Population briefs vol. 21 no. 2
REPORTS ON POPULATION COUNCIL RESEARCH
Volume 21, Number 2 September 2015
New Population Council analysis details HIV risks faced by adolescents in Tanzania. See page 2.
I N S I D EUnderstanding the Adolescent Experience in Tanzania .2New Program Demonstrates Success in Reducing Gender-Based
Violence in Bangladesh .4Effects of the New One-Year Reusable Nestorone®/Ethinyl Estradiol
Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Risks of Vaginal Infection .6Estimating Population-Based Characteristics of People
Who Inject Drugs in Kenya .8
poverty, gender, and youth
Understanding the Adolescent Experience in Tanzania
In 2014, UNICEF and UNAIDS announced an initiative to reduce the high levels of HIV
"Reducing HIV among young people in Tanzania
infection among adolescents in Tanzania. Al-though adolescent girls and boys (ages 10–19)
requires bold action. But in order to create
in Tanzania make up nearly a quarter (23 percent) of the country's population, there was
effective programs, we need evidence."
a lack of evidence about adolescents, especially
younger girls. The Tanzania Commission for
Senior Associate, Population Council
AIDS (TACAIDS) and UNICEF-Tanzania com-missioned the Population Council to analyze multiple sources of data in order to better understand the situation faced by adolescents.
Living locations and arrangements
ages 15–24 are living with partners at least 10
The Council's comprehensive analysis found
years older. Girls ages 15–17 from the poorest
that while young people's vulnerability to HIV is
The analysis revealed that the migration of
households are more than twice as likely as girls
widely acknowledged, programs to address the
young people is substantial: while 80 percent of
of the same age from the wealthiest households
risks they face are lacking.
adolescents ages 10–14 live in rural areas, that
to have ever been married. Married girls are
"Reducing HIV among young people in
proportion declines to 70 percent among young
much less likely to continue their education: 58
Tanzania requires bold action," explains says
adults ages 20–24. Rural–urban differences
percent of young women ages 15–24 who had
Kelly Hallman, Population Council Senior As-
are also seen in living arrangements: while 25
been married by age 15 were unable to read
sociate and primary investigator on the analysis.
percent of girls and 20 percent of boys nation-
a sentence, compared with 12 percent of their
"But in order to create effective programs, we
ally live with neither parent, this is true for 50
percent of girls and 35 percent of boys ages
Population Council researchers conducted
15–17 in urban areas. There are a number of
a secondary analysis of data drawn from the
possible explanations for this difference. Girls
Sexual activity and pregnancy rates
2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey,
may migrate to urban areas to attend school or
Approximately 50 percent of girls ages 20–24
the 2011–12 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indica-
seek employment (including domestic labor),
had their first sexual encounter before the age of
tor Survey, and the 2009 Violence against Chil-
or they may move as a result of child marriage.
18; boys reported initiating sexual activity later
dren in Tanzania Survey. To determine specific
in life. Researchers found that girls from the
vulnerabilities at national and regional levels
School attendance, literacy rates,
wealthiest households were less likely to report
and in urban and rural areas, the research-
and child marriage
early pregnancy than girls from poorer house-
ers analyzed approximately 40 key indicators
holds. Overall, 5 percent of girls age 15 have
related to knowledge, attitudes and behaviors,
School attendance rates for young adolescents
been pregnant, while nearly all young women
and outcomes (including living arrangements,
are similar for boys and girls ages 10–12 (over
aged 24 (91 percent) have been pregnant.
school attendance, illiteracy, marriage, preg-
90 percent of young boys and girls attend
nancy, violence, and HIV) among females and
school), but girls, particularly in rural areas,
Violence against girls and women
males ages 10–14, 15–19, and 20–24 years.
start to drop out at age 12, and the gender gap
"Our objective was to provide fine-grained
in attendance widens as children age. By age 14,
Rates of physical and sexual violence, and the
details on what it means to be a young female
only 66 percent of girls nationally attend school,
acceptance of violence toward women and girls,
or male in Tanzania," says Hallman. "We are
compared with 76 percent of boys. In urban
vary considerably by region in Tanzania. Thirty
thrilled that program managers and policy-
areas, girls are more than twice as likely as boys
percent of girls and 20 percent of boys ages
makers are using this valuable information to
ages 10–14 to be out of school and not living
15–24 report that their first sexual experience
inform policy formulation, planning, monitor-
with either parent (8 percent versus 3 percent).
was forced. Ten percent of girls report that
ing, and evaluation of HIV and AIDS, child mar-
Around 5–6 percent of girls are married by
they were hit or slapped during pregnancy.
riage, education, child protection, and social
age 15, and 31–37 percent by age 18. About 25
Furthermore, more than half (55 percent) of
percent of married or cohabiting young women
young women ages 15–24 agree with at least
The Government of Tanzania and several organizations are using the Council's new report to shape programs for young people.
one justification for wife beating, although this
sex. More girls than boys ages 15–17 reported
The Government of Tanzania and several
rate is slightly lower among males of the same
using a condom during premarital sex, but by
organizations are using these rich data to
age (50 percent). This is significant, because
ages 20–24, men report greater condom use
shape programs for young people. The findings
acceptance of violence toward girls and women
than women. Additionally, 15 percent of males
and policy recommendations are being used
early on can result in future violent physical and
ages 15–24 report paying for sex in the past 12
by: the Government of Tanzania, to design a
months, although less than half reported using
national cash-transfer program to keep children
a condom when they last paid for sex.
in school and facilitate their re-entry if they
Knowledge of HIV prevention and
Modern contraception use among girls,
drop out; TACAIDS, for national and regional
use of modern contraception
especially in urban areas, is low; only 20 percent
planning and to identify topics for high-impact
of married girls and 30 percent of unmarried,
interventions for adolescents; UNICEF, to form
The majority of adolescents in Tanzania have ba-
sexually active girls report using contraception.
its adolescent strategy in Tanzania; and the U.S.
sic knowledge of HIV-prevention methods. Most
More than half (60 percent) of young women
Agency for International Development mission
young people are aware that using condoms
ages 15–24 who have ever been pregnant were
in Tanzania to shape its activities for young
and limiting the number of concurrent sexual
assisted by a health professional during their
people. Tanzania is planned as a priority coun-
partners can reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
most recent delivery.
try for the US government's new DREAMS (De-
However, less than half of young people have
termined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored, and
comprehensive HIV knowledge (for example,
Safe) initiative and the report is also being used
knowing that a healthy-looking person can
to inform decisionmaking for that program.
have HIV), and more girls than boys know about
The significant findings that have emerged
preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
from this research can help guide government
In general, adolescents are aware of HIV
policies and programs focused on adolescents in
testing locations, but they may not have access
Tanzania. The study authors point specifically
Population Council, Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS), Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC), and
to testing. Older adolescents and those living in
to findings related to child marriage, school re-
UNICEF-Tanzania. 2015. The Adolescent Experience
urban areas are more likely to have been tested.
entry after dropout, pregnancy, and HIV testing
In-Depth: Using Data to Identify and Reach the Most Vulnerable Young People, Tanzania 2009–2012. Dar
Although a relatively small proportion
and counseling as areas where change is needed
es Salaam: Population Council, TACAIDS, ZAC, and
of adolescents report having multiple sexual
in the government's approach. Overall, there
partnerships, these partnerships are more typi-
is an urgent need to improve coordination in ex-
cal among older adolescents and those living
isting adolescent sexual and reproductive health
in rural areas. Young people report low use of
programs, and to create policies to address criti-
condoms in both paid and unpaid premarital
cal gaps in such programs.
poverty, gender, and youth
New Program Demonstrates Success in Reducing Gender-Based Violence in Bangladesh
A new study by the Population Council and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal
"Most notably, spousal violence against women and
Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) found that an innovative program in Bangladesh
girls dropped. Group sessions that included both men
has demonstrated a reduction in violence against women and girls. The "Growing
and women seem to have been the key intervention."
Up Safe and Healthy" project, also known
as SAFE, sought to improve sexual and
Senior Associate, Population Council
reproductive health and reduce gender-based violence among women living in urban slums in Dhaka. The project ran from March 2012 to October 2013.
While it is illegal in Bangladesh for girls
strategies, if any, would reduce violence faced
increased access to support services, includ-
under age 18 to marry, more than 60 percent
by women and girls in urban slums.
ing reproductive and maternal health and
of Bangladeshi girls marry before they reach
legal services. In communities that included
this age. Girls married early are particularly
group sessions with men, use of modern
vulnerable to domestic violence, and legal
SAFE evaluation methods
contraceptives increased and the proportion of
and policy reforms to address gender-based
The SAFE program's rigorous evaluation
marriages that involved dowry declined.
violence have had limited impact. Research
explored sexual and reproductive health,
"Most notably, spousal violence against
shows that less than 2 percent of married
gender-based violence, and marriage and
women and girls dropped," said lead Popula-
women in Bangladesh who have experienced
childbearing outcomes. Participating com-
tion Council researcher Sajeda Amin. "Group
physical violence seek any kind of remedy or
munities were randomly divided into three
sessions that included both men and women
intervention arms. Community campaign
seem to have been the key intervention. These
Young women and girls living in urban
activities and health and legal services were
proved most effective at reducing inequitable
slums experience the highest rates of violence
present in all three arms. The difference was
gender attitudes." In fact, with respect to
and poor sexual and reproductive health.
the presence or absence of group sessions, and
economic violence (i.e., cases where women
This is of particular concern in Dhaka, where
the goal of the evaluation was to determine
were denied money, food, clothes, medicines,
the slum population is growing rapidly as
the impact—if any—of including group
etc.), violence increased when only women
young men and women migrate in search of
sessions as part of the program. Arm A
participated in group sessions, but decreased
employment. These young people face pov-
included sessions with men and women; Arm
when men were included in the intervention.
erty, insecure living arrangements, frequent
B included sessions only with women; Arm C
squatter evictions, weak social networks, the
had no group sessions. A baseline survey was
absence of civic society institutions, the lack
conducted before SAFE was launched, and an
Lessons learned and policy
of public services, and poor coordination
endline survey was conducted following the
conclusion of the program.
SAFE was created to address some of
The evaluation identified several key factors
the problems faced by young women and
that can explain SAFE's success:
girls living in slums. The project provided
• It is possible to improve sexual and repro-
access to health and legal services, interactive
SAFE increased awareness about women's
ductive health and reduce violence but, to
sessions with men, young women, and girls,
sexual and reproductive health and rights,
be successful, interventions must integrate
and community-based awareness-raising
gender-based violence, and rights and laws
interactive group sessions, community
campaigns to determine what combination of
regarding marriage and dowry. In addition, it
campaigns, and services.
The findings of the SAFE project in the slums of Bangladesh demonstrated that community awareness-raising sessions about gender equity that included both men and women were most effective at reducing gender-based violence.
• It is critical to target vulnerable women and
Future interventions that seek to improve
girls and especially to reduce their isola-
sexual and reproductive health and reduce
Naved, Ruchira T. and Sajeda Amin. (Eds.). 2014. Im-pact of SAFE intervention on sexual and reproductive
tion and build their confidence through
gender-based violence in urban slum settings
health and rights and violence against women and
group sessions and peer-support networks so
can use these findings to guide program devel-
girls in Dhaka slums. Dhaka: icddr,b.
that they choose to seek help when they do
opment. In particular, successful interventions
should take an integrated approach, strengthen
The Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,
informal (such as peer networks) and formal
DANIDA, and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
• Working with men will significantly improve
(i.e., legal systems) support systems, and engage
men in order to alter gender norms and change
• Community campaigns are critical for
promoting awareness about sexual and gender-based violence and improving knowledge about laws and the availability of legal services.
Effects of the New One-Year Reusable Nestorone®/Ethinyl Estradiol Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Risks of Vaginal Infection
A study by the Population Council and partners
has found that use of the Council's investiga-
The researchers found
Researchers found no significant changes in
tional one-year reusable contraceptive vaginal
the detection rate of vaginal infections between
ring (CVR) does not increase the risk of vaginal
no substantial effects on
baseline to Cycle 6 or between baseline to Cycle
infections or disrupt the balance of microbes in
13. In general, they found that the prevalence
the vagina when it is used for up to 13 cycles.
the vaginal ecosystem of
of typical vaginal infections in the study popu-
Although past studies have examined the effects
lation was comparable to the overall prevalence
of short-term contraceptive vaginal ring use on
of infections among women of reproduc-
risk of vaginal infection, this is the first study of
long-term repeated use
tive age. Similarly, there were no significant
a CVR intended for a full year's use.
changes in the prevalence or concentration
The one-year reusable CVR contains
of the NES/EE CVR.
of the microorganisms that were cultured at
Nestorone® and ethinyl estradiol. Nestorone
baseline and at follow-up visits, i.e. Lactobacil-
(NES) is an investigational progestin that has
lus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus
been shown in clinical studies to prevent ovula-
faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
tion and pregnancy. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is
coli, Candida albicans or other yeast, all of
an approved, marketed, synthetic version of the
rection of Dr. Mitch Creinin, and was supported
which remained at very low levels. Although the
female hormone estrogen.
by the National Institute of Child Health and
prevalence of microbes called anaerobic gram
"We are very excited about this new con-
Human Development (NICHD) of the National
negative rods (GNRs) increased, the concentra-
traceptive ring," said Ruth Merkatz, PhD, RN,
Institutes of Health. The study protocol was
tion remained very low. The researchers noted
Director of Clinical Development, Reproductive
approved by the Institutional Review Boards of
that the presence of anaerobic GNRs can be
Health, at the Council's Center for Biomedi-
the NICHD Coordinating Center, the Population
attributed to characteristics of individuals in a
cal Research and corresponding author of
Council, and the University of Pittsburgh.
study population, including younger age and
the study. "It can be inserted and removed by
120 women enrolled in the study. Partici-
having a culture swab obtained within three
the woman herself rather than by a specially
pants were seen by the researchers seven times
days after vaginal intercourse. Importantly,
trained health care provider, it does not require
throughout the study year and were interviewed
the researchers found that the cultures they
daily action, and it can be reused for a full year.
about any problems they may have encountered
took from the surface of the vaginal rings
It has been designed so that refrigeration is not
with the ring. At three of the visits researchers
were similar to the microbes in the vaginal
required when it is not being used, which will
obtained vaginal swabs to measure vaginal
fluid, suggesting that the ring surface does not
be important in many low-resource settings."
microflora and the presence of bacteria. At the completion of the study, the ring surface was
promote proliferation of microorganisms that cause infections.
swabbed and compared with the vaginal swab sample to measure for the same organisms.
To assess the microbiological safety of the new
The researchers assessed the occurrence of
Conclusion: The investigational CVR
CVR, the researchers looked for vaginal infec-
common vaginal infections, specifically bacte-
poses no increased risk of vaginal
tions and changes in the balance of microbes
rial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovagi-
in the vagina during cyclic use of a single NES/
nal candidiasis. They also evaluated changes in
The researchers found no substantial effects on
EE CVR for up to one year. This study, part of a
vaginal microflora. It is normal for micro-
the vaginal ecosystem of long-term repeated
Phase III safety and efficacy trial of the NES/
organisms to colonize the vagina. However,
use of the NES/EE CVR for up to 13 cycles,
EE CVR, took place at the Magee-Womens
changes in the amount and type of bacteria
and no significant change in the incidence of
Research Institute in Pittsburgh under the di-
present in the vagina may lead to infection.
The study findings suggest that the ring surface does not promote proliferation of microorganisms that cause infections.
The researchers have confidence in their
for this novel contraceptive that is under the
findings because the study used a prospective
control of women. It has the potential to
Huang, Yongmei, Ruth B. Merkatz, Sharon L. Hillier, Kevin Roberts, Diana L. Blithe, Régine Sitruk-Ware,
design to evaluate the effects of one-year use
be an important addition to the contracep-
and Mitchell D. Creinin. 2015. "Effects of a one
of a single CVR. It also included assessments
tive method mix available to women," said
year reusable contraceptive vaginal ring on vaginal
of more microorganisms than have previ-
microflora and the risk of vaginal infection: An open-label prospective evaluation," PLOS ONE 10(8):
ously been investigated prospectively with
The Population Council has a long
vaginal rings. Additionally, obtaining cultures
history of developing long-acting, reversible
of the vaginal rings themselves had not been
contraceptives to meet the growing worldwide
National Institute of Child Health and Human Devel-
described previously. The researchers recom-
demand for modern family planning methods.
opment of the National Institutes of Health
mend that future studies include women from
Council-developed contraceptive products
more diverse populations, specifically from
include the Copper T intrauterine device
countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South
(IUD), the levonorgestrel intrauterine system
Asia where the unmet need for contracep-
known as Mirena®, and the implants Jadelle®
tion remains high and vaginal infections are
and Norplant®. Currently, 170 million women
worldwide are using a Council-developed
"The results of this study will be valuable
in our efforts to gain regulatory approval
Estimating Population-Based Characteristics of People Who Inject Drugs in Kenya
A study of people who inject drugs in Kenya has found a high prevalence of HIV infection
"This study has helped firmly establish the existence of an
and high levels of risk behavior. This study, the first to report population-based prevalence
HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Nairobi,
of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviors among people who inject drugs
and confirms an extremely high HIV prevalence rate
in Kenya, was led by the Population Council and conducted with researchers from the US
among those who have ever shared injection syringes."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/
Kenya (CDC), the Kenya National AIDS and
Senior Associate, Population Council
STI Control Programme (NASCOP), the Kenya National AIDS Control Council (NACC), and the University of California (San Francisco).
and testing was offered to participants who
"The high HIV prevalence among
People who inject drugs are at very high
elected to be tested, and participants were also
women who inject drugs is very concerning.
risk for HIV. Of the estimated 15.9 million
tested for sexually transmitted infections.
The higher prevalence in women may be a
injection drug users globally in 2010, approxi-
result of their having more high-risk sexual
mately one in five was HIV-positive. While the
Characteristics of Kenya's injection
partners and practices such as transactional
majority of persons who inject drugs live in
drug using population
sex and their inability to negotiate condom
Southeast and East Asia, the number of such
use with partners. They may also be more
persons in sub-Saharan Africa is growing rap-
The study found that the median age of people
likely to be injected by someone else with
idly. This is of particular concern because of
who inject drugs in Kenya is 31 years, a ma-
an unsterile needle and syringe," said lead
African countries' limited capacity to address
jority of whom are unmarried men who earn
Council researcher Waimar Tun.
money through informal or irregular employ-ment. While almost half of the people who in-
Study findings and implications for
ject drugs began only recently, over 20 percent
future policies and programs
had been doing so for over five years. Most
From January to March 2011, Population
of this population also engages in high-risk
Because the finding in this study of an 18.7
Council researchers used respondent-driven
injection practices at least monthly, including
percent HIV prevalence rate among injection
sampling to recruit study participants. They
sharing syringes and other equipment. Over
drug users matches prevalence rates found in
selected a small group of individuals who
half the population was not sexually active
previous studies, the researchers concluded
met a specific set of characteristics—men or
in the last month, and the majority did not
that respondent-driven sampling is a reliable
women aged 18 and older who reported inject-
engage in casual or commercial sex. Among
method. The authors make several recom-
ing drugs in the previous 3 months, lived in or
those who were sexually active, condom use
mendations based on their results.
around Nairobi, and were willing to provide
was rare and almost one-quarter of women
"This study has helped firmly establish
written informed consent. These people then
interviewed reported selling sex.
the existence of an HIV epidemic among
recruited their peers, who in turn recruited
A majority of participants had previ-
people who inject drugs in Nairobi, and
additional peers, and so on. More than 350
ously been tested for HIV. Among people who
confirms an extremely high HIV prevalence
individuals were recruited to the study; 269
inject drugs, HIV prevalence was 18.7 percent,
rate among those who have ever shared injec-
participants were eligible.
compared to approximately 5.6 percent in the
tion syringes," said Council researcher Scott
Participants were interviewed by trained
general Kenyan population. Notably, the rate
Geibel. "This evidence base has also supported
nurse counselors about their HIV knowledge,
among women who inject drugs was much
and justified recent policy decisions in Kenya
sexual risk and prevention behaviors, drug
higher, at approximately 60.7 percent, a find-
facilitating the development of harm-re-
use, HIV testing history, and experience with
ing that is confirmed by other studies of people
duction interventions, including needle and
violence and discrimination. HIV counseling
who inject drugs in Africa.
syringe exchange programs."
The researchers contend that these
HIV AND AIDS
Muraguri, Nicholas, Waimar Tun, Jerry Okal, Dita Broz,
programs are particularly critical because
H. Fisher Raymond, Timothy Kellogg, Sufia Dadabhai,
Barnable, Patrick, Giulia Calenda, Thierry Bonnaire,
Helgar Musyoki, Meredith Sheehy, David Kuria, Rein-
more than half of the sexually active men who
Radhika Menon, Keith Levendosky, Agegnehu Gettie,
hard Kaiser, and Scott Geibel. "HIV and STI prevalence
James F. Blanchard, Michael Cooney, José Fernández-
inject drugs had non-injecting female partners,
and risk factors among male sex workers and other men
Romero, Thomas Zydowsky, and Natalia Teleshova.
meaning that there is a high likelihood of the
who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya," Journal of
"MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits cell-associated simian-
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 68(1): 91–96.
HIV epidemic moving from the injection drug
human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase
infection in a macaque vaginal explant model," Antimicro-
Musyoki, Helgar, Timothy Kellogg, Scott Geibel, Nicholas
using population to the general population,
bial Agents and Chemotherapy 59(7): 3829–3837.
Muraguri, Jerry Okal, Waimar Tun, H. Fisher Raymond,
potentially compromising efforts to reduce the
Bhattacharjya, Chiranjeev, Damodar Sahu, Sangram
Sufia Dadabhai, Meredith Sheehy, and Andrea Kim.
"Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and
spread of HIV more broadly. The researchers
Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, and Arvind Pandey.
"Causes of death among HIV-infected adults registered in
risk behaviors among female sex workers in Nairobi, Ke-
also recommend that prevention programs
selected anti-retroviral therapy centers in north-eastern
nya: Results of a respondent driven sampling study," AIDS
should specifically target drug users who
India," World Journal of AIDS 5(2): 90–99.
and Behavior 19(Suppl. 1): 46–58.
Parimi, Prabhakar, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Niran-
recently began injecting, in order to establish
Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Pro-
jan Saggurti. 2014. "Financial inclusion of marginalised
safer injection practices early on and ideally to
gramme. 2014. "Enhancing Nigeria's Response to
HIV & AIDS (ENR) Programme: A book of abstracts
key populations in southern India," Indian Journal of
stop drug use while the habit is new.
(2010–2014)." Abuja: Enhancing Nigeria's HIV and AIDS
Economics and Development 2(4): 98–102.
Another recommendation responds to the
Patel, Sangram Kishor. 2014. "Integration of HIV and
other health programmes: Implications and challeng-
very high HIV prevalence rate the study found
———. "HIV prevalence and sexual behaviours of
persons with disabilities in Nigeria." Abuja: Enhancing
es," International Journal of Medical Science and Public
among women who inject drugs. They call for
Nigeria's HIV and AIDS Response Programme.
Health 3(6): 643–648.
further research to better estimate the number
———. "HIV and sexual behaviours of out-of-school
Population Council. "ARV-based HIV prevention for
women: State of the science and considerations for
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young persons in Nigeria." Abuja: Enhancing Nigeria's HIV
and AIDS Response Programme.
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identify their unique characteristics so preven-
workshop." New York: Population Council.
, Carolyn Deal, Betsy C. Her-
tion programs can be specifically targeted to
old, John Schiller, Dorothy Patton, Thomas Zydowsky,
———. "Sexual and reproductive health and rights
Joseph W. Romano, Christopher D. Petro, and Manjulaa
among young people living with HIV in Uganda: Findings
Narasimhan. "Multipurpose prevention technologies: The
from the Link Up baseline survey," Link Up Research Brief.
The authors call for increased HIV testing
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Washington, DC: Population Council.
among people who inject drugs, pointing out
———. "Sexual and reproductive health among young
that at least one-quarter of HIV-positive indi-
Firestone, Rebecca, Jorge Rivas, Sussy Lungo, A. Cabrera,
female sex workers in Bangladesh brothels—Baseline
findings from Link Up," Study brief. Washington, DC:
viduals in this population did not know they
S. Ruether, Jennifer Wheeler, and Lung Vu. 2014. "Ef-
fectiveness of a combination prevention strategy for HIV
were infected. They caution that HIV prevention
risk reduction with men who have sex with men in Central
Population Council and Alliance Burundaise contre le
programs must ensure that people who inject
America: A mid-term evaluation," BMC Public Health 14:
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Finally, the authors note that further re-
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Jha, Pravin K., Padum Narayan, Saritha Nair, Deepika
with pregnancy among female sex workers in Ethiopia: A
Ganju, Damodar Sahu, and Arvind Pandey. "An assess-
Link Up exploratory study," Study brief. Washington, DC:
the effectiveness of harm-reduction efforts to
ment of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among
reduce the HIV prevalence rate in this highly
slum and non-slum populations in Delhi, India," Open
Sadhu, Santhosh, Archana Rao Manukonda, Anthony
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Reddy Yeruva, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Niranjan
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Dhaka: Population Council.
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The SAFE project increased awareness among people living in slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh about women's sexual and reproductive health and rights, and reduced intimate partner violence. See page 4.
Chávez, Flores, Chacon, et al. MEDICRIT Revista de Medicina Interna y Medicina Crítica Indexada en IMBIOMED Revisión La Neuroprotección en Disfunción Neurológica Aguda. Nuevos Enfoques Terapéuticos Dentro del Campo de la nmunología del Sistema Nervioso Central Olivia M Chávez Grimaldi, M.D.1, María Elisa Flores Chávez, M.D.2, María de los Reyes Chacón de
PERIODICO D'INFORMAZIONE DELL'UNIONE ITALIANA DEI CIECHI E DEGLI IPOVEDENTI ONLUS – SEZIONE PROVINCIALE DI TRENTO Anno I - Numero 0 - OTTOBRE 2011 - Trimestrale La prima Presidente La nuova sede Gruppo sportivo non donna dell'UIC di Trento dell'Unione Ciechi vedenti di Trento