##M

Microsoft word - 39-2 database rev.doc

Cosmetic ingredients database

Chemical Type
Other information
Compound which dissolves in water to make a solution with a pH less than 7 Compound which dissolves in water to make a solution with a pH above 7. Aloe barbadensis Softens skin, soothes burns and injuries. Name not used in cosmetics. Aloe vera (Latin) See Aloe barbadensis. Ammonium laureth sulfate See Surfactants. Compound made from coconut oils. Good at breaking up oils and soil, so effective in shampoos. Good cleansing agent and foam maker. Ammonium lauryl sulfate See Surfactants. Compound made from coconut oils. Mild cleansing properties when used at pH 5-6. Non-toxic and not irritating when used in 'rinse off' products. Ammonium xylenesulfonate Flammable liquid which does not mix with water. No known toxic or irritant effects. Compound which prevents infection of the skin by bacteria. Small cuts can be treated with an antiseptic. This is the name used in European cosmetic products for water. Water is the main ingredient of many cosmetic products so is found first in the ingredients list. Sterile water must be used - this means the water must be boiled to ensure no bacteria or other microorganisms are present. Alkaline amino acid. No value when used in cosmetics. These compounds help prevent the product from reacting with UV light. May cause skin irritation. Irritating and corrosive to skin when in concentrated Compounds used in shampoos to lower the irritation potential of surfactants. No known toxicity. Safe when used up to 0.1% concentration. A substance which absorbs water, swells and helps to hold other ingredients together. Can cause allergic reactions. Camellia sinesis Oil from the camellia plant. The same plant produces greentea, which has lots of positive effects including reducing blood pressure. White powder. See Emulsifiers. No known toxicity or skin irritating properties. Carboxylic acids Molecules which are based on carbon atoms. The acidity is due to the -COOH (caboxylate) group. The substance dissolves in water making an acidic solution. Used to lower pH of cosmetics. Oil from the seed of the castor oil plant. Soothing to skin. Chemical Type
Other information
See Emulsifiers and Film formers. Compounds from plant cell walls which are resistant to decomposition by bacteria. Non-toxic. Cetearyl alcohol Very widely used in hair products. A waxy substance. Non- toxic and not irritating to the skin or scalp. Widely used ingredient extracted from the heads of sperm whales. Added as a solid, waxy substance. Non-toxic and not irritating. Chamomila recutita (Latin) Oil from the camomile plant. Soothing to skin. Chlorhexidine digluconate Cleans bacteria from skin. Can cause dermatitis, which is severe irritation of the skin, in concentrated solution. Safe up to 0.2% concentration. Compound obtained from citrus fruit; lemons, oranges, grapefruit. Non-toxic - can be drunk in solution of water to help provide vitamin C. Citrus limonium (Latin) Lemon oil obtained from the skin of lemons. Citrus paradisi (Latin) Grapefruit oil obtained from the skin of grapefruit. Citrus sinensis (Latin) Sweet orange oil obtained from the skin of oranges. Cocoamide DEA /MEA Cocoamidopropyl betaine Compound based on coconut oil and beets, eg sugar beet. May cause skin irritation. Compound found in coconut oil. Used widely in soaps and shampoos. Very good skin cleanser. May cause skin irritation. Colouring pigment There are many colouring pigments which can be used. Each is registered and given a number This is a resin obtained from pine trees. Used to give colour - usually yellow-orange. Cucumis melo (Latin) Melon extract - usually juice. Used in products for dry hair and to improve skin condition. DEA - Diethanolamine This compound is found in coconut and soybean oils and is used to make other substances. Has useful properties but may cause skin irritation. Can be contaminated with cancer-causing compounds called nitrosoamines during manufacture. 'DMDM' stands for 'Dimethylol dimethyl'. Can irritate the skin. See Preservatives. Protects skin forming a barrier to other liquids. Dipropylene glycol Disodium dityrylbiphenyl This gives colour to the product. Its use is banned in the USA. 'EDTA' stands for 'ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid'. Disodium laureth See Surfactants. sulfosuccinate Disodium PEG-4-Cocoamido See Surfactants. 'PEG' stands for MIPA sulfosuccinate 'polyethylene glycol' and 'MIPA' stands for 'monoisopropanolamine'. Disodium phosphate See sodium phosphate. Chemical Type
Other information
This is made from stearic acid. See Stearic acid and Skin softeners. Elaesis guineensis (Latin) This is the Latin name for palm kernel oil, which is obtained from the African palm tree. Substance which is added to help make an emulsion. An emulsion is the mixture of two liquids which do not usually mix together, such as oil and water. The emulsifier helps to keep the two liquids mixed, stopping layers forming. Non-toxic and not irritating. Compounds which give cosmetic products a film-like appearance - shiny, glossy and with a silky feel.
Highly toxic substance causing skin irritation. Use in cosmetics is banned in Japan and Sweden. Concentration must be less than 0.2%. See Preservatives. Compounds made in reactions between sugars and alcohol. Also called 'glycerol'. A compound made during soap manufacture. Very widely used. Non-toxic and not irritating to skin. Glyceryl cocoate See Coconut oil and Glycerin. Name is from 'Glycerin' and 'Alcohol'. See Humectants. May cause skin irritation. Glycol distearate/stearate See Stearic acid. Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium Can be toxic. May irritate the skin when used in concentrated solutions. Concentrations as low as 0.1% can irritate the eye. Hammamelis virginiana (Latin) Skin anaesthetic Common name is 'witch hazel'. Obtained from a plant. Makes the skin feel 'tight' and fresh as it dries up grease and moisture. Helianthus annus (Latin) Sunflower seed oil. Contains Vitamin E which is thought to help keep skin looking young. Used in anti-aging products. No known toxicity. A substance used to preserve moisture content. Humulus lupulus (Latin) From the hops plant. Hops are also used in brewing beer. Can cause skin irritation. See Cellulose gums. Isopropyl myristate A compound made in a reaction between an acid and an alcohol. Used to form lather. Causes blackheads and is being removed from cosmetics. See Carboxylic acids. Corrosive in concentrated solutions. May sting sensitive skin. Greasy substance from wool which absorbs water and holds it on to the skin. Can cause skin irritation.
Laureth number 1-23 See Surfactants. Laureth 11 carboxylic acid See Carboxylic acids. Compound which reacts with water to make a foam. The molecules are made from 10 carbon atoms joined in a line, with hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms. See also Carboxylic acids. Lauryl glucoside See Surfactants. Magnesium nitrate Magnolia biondii (Latin) Non-toxic perfume from the magnolia tree. Chemical Type
Other information
Maleated soybean oil Preservative Oil Soybean oil from the soya bean plant which has been partially changed to Maleic acid. Maleic acid is a carboxylic acid (see Carboxylic acids). The change is made to reduce the effects of soybean oil on the skin - these include skin irritation, hair damage and acne-like pimples. Skin anaesthetic Gives a 'cool' feeling to the skin. Acts as an anaesthetic when in 100% concentration. Non-toxic below 3%. See Menthol and Lactic acid. This is a compound made from these two substances. Usually used with methylisothiazolinone. Both are toxic and can cause skin irritation. Safe in very low Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) concentrations in products which rinse off the skin. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile Toxic substance which is absorbed through the skin. Safe to use in rinse off products. Used to give a glow or colour. Not irritating to skin. Used to treat skin diseases. No known toxicity or irritating properties. Used to help keep colour compounds (see CI number) the correct shade. Olea europea (Latin) This is the Latin name for olive oil, which is obtained from olives. The same oil can be used in cooking. May cause skin irritation. This is the general name given to 'fragrance'. This could mean one or more compounds added to give the product an attractive smell. Palm kernel acid This is the oil from the palm nut produced by the palm tree. See Surfactants, Emulsifiers, Opacifiers. Compound which occurs naturally in many animal fats and plant oils including cow's milk, palm nuts and butter. Each molecule has 16 carbon atoms arranged in a long chain, with hydrogen and oxygen atoms. See Carboxylic acid. Widely used in hair products. Also known as Vitamin B complex factor. Is good for the body so Panthenyl ethylether This is made from panthenol (see above). Most commonly used ingredient other than water. Used in low concentrations so will be found at the ends of ingredients lists. These compounds stop bacteria growing in the product and are not irritating or toxic. Parabens may be cancer causing. Paraffinium liquidium (Latin) Liquid paraffin obtained from wood, coal and petroleum. Non-toxic and not irritating to skin. PEG polyethyleneglycol See Binders, Surfactants, Skin softeners, Solvents, PEG 6 caprylic /capric See Skin softeners. PEG 7 glycerylcocoate Non-toxic and not irritating to skin. PEG 40 hydrogenated See PEG and castor oil. Chemical Type
Other information
PEG 150 distearate Compound made from stearic acid and PEG. Non-toxic and not irritating to skin. This is the main ingredient in Vaseline and other petroleum jelly products. Used as skin softener, and protects skin from irritation. Not irritating to skin, but can irritate eyes above 2.2% concentration. Polyquaternium 1-14 This is a group of compounds which can be toxic and irritating to skin even at low concentrations. Polysorbates 1-85 See Emulsifiers. Non-toxic and not irritating to skin. PPG stands for 'Polypropylglycol'. A compound made from a glycol and lauric acid. Compound used to stop bacteria and other microorganisms like yeasts growing in the product. This is essential to keep the product safe for use. Some preservatives are added to help keep the product colour, appearance and texture. All cosmetics include preservatives. Most used today are non-toxic. Propylene glycol Also called 1,2-propanediol. This is a widely used cosmetic ingredient with similar properties to glycerin. It is toxic and its use is being phased out. PVP/dimethylaminoethyl- See Film former and Thickener. methylacrylate copolymer A polymer is a compound made from many smaller molecules joined together. Many copies of small molecules called polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate are joined in an alternating line to make one long molecule. Saccharum officinarium (Latin) Sugar cane extract. Also called 'Black strap molasses'. No use in cosmetics identified. The general name for a compound produced in a reaction between an acid and an alkali. The other product is water. We use 'salt' to mean 'sodium chloride', but this is not the chemical meaning. Sequestering agent Preservative preventing changes in colour, texture Skin anaesthetic Compound which is absorbed into the skin and reduces the nervous system's ability to detect sensation. 'Local' anaesthetics are used to stop pain for dental operations, wart removal, stitching up cuts and other small skin-based problems. Compound which removes grease from the skin. Compound which creates a 'tight' feeling to the skin. Usually evaporates quickly from the skin, giving a Compound which is absorbed into the skin and replaces moisture. Helps to remove dry patches. Also called 'emollients'. Sodium C12-13 pareth sulfate Compound based on PEG. Sodium chloride (Salt) May cause drying of the skin. May cause skin Chemical Type
Other information
Sodium cocoyl isethionate Safe in concentration up to 50% in rinse off Sodium isethionate Anti-static agent Creates a dense lather in both hard and soft water. Sodium lauroamphoacetate See Surfactants. Sodium laureth sulfate Can cause skin and eye irritation in high concentrations. See Surfactants, Water softeners, Skin cleansers. Sodium lauryl sulfate See Surfactants and Emulsifiers. May cause drying of skin by removing grease. May be irritating to skin. Sodium methyl paraben Sodium palm kernelate Compound produced by reacting palm kernel acid with sodium hydroxide. Acts as a soap Sodium palmitate Compound produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with palmitic acid. Acts as a soap. Sodium peanutate Sodium phosphate Compound used to keep pH constant. Non-toxic and not irritating. Compound produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with stearic acid. Acts as a soap. Sodium styrene/ acrylates May cause skin irritation. Sodium tallowate Compound formed from tallow, a mixture of animal Liquid used to make solutions. Solid substances are added to the solvent. These dissolve making the solution. Produces velvet-like feel on the skin. Non-toxic, but may cause irritation to sensitive skins. Naturally occurring compound found in butter, animal fats and oils. Molecules have 18 carbon atoms arranged in a long chain, bonded to hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Widely used cosmetic ingredient. Remove colour from natural and dyed hair. May cause drying of the skin. Compounds which lower the surface tension of water. The name 'surfactant' comes from 'surface active'. There are four types called anionic, cationic, amphoteric and nonionic. The type depends on whether the surfactant molecule breaks up into charged particles called 'ions' in water. Found in all substances used for washing. TEA dodecylbenzenesulfonate See Sulfonated oils. Prevents colour, texture and appearance changes. See EDTA. Tetrasodium etidronate Compound added to make the product less 'runny'. Has no other cosmetic purpose. Titanium dioxide White compound used to make an opaque product. Not irritating to skin. Tocophenylacetate Prevents oxygen from the air reacting with compounds in the product. See PEG and Glycols Used to kill bacteria in 'medicated' products. Used to kill bacteria in 'medicated' products. Chemical Type
Other information
Trimethylopropane Used to help make product smell attractive. Occurs tricaprylate/tricaprate naturally in sweat, cow and goat milks, coconut oil and palm oil. Non-toxic. Compound added to remove calcium and magnesium ions which cause 'hard' water and prevent a lather forming with soap. A compound which dissolves in water and helps to make water spread across a surface by lowering surface tension. This means the same as surfactant, but in cosmetics seems to be used to describe different compounds. Zinc pyrithione /pyridinethione Added to shampoos to treat dandruff. Some evidence this can damage nerves. Compound made in the reaction between sulfuric acid and zinc metal. May cause skin irritation.

Source: http://www.skinny-world.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Cosmetic-ingredients-database.pdf

ijppsjournal.org

International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2016; Vol: 3, Issue: 3, 14-18 Research Article ISSN: 2394-613X FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF PERINDOPRIL USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SUPER DISINTEGRANTS P. Sobhita Rani *, Srilakshmi N, T Neelima Rani, Singireddy Anandam Malla Reddy Pharmacy College, Maisammaguda, Dhulapally, Hyderabad (India) *Corresponding Author

Ndt_1134 3(6)_reingold et al.indd

Rivastigmine for the treatment of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease Jennifer L Reingold Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) affl icts millions of people worldwide and leads to cognitive impairment or dementia in the majority of patients over time. Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is characterized by defi cits in attention, executive and visuospatial function, and memory.