life.orgItem No. 99-349
Recent Developments in Greece – the milk, oil and pharmaceuticals Cases Despina D SamaraCalavros & Partners The year 2006-2007 saw three industry sectors coming under the public consultation procedure, announced concrete structural meas-scrutiny of the Hellenic Competition Commission, namely, milk, oil ures and behavioural recommendations that it considered absolutely and pharmaceuticals. Following either ex-officio investigations or necessary to establish and enforce effective competition in the oil complaints filed by other market participants the national authority market. These measures relate mainly to observance of the principles was dealing with all three sectors by late 2006. Of particular note, in of transparency, non-discriminatory treatment, accounting separa-the pharmaceuticals sector, after almost seven years of proceedings, tion and cost-orientation in setting prices. A more specific look at the Competition Commission reached a much-anticipated decision the measures follows.in the Syfait case.
From PreConCePTion environmenTal and nuTriTional sTraTegies For lowering The By DAviD BERGER, MD, FAAP prevalence not only of ASDs but also of allergies, asthma, and autoimmune and Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a cluster of neurobehavioral- hyperinflammatory conditions in children for whom there is a family history of developmental conditions characterized by varied levels of impairment in such conditions. Families with such histories may be particularly interested in communication, behaviors, social interactions, and sensory integration. To date,