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Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TO LAY TERMINOLOGY Refer to the medical to lay terminology list below when you are preparing any research subject material. Try to avoid complex medical terms and simplify the information as much as possible. MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Abdominal
Referring to the body cavity which contains stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs Ablation
Take up fluids, take in Abrasion
Area where skin or other tissue is scraped away Absorption
The way a drug or other substance enters the body Acid taste
Accommodate
Accrediting agency
Reviewing agency; licensing agency Acetaminophen
The active ingredient of Tylenol / Panadol Acidosis
Condition when blood contains more acid than normal Acknowledged
Accepted; recognized; approved Clearness, keenness, esp. of vision - airways New, recent, sudden Adenopathy
Swollen lymph nodes (glands) Adhesion
Being stuck together Adjuvant
Helpful, assisting, aiding Adjuvant treatment
Adrenal gland
Gland found over each kidney Adverse effect
Negative side effect Lebanese American University Page 1 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Adverse events
Injuries; bad reactions After the delivery of treatment
After you've been treated Drug, medication Protein found in blood Allergic reaction
Rash, trouble breathing Alopecia
Alternative
Walk, able to walk Ambulatory
Loss of memory; inability to remember Removal of some of the water from around an unborn baby for laboratory testing Analgesic
Pain relieving medication Anaphylaxis
Serious, potentially life threatening allergic reaction Decreased red blood cells; low red blood cell count Anesthesia
Loss of sensation or feeling Anesthetic (general)
A drug or agent used to decrease the feeling of pain or eliminate the feeling of pain by putting you to sleep Anesthetic (local)
A drug or agent used to decrease the feeling of pain or by numbing an area of your body, without putting you to sleep Anesthetize
To numb; put to sleep Angina (angina pectoris)
Pain resulting from insufficient blood to the heart Angioplasty
Operation to open up a narrow blood vessel Anomalies
Physical defects Lebanese American University Page 2 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Anorexia
Condition in which a person will not eat; lack of appetite Drug used to decrease acid in the stomach Antecubital
Area inside the elbow Antibiotic
Drug that kills bacteria and other germs Antibody
Natural chemical made in the body that fights infection Drug used to prevent seizures Antiemetic
Medication to prevent nausea/vomiting Drug used to treat allergic reactions A drug that decreases the level of fat(s) in the blood A drug that kills bacteria and other germs Drug that inhibits certain viruses Antiseptic
Substance used to stop or slow down the growth of germs Antitussive
A drug used to relieve coughing Not able to speak or write and not able to understand spoken or written words Aspiration
Inhale into the lungs; or removal of fluid through tube or needle Arrhythmia
Any change from the normal heartbeat (abnormal heartbeat) Type of blood vessel that carries blood and oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body Arterial catheter
Small tube placed in an artery Arthritis
Swelling of one or more joints Asphyxia
Suffocation, unable to get enough oxygen Aspiration
Fluid entering lungs Lebanese American University Page 3 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Asthenia
Loss of energy; weakness A lung disease associated with tightening of the air passages Wasting away or decrease in size Without symptoms Audiogram
Report of a hearing test Audiology
The study of hearing Audiometer
Tool used to measure hearing Review; inspect; look at Your written permission; your written approval Authorizing disclosures
Allowing us to share information Autonomy
Being able to make one's own decisions Bacteria
Germs; Microscopic creatures that live in and around us; they sometimes cause disease Barrier method (for birth
Birth control such as a diaphragm, condom, cervical cap, or control)
Baseline visit/period
First visit/period or the visit/period of testing before the investigational treatment starts A valued or desired outcome; an advantage Something that has no bad effects or does not spread; not cancerous Lebanese American University Page 4 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Beta blocker
Drug used to slow down the heart Bilateral
Having to do with both sides (of the body) Carried by, to make stick together, transported The extent to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the body Biologic
Any therapeutic serum, toxin, anti-toxin, or analogous microbial product applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of diseases or injuries Removal and examination of a small part of tissue Blood drawing
Amount of blood to be drawn in teaspoons, tablespoons, etc. and frequency/site of the drawing Blood profile
Series of blood tests Body fluids
State what body fluids; then they are extracted and given the source and amount An amount given all at once Bone density
Bone thickness; hardness of bone Bone marrow
Soft tissue inside bones that makes blood cells Bone mass
The amount of calcium in a given amount of bone Slow, irregular heart beat Bradycardia
Bronchitis
Inflammation of the lungs Breathing distress caused by narrowing of the airways Bronchus
Tube that carries air from the windpipe to the lungs Eating disorder in which a person cannot stop eating and often vomits to make room for more food Lebanese American University Page 5 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Calcipenia
Cancer radiotherapy
Treatment of cancer using X rays Capillary
Tiny blood vessel Capable of causing cancer Carcinoma
Heart; Having to do with the heart Cardiac Catheterization
a procedure in which a small tube (catheter) is inserted through blood vessels in the groin and into the heart that uses highlighting fluid to look at the blood vessels in the heart Heart and blood vessels A procedure that uses electricity to simulate the heart and make it return to its normal rhythm Carpal bones
Cataract
Clouding of the lens of the eye Catheter
Small tube for withdrawing or introducing fluids Catheter (indwelling epidural)
A tube placed near the spinal cord used for anesthesia during an operation Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord Cephalalgia
Cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls the movement of the muscles and helps maintain balance Cerebral Palsy
Disorder in the movement and posture caused by abnormal development, or damage to, the motor control centers in the brain Cerebral trauma
Damage to the brain Lebanese American University Page 6 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Confirm in writing Cessation
Treatment of disease, usually cancer, using drugs Chloasma
Tumor arising from the skin and other organs Continuing for a long time Cisplatin
A drug used to kill cancer cells Clavicle
Clinical
Pertaining to medical care Clinical trial
An experiment with humans Clinically significant
Of major importance for treating or evaluating patients Close proximity
Coagulation
Pressured; forced Cognitively impaired
Having either a psychiatric disorder (e.g., psychosis, neurosis, personality or behavior disorders, or dementia) or a developmental disorder (e.g., mental retardation) that affects cognitive or emotional functions to the extent that capacity for judgment and reasoning is significantly diminished. Others, including persons under the influence of or dependent on drugs or alcohol, those suffering from degenerative diseases affecting the brain, terminally ill patients, and persons with severely disabling physical handicaps, may also be compromised in their ability to make decisions in their best interests. Cognitive status
Levels of awareness and thinking A group of subjects that have one or more characteristics in common and are followed over time. In social science research, this term may refer to any group of persons who are born at about the same time and share common historical or cultural experiences. Lebanese American University Page 7 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Collaborating with
Collect and maintain
Large intestine; bowel Colonoscopy
Procedure to look at the large intestine that uses a special camera at the end of a long tube that is inserted in the rectum Unconscious state Committed
Tells; let you know Communication source
Source of information Payment or medical care provided to subjects injured in research; does not refer to payment (remuneration) for taking part in research (Compare: Remuneration) Competence
Technically, a legal term, used to denote capacity to act on one's own behalf; the ability to understand information presented, to appreciate the consequences of acting (or not acting) on that information, and to make a choice (See also: Incompetence, Incapacity). Complete response
Total disappearance of disease Comply with the rule
Obey the rule; doing what it tells us to do Pertains to the treatment of information that an individual has disclosed in a relationship of trust and with the expectation that it will not be divulged to others without permission in ways that are inconsistent with the understanding of the original disclosure. Congenital
Occurring prior to birth, due to parent's genetic input Irritation and redness of the thin membrane covering the eye Consolidation phase
Treatment phase intended to make a remission permanent, Lebanese American University Page 8 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase follows induction Contact you at work instead of at Contact you at work or home
home or vice versa
Disadvantageous, perhaps dangerous; a treatment that should not be used in certain individuals or conditions due to risks (e.g., a drug may be contraindicated for pregnant women and persons with high blood pressure). Medical reasons that prevent a person from using a certain drug or treatment Control (subjects) or controls
Subject(s) used for comparison who are not given a treatment under study or who do not have a given condition, background, or risk factor that is the object of study. Control conditions may be concurrent (occurring more or less simultaneously with the condition under study) or historical (preceding the condition under study). When the present condition of subjects is compared with their own condition on a prior regimen or treatment, the study is considered historically controlled. The term "normal" implies that a subject with a given condition is not "normal". Therefore, the SHIRB prefers the term "control" to the term "normal". Contrast material
A fluid that is given into the vein or an area of the body to highlight the blood vessels or body area under x-ray examination Contusion
Convulsions
Seizures, epileptic fit Clear tissue covering the front part of the eye Coronary
Pertains to the blood vessels that supply the heart Cross-over design
A type of clinical trial in which each subject experiences, at different times, both the experimental and control therapy. For example, half of the subjects might be randomly assigned first to the control group and then to the experimental intervention, while the other half would have the sequence reversed. Lebanese American University Page 9 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase CT (cat) scan
Computerized (axial) tomography; computerized series of x-rays; special type of x-ray Test for the presence of bacteria or viruses that could cause infection Cumulation
Increased action of a drug when given over a period of time Cumulative
Total sum (of individual events, experiences, treatments) Cutaneous
Relating to the skin Cerebrovascular accident; stroke Data and Safety Monitoring
A committee of scientists, physicians, statisticians, and others that collect and analyzes data during the course of a clinical trial to monitor for adverse effects and other trends (such as an indication that one treatment is significantly better than another, particularly when one arm of the trial involves a placebo control) that would warrant modification or termination of the trial or notification of subjects about new information that might affect their willingness to continue in the trial. Weakened condition Deceased person
Dead person; someone who died Defecate
Bowel movement; to pass stool a procedure that uses electricity to stimulate the heart and make it return to its normal rhythm Dehydrate
Lose water or body fluids De-identified information
Information from which key data that identifies you has been removed Demographic
Personal statistics; person information Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Material that makes up the genes Depressant
Drug that slows down the action of the central nervous system Lebanese American University Page 10 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Pertaining to the skin Deteriorate
To get worse; to lose function Determine (s)
Diagnostic (Procedure)
Tests used to identify a disorder or disease in a living person Diastolic blood pressure
Lower number in blood pressure reading; pertaining to resting or relaxation phase of heart beat Disclosure Information
Share information; give; tell Disclosures we will make
Information we will share Diplopia
Toward the end, away from the center of the body Distension
Bloated; swollen; inflated Diuretic
"Water pill" or drug that causes increase in urination Double Blind Trial
Study in which neither investigators nor subjects know what drug is given Tube that carries a body fluid Duodenum
Beginning of the small intestine that is attached to the stomach Duration
Length of time involved Dysfunction
Not functioning properly Dyspepsia
Gas; upset stomach Dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing Dysplasia
Hard to breathe; short of breath ECG, EKG or electrocardiogram Picture and measurement of the heart rhythm
Lebanese American University Page 11 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Procedure that uses sound waves for examination of the heart Swelling (fluid or water retention) EEG or Electroencephalogram
Measurement of electrical activity of the brain Effective date
Efficacy
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Electrical tracing of the heartbeat or heart rhythm (ECG or EKG) Electrolyte imbalance
Imbalance of salts or chemicals in the blood Electrophysiology study
Heart rhythm study Elevation of liver function tests
Evidence of liver or kidney damage Based on experience Allow; make possible Endorphin
Substance made by the body to stop pain Endoscopic examination
Examination of the internal part of the body with a lighted tube; looking at a part of the body with a lighted tube medication given through the rectum that cleans out the bowel By way of the intestines Entities
Facilities; institutions; organizations A chemical in the blood that causes chemical changes Enzyme abnormality
blood test result that suggests abnormal organ function or injured cells Lebanese American University Page 12 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Epidermal
Having to do with the outer layer of skin Epidermis
Outer layer of skin Epidural
Outside the spinal cord Eradicating
Getting rid of (such as a disease) Esophagus
Tube that goes from the throat to the stomach Established protocols
Evaluate
Evaluated
Assessed; examined for medical condition Examination
Exceptions, restrictions, and
Expanded availability
Policy and procedure that permits individuals who have serious or life-threatening diseases for which there are no alternative therapies to have access to investigational drugs and devices that may be beneficial to them. Examples of expanded availability mechanisms include Treatment Indus, Parallel Track, and open study protocols. Experienced adverse events
Been injured or hurt Term often used to denote a therapy (drug, device, procedure) that is unproven or not yet scientifically validated with respect to safety and efficacy. A procedure may be considered "experimental" without necessarily being part of a formal study (research) to evaluate its usefulness. (See also: Research.) External
Outside the body Extravasate
To leak outside of a blood vessel, spills Family member or person
Family member who is your legal representative for health care Lebanese American University Page 13 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase A required period to go without food; do not eat or drink U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the branch of federal government that approves new drugs Fetal material
The placenta, amniotic fluid, fetal membranes, and umbilical cord Flatulence
Gas passed through the anus / rectum Irregular beat of the heart or other muscle Fibrosis
Having many fibers (such as scar tissue) File a written complaint
Write or e-mail a letter of complaint Filing a complaint
Fluoroscope
Fracture
Form of infection Stomach and intestine Gene therapy
Treatment of genetic disease accomplished by altering the genetic structure of either somatic (nonreproductive) or germline (reproductive) cells General anesthesia
Pain prevention by induction of drugged sleep, as in surgery Genetic screening
Tests to identify persons who have an inherited predisposition to a certain phenotype or who are at risk of producing offspring with inherited diseases or disorders Lebanese American University Page 14 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Genotype
The genetic makeup of an individual. Gestational
Pertaining to pregnancy Type of sugar found in the blood Guardian
An individual who is authorized under state or local law to give permission on behalf of a child or an adult who is not able to make decisions. Doctor who specializes in treating a woman's organs that are related to pregnancy and childbirth Gynecology
The study of the reproductive system of women Healthcare professionals
People who care for you: doctors, nurses; and others who care for you Health record is physical
Health record belongs to property
Hematocrit
Amount of red blood cells in the blood Doctor who treats blood disorders Hematoma
A bruise, a black and blue area, blood clot Hemodynamic measurement
Test to measure blood flow Hemolysis
Breakdown in red blood cells Hemorrhage
Loss of blood (heavy bleeding) Heparin lock
Needle placed in the arm with blood thinner to keep the blood from clotting inside the needle or tubing Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver Hepatoma
Cancer or tumor of the liver Lebanese American University Page 15 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Heritable disease
A disease which can be transmitted to one's offspring resulting in damage to future children Pertaining to the disease status of body tissues or cells Holter monitor
A portable machine for recording heart beats A chemical in the blood Human subjects
People who take part in a research study by letting an investigator gather information about how they answer questions, respond to certain situations react to an experimental product. High blood calcium level High blood potassium level High blood sodium level Hyperopia
High blood pressure Low blood calcium level Hypodermic
Not enough sugar in the blood Hypotension
Low blood pressure Hypokalemia
Low blood potassium level Low blood sodium level Hypotension
Low blood pressure Hypothermia
Low body temperature Low oxygen level in the blood Removal of the womb Iatrogenic
Caused by a physician or by treatment Lebanese American University Page 16 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Investigational device exemption, the license to test an unapproved medical device Identifiable information
Personal information that can identify you Idiopathic
Of unknown cause Rare side effect of a drug; unusual reaction of a person to a drug Administration of a substance to prevent disease A combination of antibodies from proteins in the blood Related to the body's ability to fight infection Drug which suppresses the body's immune response, used in transplantation and diseases caused by disordered immunity Given of drugs to help the body's immune (protective) system; usually used to destroy cancer cells Impaired function
Not working properly Implanted
Placed in the body Incapacity
Refers to a person's mental status and an inability to understand information presented, to appreciate the consequences of acting (or not acting) on that information, and to make a choice. Often used as a synonym for incompetence (See also: Incompetence). Incision
Technically, a legal term meaning inability to manage one's own affairs. Often used as a synonym for incapacity. (See also: Incapacity.) Incomplete
Lacking; unfinished Incorrect
Incumbent upon
Lebanese American University Page 17 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Investigational new drug; the license to test an unapproved new drug Indian Health Service facility
Indian Health Service/clinic or hospital Indicate
Individual right
A person's right Individual (s)
Individually identifiable health
Information about your healthy care that identifies you information
Induction phase
Beginning phase or stage of a treatment Induration
Indwelling
Tube left in a vein Not active; substance that doesn't affect you Death of tissue because of lack of blood supply Infectious disease
Disease which is transmitted from one person to next Swelling which is generally painful, red, and warm Inflation
Influenza
Informed consent
A person's voluntary agreement, based upon adequate knowledge and understanding of relevant information, to take part in research or to undergo a diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive procedure. In giving informed consent, subjects may not waive or appear to waive any of their legal rights, or release or appear to release the investigator, the sponsor, the institution or agents thereof from liability for negligence [Federal Policy §116; 21 CFR 50.20 and 50.25]. Infusion
Introduction of a substance into the body, usually into the blood Ingestion
Eating; taking by mouth Lebanese American University Page 18 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase To put into by way of a needle of other device Insomnia
Institutional Review Board
A committee that has reviewed this research project to help ensure that the rights and welfare of the participants are protected and that the study is carried out in an ethical manner Instruments in testing
Specify what instruments are to be used and how they are used Interferon
Agent which acts against viruses; antiviral agent Occurring (regularly or irregularly) between two time points; alternately ceasing and beginning Internal interior
Intestine
Small tube in a vein Into the muscle; within the muscle Into the abdominal cavity Small tube in a vein Intramuscular (IM) injection
Injection of a substance into a muscle (e.g., upper arm or backside) Into the abdomen cavity Intrathecal
Into the spinal fluid Intravenous (IV) injection
Injection of a substance into a vein Intravenous infusion
To drip into the blood vessel through a plastic tube and needle Intubate
The placement of a tube into the airway Invasive procedure
Puncture, opening or cutting of the skin Investigational method
A treatment method which has not been proven to be beneficial Lebanese American University Page 19 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase or has not been accepted as standard care Investigational new drug
A new drug which has not yet been approved by the FDA Literally, "in glass" or "test tube" used to refer to processes that are done outside the living body, usually in the laboratory, as distinguished from in vivo. Literally, "in the living body" processes, such as the absorption of a drug by the human body, carried out in the living body rather than in a laboratory (in vitro). I.V. push
Rapid injection into a vein Irradiation
Ischemia procedure
Decreased oxygen in tissue (usually because of decreased blood flow) Jaundice
Yellowing of the skin Judicial administrative
Legal proceeding such as a court case proceeding
Lactating
Lactation
Period of time during which a woman is providing her breast milk to an infant or child Laparotomy
A procedure in which an incision is made in the abdominal wall to enable a physician to look at the organs Toward or having to do with one side (of the body) Legal requirements
Legally authorized
A person authorized either by statute or by court appointment to make decisions on behalf of another person. In human subjects research, an individual or judicial or other body authorized under applicable law to consent on behalf of a prospective subject to the subject's participation in the procedure(s) involved in the research Lebanese American University Page 20 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Abnormal area of tissue, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil Lethargy
Leucocyte
Blood cells that fight infection Leukopenia
Low white blood cell count Licensure
Lipid profile (panel)
Fat and cholesterol levels in the blood Local anesthesia
Creation of insensitivity to pain in a small local area of the body Localized
Restricted to one area; limited to one area (of the body) Lumbar puncture
Spinal tap; a needle inserted between the bones of the spine to put in a drug or take a sample of fluid Lumbosacral
Cavity of an organ or tube (e.g. inside of blood vessel) An X-ray of the lymph nodes or tissues after injection of dye in lymph vessels (e.g. in feet) Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell important in the body's defense against infection Lymphoma
A cancer of the lymph nodes (or tissues) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Produces multiple images of organs and structures within the body by using a large magnet to attract electrons within the body used as a diagnostic tool (See also MRI). Maintained
A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, feeling bad Lebanese American University Page 21 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Malfunction
Condition in which something is not functioning properly Malignancy
Cancer or other progressively enlarging and spreading tumor, fatal if not successfully treated Mastectomy
Surgery to remove a breast Material change
Significant change May otherwise be at risk for
Might catch your disease or spread it contracting or spreading the
disease or condition

Medical device
A product, such as crutches, an x-ray machine, pacemaker, toothbrush, bandage, contact lenses, etc., that is used in treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of a medical condition and does not act on the body through chemical action. Medications
Drugs; medicines Type of brain tumor Meningitis
Infection or irritation around the brain Metabolism
Chemical changes which provide energy Metabolize
Process of breaking down substances in the cells Metastasis
Spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another A drug used to treat infections caused by parasites or other causes of anaerobic infections MI (myocardial infarction)
Heart attack, death of heart muscle Minimize
Mobility
Ease of movement; ability to move around Check on, keep track of, watch carefully Morbidity
Undesired result or complication; serious disease Lebanese American University Page 22 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Mortality
Death or death rate MRI (magnetic resonance
Magnetic resonance imaging, body pictures created using imaging)
magnetic rather than x-ray energy Mucosa, mucous membrane
Moist lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts Myocardial infarction
Pertaining to the (muscle of the) heart Naso-gastric tube
Tube that goes through the nose and into the stomach Feel sick to the stomach Necrosis
Death of tissue or skin Negligible
Small or unimportant Neoplasia
Tumor, may be non-cancerous or cancerous A cancer of nerve tissue Pertaining to the nervous system Neurological exam
Test of the brain, spinal cord and reflexes Neurologist
Doctor who treats disorders of the central nervous system and nerves Neurosis
Mental and emotional disorder Neutropenia
Decrease in the main part of the white blood cells New indication
Next of Kin
Not breaking, cutting or entering the skin Lebanese American University Page 23 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Nosocomial pneumonia
Pneumonia acquired in the hospital Not required to agree
Don't have to agree Tell you/tell us Nuremberg Code
A code of research ethics developed during the trials of Nazi war criminals following World War II and widely adopted as a standard during the 1950s and 1960s for Protecting human subjects. Obtain a copy
Obtaining
Occlusion
Closing; obstruction Occult blood test
A sample of stool taken and tested for tiny amounts of blood Oncology
The study of tumors or cancer Open label
A study in which the drug, device, procedure is known to patient and investigator Ophthalmic
Pertaining to the eye Doctor who treats eye disorders Best, most favorable or desirable Oral administration
Giving a drug by mouth Dentist who treats teeth and jaw disorders Orthopedic
Pertaining to the bones Orthopedist
Doctor who treats bone and joint disorders Rare bone disorder characterized by dense bone Softening of the bones Lebanese American University Page 24 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Otologist
Doctor who treats disorders of the ear Doctor who treats disorders of the ear, nose, and throat Otoscope
Tool used to look into the ear Female sex glands; female organs which release eggs Palpitation
Rapid heart beat Microscope test used to detect virus infection of the cervix or cancer of the vagina, cervix, or lining of the uterus (Also called Pap Smear). Parenteral
Administration by injection Paresthesia
Tingling in the ( ) Partial seizure
Condition of being open The initial cause of a disease Pathogenic
PER OS (PO)
Through the skin Perforation
Puncture, tear or hole Peripheral
Peripheral blood
PET (Positron Emission
Special camera that uses radiation to look at the structure and Tomography)
functioning of parts of the body Finger or toe bone Study of the way the body absorbs, distributes and gets rid of a drug Effect of the drug Lebanese American University Page 25 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Phase 1 drug trial
Initial study of a new drug in humans to determine limits of tolerance. The first use of a new drug in humans happens in a Phase 1 study. These studies are usually conducted with healthy volunteers; but if a drug is very poisonous, or is used to treat a deadly disease, sick patients who have that disease might be subjects. Usually, there are about 20 – 80 human subjects in Phase 1 studies. Phase 1 trials are conducted to see how the drug acts in the body, if it is safe to use, and to find out the safe dose range. If the results of the Phase 1 studies are good, testing continues in Phase 2 studies. Phase 2 drug trial
Second phase of study of a new drug intended to obtain initial information. Phase 2 trials include controlled clinical studies to see if a new drug is effective to treat for a particular disease or condition; therefore, the subjects who are given the drug have the condition that the drug is supposed to treat. The side effects are also studied, and more information is gathered about the best dose. Phase 2 studies are also conducted with a relatively small number of patients, usually involving no more than several hundred subjects. If the evidence from the Phase 2 studies shows that a drug is probably effective and relatively safe, Phase 3 studies are conducted. Phase 3 drug trial
Large-scale trial to confirm and expand information on safety and usefulness of a new drug. During Phase 3 trials, the new drug is given to a larger number of patients in different clinical settings to gather as much information as possible about the drug's safety and effectiveness, the best dosage, and to gather labeling information. Investigators also want to make sure that the drug has more benefits than risk. For example, a drug meant to treat a deadly disease, like some cancers, may have very bad side effects. But, if it can stop the cancer, the side effects may be considered acceptable. On the other hand, even if a drug is very effective in the treatment of a common headache, for example, but has bad Lebanese American University Page 26 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase side effects, that drug would be considered too toxic (poisonous) to be used to treat that condition. In Phase 3 studies, the drug is used the way it would be administered when marketed. When these studies are completed and the sponsor believes that the drug is safe and effective, the sponsor applies to the FDA for approval to market the drug. Phase 3 trials usually involve several hundred to several thousand patient-subjects. Phase 4 Drug Trial
As a condition of approval, FDA may want more studies to get additional information about the drug's risks, benefits, and optimal use. These studies, which are Phase 4 trials, could include, but would not be limited to, studying different doses or schedules of administration than were used in Phase 2 studies, studying the drug in other patient populations or other stages of the disease, or studying the drug when given over a longer period of time than recommended on the label. Phlebitis
Irritation of inflammation of a vein Physical property
Property of; belongs to Physician
An inactive substance which may look like an active medication, but has no medical value (such as a sugar pill) Placebo effect
Symptom or change of condition seen when a placebo is given Placenta
Plan for future care or treatment Care plan
Fluid found in the blood Platelets
Small particles in the blood that help with blood clotting Pneumonia
Podiatrist
Lebanese American University Page 27 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Policies, procedures, practices
Our rules and standards Polydipsia
Abnormal lumps that can sometimes be cancerous Postpartum
After childbirth Potential
Potentially endangering
Possibly hurting Potentiate
Increase or multiply the effect of a drug or toxin by administration or another drug or toxin at the same time Increase in drug action from using two drugs together instead of using each drug alone Prenatal
Doctor who treats disorders of the rectum and anus Prognosis
Outlook; probable outcomes Lying on the stomach Prophylaxis
A drug given to prevent disease or infection Prorated
(Describe the payment schedule by session) Prospective studies
Study following patients forward in time Prosthesis
Artificial body part Protected health information
Personal medical information that is protected by the rule Protocol
The plan of study. The protocol includes a description of what the research hopes to prove, how the study will be carried out, etc. Protocols
Provide your treatment
Lebanese American University Page 28 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Provided consent
Given consent/permission Provider
Doctor, nurse, or other provider of health care Providing assistance with your
Helping you (with your health care) health care
Provisions
Proximal
Closer to the center of the body, away from the end Pruritus
Doctor who helps people understand interested in the workings of the mind, thought, and behavior Psychological test
Test of your behavior Psychosis
Severe mental disorder; craziness Having a connection between the mind and physical symptoms Pulmonary
Pertaining to the lungs Pulmonary neoplasm
Puncture
Pyelogram
A series of x-rays of the kidneys Every day; daily Four times a day Radiation therapy
X-ray or cobalt treatment Radioactive isotope
a chemical or substance that gives off radiant energy rays similar to X-rays By chance, like the flip of a coin Assignment of treatment group by chance, similar to tossing a coin (when there are two treatment choices) Lebanese American University Page 29 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Rebuttal
Response; answer; contradict Recombinant
Formation of new combinations of genes Putting back together the original parts or elements Refractory
Not responding to treatment Regret of a structure or of lost tissue Pattern of administering treatment Regulation
The return or reappearance of a disease Release information
Give out your information Remission
Disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease Having to do with the kidney Replicable
Capable of being duplicated Request a correction/amendment Ask us to change; ask us to correct
Request a restriction
Research
A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to general knowledge Remove or cut out (surgically) Respiratory
Looking back over past experience Retrospective study
Study looking back over past experience Lebanese American University Page 30 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Revoke your written
Withdraw; take back; tell us not to The probability of harm or injury (physical, psychological, social, economic) occurring as a result of taking part in a research study Salt water solution A type of cancer Screening
Examination, test Secretion
Sedative
A drug to calm or make less anxious Seminoma
A type of testes cancer Clear liquid part of blood Artificial or natural channel running between two other channels At the same time Typically, a study design in which the investigator, but not the subject, knows the identity of the treatment assignment. Occasionally the subject, but not the investigator, knows the assignment. Sleep apnea
Breathing problems while sleeping Software
Computer program Having to do with the body Somnolence
Spirometer
An instrument to measure the amount of air taken into and exhaled from the lungs Lebanese American University Page 31 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase A determination of the extent of the disease Standard of care
The usual treatment for the disease Stenosis
Narrowing of a duct, tube, or one of the heart valves A metal (or plastic) tube placed inside a blood vessel that keeps it open to prevent blockage Something which causes a change Stomatitis
Mouth sores; inflammation of the mouth Stratify
Arrange in groups of analysis of results (e.g., stratify by age, sex, etc.) Stunned state in which it is difficult to get a response or the attention of the subject Subclavial
Under the collarbone Subcutaneous (SC)
Sublingual
Under the tongue Submandibular gland
Gland responsible for secreting saliva Submit your request in writing
Substantial communication
Communication problem Superficial
Near the surface Supine position
Lying on the back Supplement
Supportive care
General medical care aimed at symptoms, not intended to improve or cure underlying disease Suspected violation
Possible violation Lebanese American University Page 32 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Signs of disease or illness Symptomatic
Fainting or lightheadedness Syndrome
A condition characterized by a set of symptoms Systemic
Distributed throughout the body Systolic blood pressure
Top number in blood pressure; pertaining to contraction phase of heartbeat Tachycardia
Teratogenic
Capable of causing malformations in unborn fetuses Male sex glands; male organs which produce sperm Therapeutic dose
The amount of medication needed to treat the condition Thrombosis
Blood clotting within blood vessels Three times a day Tinnitus
Ringing in the ears Titration
Gradual alteration of drug dose to determine desired effect or most beneficial strength of drug Type of white blood cells involved in immune reactions Tolerance
Decrease in response to a fixed dosage of drug; over time, higher and higher doses of a drug are needed to get the desired effect Topical application
Applied to the surface of the skin Toxicity
Side effects or undesirable effects of a drug Lebanese American University Page 33 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Drug used to control anxiety Transdermal
Through the skin Transiently
Treadmill
Walking machine often used to determine heart function Treatment alternatives and
Treatment choices Fat in the blood Unable to agree to a requested
Can't agree with your request restriction
Under the custody of law
In legal custody enforcement
Underpayment exists
We owe you money Upon your request
Absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue; absorb and incorporate a substance, taking in of a substance by living tissue the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to by bladder the tube that carries urine from the bladder outside the body Urinalysis
Urine exam, test of the urine Urologist
Doctor who treats disorders of the urinary tracts of men and women Use or disclose
Use or give out; share; release Lebanese American University Page 34 of 35
Medical to Lay terminology (Version November 2011) MEDICAL TERM
LAY TERMINOLOGY
Instead of this Term / Phrase Use this Term / Phrase Plastic repair of a valve, especially of the heart Enlarged veins, usually in legs or lining of tube between mouth and stomach Vasospasm
Narrowing of blood vessels due to spasm of vessel walls A carrier, usually an insect, that carries and transmits disease-causing microorganisms Vehicle preparation
Lotion that contains the drug Entering vein with a needle, generally through the skin Verticle transmission
Spread of disease Voluntary
Free of coercion, duress, or undue inducement. Used in the research context to refer to a subject's decision to take part (or to continue to take part) in a research activity. Washout period
Wait until a particular medication is no longer present in the body White blood cell We are required to abide
We may use and disclose medical We may share your medical information to run the hospital
information about you for
hospital operations

Withdraw
Lebanese American University Page 35 of 35

Source: http://gsr.lau.edu.lb/irb/forms/medical_lay_terms.pdf

Microsoft word - a09777en_a.doc

VersaLyse REF A09777 100 tests; 100 mL 1 mL / test VersaLyse Lysing Solution Ready-for-use Formulation Number of vials Volume per test 1 mL (ready-for-use when used with no concomitant fixation) PRECAUTIONS PREPARATION OF SAMPLES This reagent is intended for the lysis of red

1022_01_de

Sicherheitsdatenblatt gemäß Verordnung (EG) 1907/2006 Handelsname : Kunstharzspachtel 1022 Überarbeitet am : Version (Überarbeitung) : Druckdatum : 1. Bezeichnung des Stoffs bzw. des Gemischs und des Unternehmens 1.1 Produktidentifikator